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The Cod Wars
Cod Wars
(Icelandic: Þorskastríðin, "the cod strife," or Landhelgisstríðin, "the wars for the territorial waters"[1]) were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Iceland
Iceland
on fishing rights in the North Atlantic. Each of the disputes ended with an Icelandic victory.[2][3][4] The Third Cod War
War
concluded in 1976 with a highly-favourable agreement for Iceland, as the United Kingdom conceded to a 200-nautical-mile (370-kilometre) Icelandic exclusive fishery zone after threats that Iceland
Iceland
would withdraw from NATO, which would have forfeited NATO's access to most of the GIUK gap, a critical anti-submarine warfare chokepoint during the Cold War. As a result, British fishing communities lost access to rich areas and were devastated, with thousands of jobs lost.[3][5] Since 1982, a 200-nautical-mile (370-kilometre) exclusive economic zone has been the United Nations
United Nations
standard. The term "cod war" was coined by a British journalist in early September 1958.[6] None of the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
met any of the common thresholds for a conventional war, and they may more accurately be described as militarised interstate disputes.[4][7][8][9] There is only one confirmed death during the Cod Wars: an Icelandic engineer, who was accidentally killed in the Second Cod War
War
while he was repairing damage on the Icelandic gunboat Ægir after a collision with the British frigate Apollo, on 29 August 1973.[10] Several explanations for the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
have been put forward.[2][4] Recent studies have focused on the underlying economic, legal and strategic drivers for Iceland
Iceland
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as well as the domestic and international factors that contributed to the escalation of the dispute.[4][11] Lessons drawn from the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
have been applied to international relations theory.[4][11][12]

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Until 1949 1.2 1949–1958

2 First Cod War 3 Second Cod War

3.1 C.S. Forester incident

4 Third Cod War 5 Results 6 Scholarship 7 Lessons drawn for international relations 8 Legacy 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Background[edit] Until 1949[edit]

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Expansion of the Icelandic exclusive economic zone (EEZ).   Iceland   International waters   4 nmi expansion   12 nmi expansion (current extent of territorial waters)   50 nmi expansion   200 nmi expansion (current extent of EEZ)

Sea areas, in international law, did not become universally recognised until 1982.

