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The Codex
Codex
Leicester (also briefly known as Codex
Codex
Hammer) is a collection of famous scientific writings by Leonardo da Vinci. The Codex
Codex
is named after Thomas Coke, later created Earl of Leicester, who purchased it in 1719. Of Leonardo's 30 scientific journals, the Codex may be the most famous of all. The manuscript currently holds the record for the second highest sale price of any book, as it was sold to Bill Gates
Bill Gates
at Christie's
Christie's
auction house on 11 November 1994 in New York for US$30,802,500 (equivalent to $50,858,000 in 2017).[1][2][3] The Codex
Codex
provides an insight into the inquiring mind of the definitive Renaissance
Renaissance
artist, scientist and thinker as well as an exceptional illustration of the link between art and science and the creativity of the scientific process.[4] Overview[edit] The manuscript does not take the form of a single linear script, but is rather a mixture of Leonardo's observations and theories on astronomy; the properties of water, rocks, and fossils; air, and celestial light. The topics addressed include:[5]

an explanation of why fossils can be found on mountains. Hundreds of years before plate tectonics became accepted scientific theory, Leonardo believed that mountains had previously formed sea beds, which were gradually lifted until they formed mountains.[5] the movement of water. This is the main topic of the Leicester Codex. Among other things, Leonardo wrote about the flow of water in rivers, and how it is affected by different obstacles put in its way. From his observations he made recommendations about bridge construction and erosion.[5] the luminosity of the moon. Leonardo speculated that the moon's surface is covered by water, which reflects light from the sun. In this model, waves on the water's surface cause the light to be reflected in many directions, explaining why the moon is not as bright as the sun. Leonardo explained that the pale glow on the dark portion of the crescent moon is caused by sunlight reflected from the Earth. Thus, he described the phenomenon of planetshine one hundred years before the German astronomer Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
proved it.[5]

The Codex
Codex
consists of 18 sheets of paper, each folded in half and written on both sides, forming the complete 72-page document. At one time the sheets were bound together, but they are now displayed separately. It was handwritten in Italian by Leonardo, using his characteristic mirror writing, and supported by copious drawings and diagrams.[6] Renamings[edit] The Codex
Codex
was purchased at auction from the Leicester estate in 1980, by wealthy industrialist and art collector Armand Hammer, for $5.1 million ($15.1 million in 2017 dollars), later renaming the notebook Codex
Codex
Hammer.[7] Hammer commissioned Leonardo da Vinci scholar, Dr. Carlo Pedretti, to compile the loose pages of the codex back into its original form. Over the next 7 years Dr. Pedretti translated each page to English, completing the project in 1987.[8] Recent history[edit] The Codex
Codex
was sold to Bill Gates
Bill Gates
by Christie's
Christie's
auction house on 11 November 1994 in New York for US$30,802,500.[2] After Gates acquired the Codex, he had its pages scanned into digital image files, some of which were later distributed as screen saver and wallpaper files on a CD-ROM
CD-ROM
as part of a Microsoft
Microsoft
Plus! for Windows 95 desktop theme, which would later be included with Windows 98
Windows 98
and Windows ME. A comprehensive CD-ROM
CD-ROM
version (simply titled Leonardo da Vinci) was released by Corbis in 1997. The Codex
Codex
Leicester has been unbound with each page individually mounted between glass panes. It is put on public display once a year in a different city around the world. In 2000, it was displayed at Sydney's Powerhouse Museum.[9] In 2004, it was exhibited in the Château de Chambord, and in 2005 in Tokyo. One page was exhibited at the Seattle Museum of Flight's 2006 exhibit "Leonardo da Vinci: Man, Inventor, Genius". From June to August 2007, the Codex
Codex
was the centerpiece of a two-month exhibition hosted by the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Ireland. The Codex
Codex
was on view at the Phoenix Art Museum in Phoenix, Arizona from January 24, 2015 through April 12, 2015 for the exhibition Leonardo Da Vinci's Codex
Codex
Leicester and the Power of Observation. Its presentation at Phoenix Art Museum
Phoenix Art Museum
was the first time a work by the hand of Leonardo himself was on view in Arizona.[10] The Codex
Codex
was then on view at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts in an exhibition Leonardo Da Vinci, the Codex
Codex
Leicester, and the Creative Mind that opened June 21, 2015, where it remained on display until August 30, 2015.[11] As part of the same tour, the Codex Leicester was also on display at the North Carolina Museum of Art
North Carolina Museum of Art
in Raleigh, North Carolina from October 31, 2015 to January 17, 2016.[12] Owners[edit]

Giovanni della Porta, Michelangelo's student (?) Giuseppe Ghezzi
Giuseppe Ghezzi
(until 1719) Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester (fifth creation)
Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester (fifth creation)
(1719–1759) Leicester estate (1759–1980) Armand Hammer
Armand Hammer
(1980–1990) Estate of Armand Hammer
Armand Hammer
(1990–1994) Bill Gates
Bill Gates
(1994–present)

See also[edit]

