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Coffea
Coffea
is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products. It is a member of the family Rubiaceae. They are shrubs or small trees native to tropical and southern Africa
Africa
and tropical Asia. Coffee
Coffee
ranks as one of the world's most valuable and widely traded commodity crops and is an important export product of several countries, including those in Central and South America, the Caribbean and Africa.

Contents

1 Cultivation and use 2 Ecology 3 Research 4 Species 5 References 6 External links

Cultivation and use[edit]

Coffea
Coffea
cherries, Bali

Several species of Coffea
Coffea
may be grown for the seeds. Coffea
Coffea
arabica accounts for 75–80 percent of the world's coffee production, while Coffea canephora
Coffea canephora
accounts for about 20 percent.[1] The trees produce edible red or purple fruits called "cherries" that are described either as epigynous berries or as indehiscent drupes.[2] The cherries contain two seeds, the so-called "coffee beans", which—despite their name—are not true beans. In about 5-10% of any crop of coffee cherries, only a single bean, rather than the usual two, is found. This is called a peaberry, which is smaller and rounder than a normal coffee bean. It is often removed from the yield and either sold separately (as in New Guinea peaberry), or discarded. When grown in the tropics, coffee is a vigorous bush or small tree that usually grows to a height of 3–3.5 m (9.8–11.5 ft). Most commonly cultivated coffee species grow best at high elevations, but do not tolerate freezing temperatures.[citation needed] The tree of Coffea arabica
Coffea arabica
will grow fruits after three to five years, and will produce for about 50 to 60 years (although up to 100 years is possible).[3] The white flowers are highly scented. The fruit takes about 9 months to ripen.

Coffea
Coffea
flower

Coffea
Coffea
cherry cross section

Coffea
Coffea
racemosa fruits

Ecology[edit] The caffeine in coffee "beans" is a natural plant defense against herbivory, i.e., a toxic substance that protects the seeds of the plant. Fruits and leaves are both sources of caffeine as well, and a tea can be made of the leaves. In 2009, Bai Brands began manufacturing a commercial soft drink line that uses coffee fruit for fortification.[4] Several insect pests affect coffee production, including the coffee borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei) and the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera caffeina). Coffee
Coffee
is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species, Dalcera abrasa, turnip moth and some members of the genus Endoclita, including E. damor and E. malabaricus. Research[edit] In 2008 and 2009, researchers from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew named seven new species of Coffea
Coffea
from the mountains of northern Madagascar, including C. ambongensis, C. boinensis, C. labatii, C. pterocarpa, C. bissetiae, and C. namorokensis.[5] In 2008, two new species of coffee plants were discovered in Cameroon: Coffea
Coffea
charrieriana, which is caffeine-free, and Coffea
Coffea
anthonyi.[6] By crossing the new species with other known coffees, two new features might be introduced to cultivated coffee plants: beans without caffeine and self-pollination. In 2014, the coffee genome was published, with more than 25,000 genes identified. This revealed that coffee plants make caffeine using a different set of genes from those found in tea, cacao and other such plants.[7] Species[edit]