Fishermen from Britain began to fish in the international waters near Iceland
Iceland
in the 15th century. From the early 16th century onward, English sailors and fishermen were a major presence in the waters off Iceland.[13][14] Some Icelandic historians view the history of Iceland's struggle for control of its maritime resources in ten episodes, or ten cod wars. The first episode was a dispute between Norway
Norway
and England
England
in 1415 to 1425 over England's trading with Iceland in violation of Norway's monopoly on the Icelandic trade. The dispute ended when the English arrested Eric of Pomerania's officials in Iceland, effectively restoring the Anglo-Icelandic trade. The agreement that was reached in 1976 concluded what in modern times is called the Third Cod War
War
the final and tenth Cod War
War
in long-term history).[13] With the increases in range of fishing that were enabled by steam power in the late 19th century, boat owners and skippers felt pressure to exploit new grounds. Their large catches in Icelandic waters attracted more regular voyages across the North Atlantic. In 1893, the Danish government, which then governed Iceland
Iceland
and the Faroe Islands, claimed a fishing limit of 50 nmi (93 km) around their shores. British trawler owners disputed the claim and continued to send their ships to the waters near Iceland. The British government did not recognise the Danish claim on the grounds that setting such a precedent would lead to similar claims by the nations around the North Sea, which would damage the British fishing industry.[citation needed] In 1896, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
made an agreement with Denmark British vessels to use any Icelandic port for shelter if they stowed their gear and trawl nets. In return, British vessels were not to fish in Faxa Bay
Faxa Bay
east of a line from Ílunýpa, a promontory near Keflavík
Keflavík
to Þormóðssker (43.43° N, 22.30° W).[citation needed] With many British trawlers being charged and fined by Danish gunboats for fishing illegally within the 13 nmi (24 km) limit, which the British government refused to recognise, the British press
British press
began to enquire why the Danish action against British interests was allowed to continue without intervention by the Royal Navy. The British made a show of naval force (gunboat diplomacy) in 1896 and 1897.[15] In April 1899, the steam trawler Caspian was fishing off the Faroe Islands when a Danish gunboat tried to arrest her for allegedly fishing illegally inside the limits. The trawler refused to stop and was fired upon first with blank shells and then with live ammunition. Eventually, the trawler was caught, but before the skipper, Charles Henry Johnson, left his ship to go aboard the Danish gunboat, he ordered the mate to make a dash for it after he went on to the Danish ship. The Caspian set off at full speed. The gunboat fired several shots at the unarmed boat but could not catch up with the trawler, which returned, heavily damaged, to Grimsby, England. On board the Danish gunboat, the skipper of the Caspian was lashed to the mast. A court held at Thorshavn
Thorshavn
convicted him on several counts including illegal fishing and attempted assault, and he was jailed for 30 days.[16] The Anglo-Danish Territorial Waters Agreement of 1901, which set 3 nmi (6 km) territorial limits, measured narrowly, for Iceland
Iceland
for 50 years.[15] The Icelandic fisheries grew in importance for the British fishing industry around the end of the 19th century.[15] The reduction in fishing activity brought about by the hostilities of the First World War
War
effectively ended the dispute for a time.[citation needed] While data is incomplete for the prewar period, one historian argues that the Icelandic fishing grounds were 'very important' to the British fishing industry as a whole.[17] Data from 1919 to 1938 showed a significant increase in the British total catches in Icelandic waters.[18] The British catches in Iceland
Iceland
were more than twice the combined catches of all other grounds of the British distant water fleet.[19] Icelanders
Icelanders
grew increasingly dismayed at the British presence.[20] 1949–1958[edit] In October 1949, Iceland
Iceland
initiated the two-year abrogation process of the agreement made between Denmark and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1901. The fishery limits to the north of Iceland
Iceland
were extended to 4 nmi (7 km). However, since the British trawling fleet did not use those ground, the northern extension was not a source of significant contention between the two states. Initially planning to extend the rest of its fishery limits by the end of the two-year abrogation period, Iceland
Iceland
chose to postpone its extension to wait for the outcome of the UK- Norway
Norway
fisheries case in the International Court of Justice (ICJ), which was decided in December 1951. Icelanders
Icelanders
were satisfied with the ICJ ruling, as they believed that Iceland's preferred extensions were similar to those afforded to Norway
Norway
in the ICJ ruling. The UK and Iceland
Iceland
tried to negotiate a solution but were unable to reach agreement. The Icelandic government declared, on 19 March 1952, its intention to extend its fishery limits on 15 May 1952.[21] Iceland
Iceland
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
were involved in a dispute from May 1952 to November 1956 over Iceland's unilateral extension of its fishery limits from 3 to 4 nmi (6 to 7 km). Unlike in the Cod Wars, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
was never sent into Icelandic waters. The British trawling industry, however, implemented costly sanctions on Iceland
Iceland
by imposing a landing ban on Icelandic fish in British ports.[21][3] The landing ban was a major blow to the Icelandic fishing industry (the UK was Iceland's largest export market for fish) and caused consternation among Icelandic statesmen.[22][23] The two sides decided to refer one part of the Icelandic extension to the ICJ in early 1953: the controversial Faxa Bay
Faxa Bay
delimitation.[21] Cold War
Cold War
politics proved favourable for Iceland, as the Soviet Union, seeking influence in Iceland, stepped in to purchase Icelandic fish. The United States, fearing greater Soviet influence in Iceland, also purchased Icelandic fish and persuaded Spain
Spain
and Italy
Italy
to purchase Icelandic fish.[21][24][15] Soviet and American involvement resulted in weakening the punitive effects of the British landing ban. Some scholars refer to the dispute of 1952 to 1956 as one of the Cod Wars, as the object of the dispute and its costs and risks were all similar to those in the other three Cod Wars.[25][26][27] Just as the other Cod Wars, the dispute ended with Iceland
Iceland
achieving its aims, as the Icelandic 4 nmi (7 km) fishery limits were recognized by the United Kingdom, following a decision by the Organisation of European Economic Co-operation in 1956.[21] Two years later, in 1958, the United Nations
United Nations
convened the first International Conference on the Law of the Sea, which was attended by 86 states.[28] Several countries sought to extend the limits of their territorial waters to 12 nmi (22 km), but the conference did not reach any firm conclusions.[29][30] First Cod War[edit]

First Cod War

Part of the Cod Wars

Coventry City and ICGV Albert off the Westfjords

Date 1 September 1958 – 11 March 1961

Location Waters surrounding Iceland

Result Icelandic victory An agreement was reached between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Iceland
Iceland
in which the UK accepted the Icelandic annexation and Iceland
Iceland
agreed to take further claims before the International Court of Justice, in The Hague.