Codex
Codex
Atlanticus Codex
Codex
Arundel

References[edit]

^ "BBC News: Bay Psalm Book is most expensive printed work at $14.2m". BBC News. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ a b "Christie, Manson and Woods, sale 8030, 11 November 1994". Christies.com. 1994-11-11. Retrieved 2013-07-23.  ^ Kuruvilla, Carol (2017-09-22). "Mormon Church Drops $35 Million On Printer's Manuscript Of The Book Of Mormon". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-09-25.  ^ Leonardo (da Vinci), Kenneth David Keele, Jane Roberts, Leonardo Da Vinci: Anatomical Drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983 ^ a b c d "An introduction to Leonardo da Vinci's Codices Arundel and Leicester" (PDF).  ^ "The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum". www.tribuneindia.com.  ^ Christopher Reynolds and Hugh Hart (15 January 2007). "The Da Vinci codex versus the museum code". LA Times. Retrieved 27 March 2013.  ^ Pedretti, catalogue by Jane Roberts ; introduction by Carlo (1981). Leonardo da Vinci : the Codex
Codex
Hammer : formerly the Codex
Codex
Leicester. Los Angeles: Armand Hammer
Armand Hammer
Foundation. ISBN 0384205909.  ^ "The World Today Archive – Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
manuscript on display". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2013-07-23.  ^ " Phoenix Art Museum
Phoenix Art Museum
– Exhibition Exhibitions".  ^ "Leonardo da Vinci, the Codex
Codex
Leicester, and the Creative Mind — Minneapolis Institute of Art – Minneapolis Institute of Art". Minneapolis Institute of Art.  ^ "Leonardo da Vinci's Codex
Codex
Leicester and the Creative Mind – Exhibitions – NCMA – North Carolina Museum of Art". 

Further reading[edit]

Thereza Wells, ed. (2008). Notebooks of Leonardo da VInci, selected by Irma A. Richter. Oxford World's Classics (new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929902-7.  Jean Paul Richter (1970). The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Dover. ISBN 0-486-22572-0.  volume 2: ISBN 0-486-22573-9. A reprint of the original 1883 edition.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Codex
Codex
Hammer.

Da Vinci Codex
Codex
Leicester's Guide Seattle P-I site for 1997 Seattle Art Museum exhibit of the Codex, including background info[dead link] News report of Japan opening, September 2005[dead link] Leonardo da Vinci : The Codex
Codex
Leicester Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, Ireland The sale of the Codex
Codex
Hammer, November 11 1994

v t e

Leonardo da Vinci

List of works Science and inventions Personal life

Paintings

Medusa The Annunciation The Baptism of Christ The Madonna of the Carnation Ginevra de' Benci Benois Madonna The Adoration of the Magi St. Jerome in the Wilderness Madonna Litta Virgin of the Rocks Portrait of a Musician Lady with an Ermine La Belle Ferronnière Salvator Mundi Madonna of the Yarnwinder The Virgin and Child with St. Anne Mona Lisa Head of a Woman (La Scapigliata) Leda and the Swan St. John the Baptist

Works on walls

The Last Supper Sala delle Asse The Battle of Anghiari

Sculptures

Sforza monument (unexecuted) Horse and Rider Rearing Horse and Mounted Warrior

Works on paper

Vitruvian Man Portrait of a Young Fiancée The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist Self-portrait Studies of the Fetus in the Womb

Manuscripts

Codex
Codex
Arundel Codex
Codex
Atlanticus Codex
Codex
on the Flight of Birds Codex
Codex
Leicester Codex
Codex
Madrid Codex
Codex
Trivulzianus A Treatise on Painting

Other projects

De divina proportione Architonnerre Leonardo's crossbow Leonardo's fighting vehicle Leonardo's robot Leonardo's self-propelled cart Viola organista

Leonardeschi

Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio Cesare da Sesto Giampietrino Giovanni Agostino da Lodi Bernardino Luini Cesare Magni Marco d'Oggiono Francesco Melzi Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis Salaì Andrea Solari

Posthumous fame

Cultural references Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
replicas and reinterpretations Things named after da Vinci

Category

v t e

Bill Gates

Life and history

Microsoft

History

Bill & Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
Foundation bgC3 Cascade Investment Corbis United States v. Microsoft
Microsoft
antitrust case

Writings

"Open Letter to Hobbyists" (1976) The Road Ahead (1995) Business @ the Speed of Thought
Business @ the Speed of Thought
(1999)

Films

Triumph of the Nerds
Triumph of the Nerds
(1996) Pirates of Silicon Valley
Pirates of Silicon Valley
(1999) The Social Network
The Social Network
(2010)

Family

William H. Gates Sr.
William H. Gates Sr.
(father) Mary Maxwell Gates
Mary Maxwell Gates
(mother) Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(spouse) Mimi Gardner Gates
Mimi Gardner Gates
(stepmother)

Possessions

Codex
Codex
Leicester Residence Lost on the Grand Banks Porsche 959

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 181904299 GN

.