HOME
The Info List - Code Noir


--- Advertisement ---



The Code Noir
Code Noir
(French pronunciation: ​[kɔd nwaʁ], Black Code) was a decree originally passed by France's King Louis XIV in 1685. The Code Noir
Code Noir
defined the conditions of slavery in the French colonial empire, restricted the activities of free Negroes, forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism, and ordered all Jews
Jews
out of France's colonies. The Code Noir
Code Noir
resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free people of colour (13.2% in Louisiana compared to 0.8% in Mississippi[1]) They were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses, properties and even slaves.[2][3] The code has been described by Tyler Stovall as "one of the most extensive official documents on race, slavery, and freedom ever drawn up in Europe".[4]

Contents

1 Origins 2 Context 3 Summary

3.1 Rules about religion 3.2 Rules about sexual relations and marriage 3.3 Prohibitions 3.4 Punishments 3.5 Freedom

4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Origins[edit] In his 1987 analysis of the Code Noir's significance, Louis Sala-Molins claimed that its two primary objectives were to assert French sovereignty in her colonies and to secure the future of the cane sugar plantation economy. Central to these goals was control of the slave trade. The Code aimed to provide a legal framework for slavery, to establish protocols governing the conditions of colonial inhabitants, and to end the illegal slave trade. Religious morals also governed the crafting of the Code Noir; it was in part a result of the influence of the influx of Catholic leaders arriving in Martinique between 1673 and 1685. The Code Noir
Code Noir
was one of the many laws inspired by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who began to prepare the first (1685) version. After Colbert's 1683 death, his son, the Marquis de Seignelay, completed the document. It was ratified by Louis XIV and adopted by the Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
sovereign council in 1687 after it was rejected by the parliament. It then was applied in the West Indies in 1687, Guyana in 1704, Réunion in 1723, and Louisiana in 1724. The second version of the code was passed by Louis XV at age 13 in 1724. In Canada, slavery received legal foundation from the king from 1689-1709. The Code Noir
Code Noir
was not intended for or applied in New France's Canadian colony.

In Canada, there never was legislation regulating slavery, no doubt because of the small number of slaves. Nevertheless, the intendant Raudot issued an ordinance in 1709 that legalized slavery. see Virtual Museum of New France

Context[edit] At this time in the Caribbean, Jews
Jews
were mostly active in the Dutch colonies, so their presence was seen as an unwelcome Dutch influence in French colonial life. Furthermore, the majority of the population in French colonies were slaves. Plantation owners largely governed their land and holdings in absentia, with subordinate workers dictating the day-to-day running of the plantations. Because of their enormous population, in addition to the harsh conditions facing slaves (for example, Saint Domingue has been described as one of the most brutally efficient colonies of the era[citation needed]), small-scale slave revolts were common. Despite some well-intentioned provisions, the Code Noir
Code Noir
was never effectively or strictly enforced, in particular regarding protection for slaves and limitations on corporal punishment. Summary[edit]

Code Noir
Code Noir
of 1742, Nantes
Nantes
history museum

In 60 articles,[5] the document specified the following: Rules about religion[edit]

Jews
Jews
could not reside in the French colonies (art. 1) Slaves must be baptized in the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
(art. 2) Public exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
was prohibited; masters who allowed or tolerated it by their slaves could also be punished (art. 3) Only Catholic marriages would be recognized (art. 8)

Rules about sexual relations and marriage[edit]

White men would be fined for having children with slave concubines owned by another man, as would the slave concubine's master. If the man who engaged in sexual relations with a slave was the master of the slave concubine, the slave and any resulting children would be removed from his ownership. If a free, unmarried man should have relations with a slave owned by him, he should then be married to the slave concubine, thus freeing her and any resulting child from slavery (art. 9)[6] Weddings between slaves must be carried out only with the masters' permission (art. 10). Slaves must not be married without their own consent (art. 11) Children born between married slaves were also slaves, belonging to the female slave's master (art. 12) Children between a male slave and a free woman were free; children between a female slave and a free man were slaves (art. 13)

Prohibitions[edit]