Territorial changes Iceland
Iceland
expands its territorial waters to 12 nmi (22 km)

States involved

 Iceland  United Kingdom  West Germany[31]

Commanders and leaders

Ásgeir Ásgeirsson Hermann Jónasson Bjarni Benediktsson Capt. P. Sigurðsson Capt. E. Kristófersson

Harold Macmillan Lord Carrington Cdre. B. J.[32][33][34] Anderson

Strength

 Icelandic Coast Guard

2 large patrol vesselsa 4 small patrol vessels

[35]  Royal Navy

17 destroyers 19 frigates 1 fast minelayer[35] 1 minesweeper 10 RFA supply vessels

[contradictory]

Casualties and losses

None

a 3 by February 1960.

The First Cod War
War
lasted from 1 September 1958 to 11 March 1961.[31][15] It began as soon as a new Icelandic law
Icelandic law
came into force and expanded the Icelandic fishery zone from 4 to 12 nautical miles (7.4 to 22.2 km) at midnight on 1 September 1958. All members of NATO
NATO
opposed the unilateral Icelandic extension.[36] The British declared that their trawlers would fish under protection from their warships in three areas: out of the Westfjords, north of Horn and southeast of Iceland. In all, twenty British trawlers, four warships and a supply vessel were inside the newly declared zones. The deployment was expensive; in February 1960, Lord Carrington, the First Lord of the Admiralty, responsible for the Royal Navy, stated that the ships near Iceland
Iceland
had expended half a million pounds sterling worth of oil since the new year and that a total of 53 British warships had taken part in the operations.[37] Against that, Iceland
Iceland
could deploy seven patrol vessels[38] and a single PBY-6A Catalina flying boat.[39] The deployment of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
to contested waters led to protests in Iceland. Demonstrations against the British embassy were met with taunts by the British ambassador, Andrew Gilchrist, as he played bagpipe music and military marches on his gramophone.[40] Many incidents followed. The Icelanders
Icelanders
were, however, at a disadvantage in patrolling the contested waters because of the size of the area and the limited number of patrol ships. According to one historian, 'only the flagship Thór could effectively arrest and, if necessary, tow a trawler to harbour'.[41][42] On 4 September ICGV Ægir, an Icelandic patrol vessel, attempted to take a British trawler off the Westfjords
Westfjords
but was thwarted when HMS Russell intervened, and the two vessels collided. On 6 October, V/s María Júlía fired three shots at the trawler Kingston Emerald, forcing the trawler to escape to sea. On 12 November, V/s Þór encountered the trawler Hackness, which had not stowed its nets legally. Hackness did not stop until Þór had fired two blanks and one live shell off its bow. Once again, HMS Russell came to the rescue, and its shipmaster ordered the Icelandic captain to leave the trawler alone, as it was not within the 4 nmi (7.4 km) limit recognised by the British government. The captain of Þór', Eiríkur Kristófersson, said that he would not do so and ordered his men to approach the trawler with the gun manned. In response, the Russell threatened to sink the Icelandic boat if it fired a shot at the Hackness. More British ships then arrived, and the Hackness retreated. Icelandic officials threatened to withdraw Iceland's membership of NATO
NATO
and to expel US forces from Iceland
Iceland
unless a satisfactory conclusion could be reached to the dispute.[43] Even the cabinet members who were pro-Western (proponents of NATO
NATO
and the US Defence Agreement) were forced to resort to the threats, as that was Iceland's chief leverage, and it would have been political suicide not to use it.[44] Thus, NATO
NATO
engaged in formal and informal mediations to bring an end to the dispute.[45] Following the United Nations
United Nations
Conference on the Law of the Sea between 1960 and 1961,[29][30][46] the UK and Iceland
Iceland
came to a settlement in late February 1961, which stipulated 12 nmi (22 km) Icelandic fishery limits but that Britain would have fishing rights in allocated zones and under certain seasons in the outer 6 nmi (11 km) for three years.[47] The Icelandic Althing
Althing
approved the agreement on 11 March 1961.[31] The deal was very similar to one that Iceland
Iceland
had offered in the weeks and days leading up to its unilateral extension in 1958.[48] As part of the agreement, it was stipulated that any future disagreement between Iceland
Iceland
and Britain in the matter of fishery zones would be sent to the International Court of Justice, in the Hague. Second Cod War[edit]

Second Cod War

Part of the Cod Wars

A net cutter, first used in the Second Cod War

Date 1 September 1972 – 8 November 1973

Location Waters surrounding Iceland

Result Icelandic victory An agreement was reached between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Iceland
Iceland
in which the UK accepted the Icelandic annexation in exchange for permission to catch 150,000 tons of fish until 1975.