Coffea
Coffea
abbayesii J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
affinis De Wild. Coffea
Coffea
alleizettii Dubard Coffea
Coffea
ambanjensis J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
ambongenis J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
andrambovatensis J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
ankaranensis J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
anthonyi Stoff. & F.Anthony Coffea arabica
Coffea arabica
L. Coffea
Coffea
arenesiana J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
augagneurii Dubard Coffea
Coffea
bakossii Cheek & Bridson Coffea
Coffea
benghalensis B.Heyne ex Schult. Coffea
Coffea
bertrandii A.Chev. Coffea
Coffea
betamponensis Portères & J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
bissetiae A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
boinensis A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
boiviniana A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
bonnieri Dubard Coffea
Coffea
brassii (J.-F.Leroy) A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
brevipes Hiern Coffea
Coffea
bridsoniae A.P.Davis & Mvungi Coffea
Coffea
buxifolia A.Chev. Coffea canephora
Coffea canephora
(" Coffea
Coffea
robusta") Pierre ex A.Froehner Coffea
Coffea
carrissoi A.Chev. Coffea charrieriana
Coffea charrieriana
Stoff. & F.Anthony Coffea
Coffea
cochinchinensis Pierre ex Pit. Coffea
Coffea
commersoniana (Baill.) A.Chev. Coffea
Coffea
congensis A.Froehner Coffea
Coffea
costatifructa Bridson Coffea
Coffea
coursiana J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
dactylifera Robbr. & Stoff. Coffea
Coffea
decaryana J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
dubardii Jum. Coffea
Coffea
ebracteolata (Hiern) Brenan Coffea
Coffea
eugenioides S.Moore Coffea
Coffea
fadenii Bridson Coffea
Coffea
farafanganensis J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
floresiana Boerl. Coffea
Coffea
fotsoana Stoff. & Sonké Coffea
Coffea
fragilis J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
fragrans Wall. ex Hook.f. Coffea
Coffea
gallienii Dubard Coffea
Coffea
grevei Drake ex A.Chev. Coffea
Coffea
heimii J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
homollei J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
horsfieldiana Miq. Coffea
Coffea
humbertii J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
humblotiana Baill. Coffea
Coffea
humilis A.Chev. Coffea
Coffea
jumellei J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
kapakata (A.Chev.) Bridson Coffea
Coffea
kianjavatensis J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
kihansiensis A.P.Davis & Mvungi Coffea
Coffea
kimbozensis Bridson Coffea
Coffea
kivuensis Lebrun Coffea
Coffea
labatii A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
lancifolia A.Chev. Coffea
Coffea
lebruniana Germ. & Kester Coffea
Coffea
leonimontana Stoff. Coffea
Coffea
leroyi A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
liaudii J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis Coffea liberica
Coffea liberica
Hiern Coffea
Coffea
ligustroides S.Moore Coffea
Coffea
littoralis A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
lulandoensis Bridson Coffea
Coffea
mabesae (Elmer) J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
macrocarpa A.Rich. Coffea
Coffea
madurensis Teijsm. & Binn. ex Koord. Coffea magnistipula Stoff. & Robbr. Coffea
Coffea
malabarica (Sivar., Biju & P.Mathew) A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
mangoroensis Portères Coffea
Coffea
mannii (Hook.f.) A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
manombensis A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
mapiana Sonké, Nguembou & A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
mauritiana Lam. Coffea
Coffea
mayombensis A.Chev. Coffea
Coffea
mcphersonii A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
melanocarpa Welw. ex Hiern Coffea
Coffea
merguensis Ridl. Coffea
Coffea
millotii J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
minutiflora A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
mogenetii Dubard Coffea
Coffea
mongensis Bridson Coffea
Coffea
montekupensis Stoff. Coffea
Coffea
montis-sacri A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
moratii J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
mufindiensis Hutch. ex Bridson Coffea
Coffea
myrtifolia (A.Rich. ex DC.) J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
namorokensis A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
neobridsoniae A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
neoleroyi A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
perrieri Drake ex Jum. & H.Perrier Coffea
Coffea
pervilleana (Baill.) Drake Coffea
Coffea
pocsii Bridson Coffea
Coffea
pseudozanguebariae Bridson Coffea
Coffea
pterocarpa A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
racemosa Lour. Coffea
Coffea
rakotonasoloi A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
ratsimamangae J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
resinosa (Hook.f.) Radlk. Coffea
Coffea
rhamnifolia (Chiov.) Bridson Coffea
Coffea
richardii J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
sahafaryensis J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
sakarahae J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
salvatrix Swynn. & Philipson Coffea
Coffea
sambavensis J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
sapinii (De Wild.) A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
schliebenii Bridson Coffea
Coffea
semsei (Bridson) A.P.Davis Coffea
Coffea
sessiliflora Bridson Coffea
Coffea
stenophylla G.Don Coffea
Coffea
tetragona Jum. & H.Perrier Coffea
Coffea
togoensis A.Chev. Coffea
Coffea
toshii A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
travancorensis Wight & Arn. Coffea
Coffea
tricalysioides J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
tsirananae J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
vatovavyensis J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
vavateninensis J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
vianneyi J.-F.Leroy Coffea
Coffea
vohemarensis A.P.Davis & Rakotonas. Coffea
Coffea
wightiana Wall. ex Wight & Arn. Coffea
Coffea
zanguebariae Lour.

References[edit]

^ Arabica and Robusta Coffee
Coffee
Plant, at the Coffee
Coffee
Research Institute homepage. Retrieved December 2012. ^ Davis, Aaron P.; Govaerts, Rafael; Bridson, Diane M. & Stoffelen, Piet (2006). "An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea
Coffea
(Rubiaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 152 (4): 465–512. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2006.00584.x.  ^ " Coffee
Coffee
Beans: Commodity Fact Sheet" (PDF). Mintec.  ^ "Meet our Superfruit – Coffee
Coffee
Fruit, Antioxidant Infusion Drinks".  ^ "Seven species of wild coffee amongst Kew's haul of new discoveries". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 22 December 2009.  ^ Stoffelen, Piet; Noirot, Michel; Couturon, Emmanuel; Anthony, François (2008). "A new caffeine-free coffee from Cameroon". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 158 (1): 67–72. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00845.x.  ^ Callaway, Ewen (4 September 2014). " Coffee
Coffee
got its buzz by a different route than tea". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15832. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coffea.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Coffea

World Checklist of Rubiaceae Coffee
Coffee
& Conservation

v t e

Coffee

Topics

Economics Fair trade History

Production

Coffee
Coffee
production List of countries by coffee production

Species
Species
and varieties

Arabica

Kona coffee S795 coffee

Charrieriana Liberica Robusta

Components

Cafestol Caffeic acid Caffeine Coffee
Coffee
bean Furan-2-ylmethanethiol

Processing

Coffee
Coffee
roasting Coffee
Coffee
wastewater Decaffeination Home roasting

Preparation

AeroPress Arabic coffee Brewed coffee Canned coffee Cezve Chorreador Coffeemaker Coffee
Coffee
syrup Cold brew Espresso

doppio lungo ristretto

Espresso
Espresso
machine French press Handpresso Hyper Text Coffee
Coffee
Pot Control Protocol Instant coffee Knockbox List of coffee dishes Moka pot Percolator Turkish coffee Vacuum maker

Coffee
Coffee
drinks

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Coffee
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Latte
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Organisation lists

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companies Coffeehouses

Lifestyle

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Coffee
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Coffee
Palace Coffeehouse Fika Kopi tiam Latte
Latte
art Viennese coffee house

Substitutes

Barley coffee Barley tea Barleycup Caro Chicory Dandelion coffee Inka Postum Qishr Roasted grain drink

Misc.

Coffee
Coffee
and doughnuts Coffee
Coffee
cup

Coffee
Coffee
cup sleeve Demitasse Tasse à café

Coffee
Coffee
leaf rust

King Gustav's twin experiment

Coffee
Coffee
vending machine Demitasse
Demitasse
spoon Single-serve coffee container Third wave of coffee

Coffee
Coffee
portal  Category: Coffee

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q156354 APDB: 189584 EoL: 29482 EPPO: 1COFG FoC: 107588 GBIF: 2895315 GRIN: 2779 IPNI: 85299-3 ITIS: 35189 NCBI: 13442 PLANTS: COFFE

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