Slaves must not carry weapons except under permission of their masters for hunting purposes (art. 15) Slaves belonging to different masters must not gather at any time under any circumstance (art. 16) Slaves should not sell sugar cane, even with permission of their masters (art. 18) Slaves should not sell any other commodity without permission of their masters (art. 19 - 21) Masters must give food (quantities specified) and clothes to their slaves, even to those who were sick or old (art. 22 - 27) (unclear) Slaves could testify but only for information (art. 30-32) A slave who struck his or her master, his wife, mistress or children would be executed (art. 33) A slave husband and wife (and their prepubescent children) under the same master were not to be sold separately (art. 47)

Punishments[edit]

Fugitive slaves absent for a month should have their ears cut off and be branded. For another month their hamstring would be cut and they would be branded again. A third time they would be executed (art. 38) Free blacks who harboured fugitive slaves would be beaten by the slave owner and fined 300 pounds of sugar per day of refuge given; other free people who harboured fugitive slaves would be fined 10 livres tournois per day (art. 39) (unclear) A master who falsely accused a slave of a crime and had the slave put to death would be fined (art. 40) Masters may chain and beat slaves but may not torture nor mutilate them (art. 42) Masters who killed their slaves would be punished (art. 43) Slaves were community property and could not be mortgaged, and must be equally split between the master's inheritors, but could be used as payment in case of debt or bankruptcy, and otherwise sold (art. 44 - 46, 48 - 54)

Freedom[edit]

Slave masters 20 years of age (25 years without parental permission) may free their slaves (art. 55) Slaves who were declared to be sole legatees by their masters, or named as executors of their wills, or tutors of their children, should be held and considered as freed slaves (art. 56) Freed slaves were French subjects, even if born elsewhere (art. 57) Freed slaves had the same rights as French colonial subjects (art. 58,59) Fees and fines paid with regard to the Code Noir
Code Noir
must go to the royal administration, but one third would be assigned to the local hospital (art. 60)

In popular culture[edit] The Code Noir
Code Noir
is mentioned in Assassin's Creed IV: Freedom Cry, as it is mainly set in Port-au-Prince. The Assassin Adéwalé, formerly an escaped slave turned pirate, aids local Maroons in freeing the slaves of Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
(now the Republic of Haiti). It is mentioned during the main story and also has its own database entry in the game which provides background on the Code Noir. See also[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Code Noir

History of slavery
History of slavery
in Louisiana Slavery
Slavery
in the British and French Caribbean Slavery
Slavery
in Canada Slavery
Slavery
in Haiti Slave codes Slave rebellions Black Codes (United States) Slave Trade Acts (U.K. and U.S.)

References[edit]

^ Rodney Stark, "For the Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-hunts, and the End of Slavery", p.322 [1] Note that the original hardcover contained a typographical error stating "31.2 percent"; this was corrected in the paperback edition to 13.2. This is confirmed by examination of the 1830 census. ^ Samantha Cook,Sarah Hull, "The Rough Guide to the USA" ^ Terry L. Jones, "The Louisiana Journey", p.115 ^ Stovall, p. 205. ^ Full text of the "Code Noir" Archived 4 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Aubert, Guillaume (July 2004). ""The Blood of France": Race and Purity of Blood in the French Atlantic World". The William and Mary Quarterly. 61 (3): 464. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 

External links[edit]

Le code noir ou Edit du roy (in French). Paris: Chez Claude Girard, dans la Grand'Salle, vis-à-vis la Grande'Chambre. 1735.  Édit du Roi, Touchant la Police des Isles de l'Amérique Française (Paris, 1687), 28–58. [2] Le Code noir (1685) [3] The "Code Noir" (1685) (in English), trans. John Garrigus Tyler Stovall, "Race and the Making of the Nation: Blacks in Modern France." In Michael A. Gomez, ed. Diasporic Africa: A Reader. New York: New York University Press. 2006. "Slavery". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 

v t e

 New France
France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana (1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois Country
Illinois Country
Ohio Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis (Illinois) Fort St. Louis (Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Categor

.