Territorial changes Iceland
Iceland
creates 50 nmi (93 km) exclusive fishery zone

States involved

 Iceland  United Kingdom  West Germany[49]  Belgium[50]

Commanders and leaders

Kristján Eldjárn Ólafur Jóhannesson Capt. P. Sigurðsson Cdr. G. Kjærnested Cdr. H. Hallvarðsson

Edward Heath Adm. Michael Pollock Willy Brandt Baudouin

Strength

 Icelandic Coast Guard

3 large patrol vessels 2 small patrol vessels 1 armed whaler

 Royal Navy

30 frigates 1 destroyer 11 RFA supply vessels

 Ministry of Agriculture,  Fisheries and Food

5 defence tugs

Casualties and losses

1 engineer killed[51] None

The primary objective of the Icelandic Coast Guard
Icelandic Coast Guard
during the last two Cod Wars
Cod Wars
was to cut nets in this manner.

The Second Cod War
War
between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Iceland
Iceland
lasted from September 1972 until the signing of a temporary agreement, in November 1973. The Icelandic government again extended its fishing limits, now to 50 nmi (93 km). It had two goals in extending the limits: (1) to conserve fish stocks and (2) to increase its share of total catches.[52] The reasons that Iceland
Iceland
pursued 50 nmi fishery limits, rather than the 200 nmi limits that they had also considered, were that the most fruitful fishing grounds were within the 50 nmi and that patrolling a 200 nmi limit would have been more difficult.[53] The British contested the Icelandic extension with two goals in mind: (1) to achieve the greatest possible catch quota for British fishermen in the contested waters and (2) to prevent a de facto recognition of a unilateral extension of a fishery jurisdiction, which would set a precedent for other extensions.[52][54] All Western European states and the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
opposed Iceland's unilateral extension.[55] African states declared support for Iceland's extension after a meeting in 1971 where the Icelandic prime minister argued that the Icelandic cause was a part of a broader battle against colonialism and imperialism.[56] On 1 September 1972, the enforcement of the law that expanded the Icelandic fishery limits to 50 nmi (93 km) began. Numerous British and West German trawlers continued fishing within the new zone on the first day. The Icelandic leftist coalition then governing ignored the treaty that stipulated the involvement of the International Court of Justice. It said that it was not bound by agreements made by the previous centre-right government, with Lúdvik Jósepsson, the fisheries minister, stating that 'the basis for our independence is economic independence'.[57] The next day, ICGV Ægir chased 16 trawlers, in waters east of the country, out of the 50 nmi zone. The Icelandic Coast Guard
Icelandic Coast Guard
started to use net cutters to cut the trawling lines of non-Icelandic vessels fishing within the new exclusion zone. On 5 September 1972, at 10:25,[58] ICGV Ægir, under Guðmundur Kjærnested's command, encountered an unmarked trawler fishing northeast of Hornbanki. The master of the black-hulled trawler refused to divulge the trawler's name and number and, after being warned to follow the Coast Guard's orders, played Rule, Britannia!
Rule, Britannia!
over the radio.[3] At 10:40, the net cutter was deployed into the water for the first time, and Ægir sailed along the trawler's port side. The fishermen tossed a thick nylon rope into the water as the patrol ship closed in, attempting to disable its propeller. After passing the trawler, Ægir veered to the trawler's starboard side. The net cutter, 160 fathoms (290 m) behind the patrol vessel, sliced one of the trawling wires. As ICGV Ægir
ICGV Ægir
came about to circle the unidentified trawler, its angry crew threw coal as well as waste and a large fire axe at the Coast Guard vessel.[58] A considerable amount of swearing and shouting came through the radio, which resulted in the trawler being identified as Peter Scott (H103).[58] On 25 November 1972, a crewman on the German trawler Erlangen suffered a head injury as an Icelandic patrolship cut the trawler's trawling wire, which struck the crewman.[59] On 18 January 1973, the nets of 18 trawlers were cut. That forced the British seamen to leave the Icelandic fishery zone unless they had the protection of the Royal Navy. The next day large, fast tugboats were sent to their defence, the first being the Statesman. The British considered that to be insufficient and formed a special group to defend the trawlers. On 23 January 1973, the volcano Eldfell
Eldfell
on Heimaey
Heimaey
erupted, forcing the Coast Guard to divert its attention to rescuing the inhabitants of the small island. On 17 May 1973, the British trawlers left the Icelandic waters, only to return two days later when it was escorted by British frigates.[3] The naval deployment was codenamed Operation Dewey.[60] Hawker Siddeley Nimrod jets flew over the contested waters and notified British frigates and trawlers of the whereabouts of Icelandic patrolships.[61] Icelandic statesmen were infuriated by the entry of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and considered to appeal to the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
