Collectivist anarchism,[1] also referred to as anarchist collectivism[2] and anarcho-collectivism,[3] is a revolutionary socialist[4][5][6] doctrine and anarchist school of thought that advocates the abolition of both the state and private ownership of the means of production as it envisions in its place the means of production being owned collectively whilst controlled and self-managed by the producers and workers themselves. Notwithstanding the name, collectivism anarchism is seen as a blend of individualism and collectivism.[7]

For the collectivization of the means of production, collectivist anarchism originally envisaged that workers will revolt and forcibly collectivize the means of production.[6] Once collectivization takes place, money would be abolished to be replaced with labour notes and workers' salaries would be determined in democratic organizations of voluntary membership based on job difficulty and the amount of time they contributed to production. These salaries would be used to purchase goods in a communal market.[8]

Collectivist anarchism is contrasted with anarcho-communism, where wages would be abolished and where individuals would take freely from a storehouse of goods "to each according to his need". It is most commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian sections of the International Workingmen's Association and the early Spanish anarchist movement.[9][10][11][12][13]

Collectivist anarchism was the dominant tendency of anarchism in the 19th century until anarcho-communism took its place.[14] As part of the social anarchist tradition, collectivist anarchism believes that "human beings are human animals, better suited to working together for the common good than striving for individual self-interest", supporting mutual aid.[15][16] While individualist anarchists advocate free-market anarchism and support mutualist property rights, seeing state interventions as distorting free competition, collectivist anarchists see such interventions as "merely prop up" for a "system of class exploitation", giving capitalism "a human face".[16]