or call for Article 5 of the NATO
NATO
Charter to be implemented. According to the American ambassador at the time, Frederick Irving, Ólafur Jóhannesson demanded for the US to send jets to bomb the British frigates.[61] There were major protests in Reykjavík
Reykjavík
on 24 May 1973. All the windows of the British embassy in Reykjavík
Reykjavík
were broken.[62] The Icelandic lighthouse tender V/s Árvakur collided with four British vessels on 1 June, and six days later ICGV Ægir
ICGV Ægir
collided with HMS Scylla, when it was reconnoitering for icebergs off the Westfjords even though no trawlers were present. On 29 August[63] the Icelandic Coast Guard
Icelandic Coast Guard
suffered the only fatality of the conflict, when ICGV Ægir
ICGV Ægir
collided with another British frigate. Halldór Hallfreðsson, an engineer on board the Icelandic vessel, died by electrocution from his welding equipment after sea water flooded the compartment in which he was making hull repairs.[51][64][65] On 16 September 1973, Joseph Luns, Secretary-General of NATO, arrived in Reykjavík
Reykjavík
to talk with Icelandic ministers, who had been pressed to leave NATO, as it had been of no help to Iceland
Iceland
in the conflict.[45] Britain and Iceland
Iceland
were both NATO
NATO
members. The Royal Navy made use of bases in Iceland
Iceland
during the Cold War
Cold War
to fulfill its primary NATO
NATO
duty, guarding the Greenland-Iceland-UK gap. After a series of talks within NATO, British warships were recalled on 3 October.[66] Trawlermen played Rule Britannia! over their radios, as they had done when the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
entered the waters. They also played The Party's Over.[66] An agreement was signed on 8 November to limit British fishing activities to certain areas inside the 50 nmi limit. The agreement, resolving the dispute, was approved by the Althing
Althing
on 13 November 1973.[67] The agreement was based on the premise that British trawlers would limit their annual catch to no more than 130,000 tons. The Icelanders
Icelanders
were reportedly prepared to settle for 156,000 tons in July 1972 but had increased their demands by spring of 1973 and coffered 117,000 tons (the British demanded 145,000 tons in spring 1973).[68] The agreement expired in November 1975, and the third "Cod War" began. The Second Cod War
War
threatened Iceland's membership in NATO
NATO
and the US military presence in Iceland. It was the closest that Iceland
Iceland
has come to canceling its bilateral Defence Agreement with the US.[69] Icelandic NATO
NATO
membership and hosting of US military had considerable importance to Cold War
Cold War
strategy because of Iceland's location in the middle of the GIUK gap. After the entry of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
into the contested waters, at any given time, four frigates and an assortment of tugboats would generally protect the British trawling fleet.[70] Over the course of this Cod War, a total of 32 British frigates had entered the contested waters.[71] C.S. Forester incident[edit] On 19 July 1974,[72] more than nine months after the signing of the agreement, one of the largest wet fish stern trawlers in the British fleet, C.S. Forester,[73] which had been fishing inside the 12 nmi (22 km) limit, was shelled and captured by the Icelandic gunboat V/s Þór after a 100 nmi (185 km) pursuit.[74] C. S. Forester was shelled with non-explosive ammunition after repeated warnings. The trawler was hit by at least two rounds, which damaged the engine room and a water tank.[75] She was later boarded and towed to Iceland.[76] Skipper Richard Taylor was condemned to 30 days of imprisonment and fined £5,000. He was released on bail after the owners paid £2,232. The trawler was also allowed to depart with a catch of 200 tons of fish. Also, her owners paid a total of £26,300 for the release of the ship.[74] Third Cod War[edit]

Third Cod War

Part of the Cod Wars

Icelandic patrol ship ICGV Óðinn
ICGV Óðinn
and British frigate HMS Scylla clash in the North Atlantic.

Date 16 November 1975 – 1 June 1976

Location Waters surrounding Iceland

Result Icelandic victory An agreement was reached between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Iceland
Iceland
in which the former accepted the Icelandic expansion but received a temporary allowable catch for its fishing fleet.

Territorial changes Iceland
Iceland
expands its exclusive fishery zone to 200 nautical miles

States involved

 Iceland  United Kingdom  West Germany[77]  Belgium[77]

Commanders and leaders

Kristján Eldjárn Geir Hallgrímsson Capt. P. Sigurðsson Cdr. G. Kjærnested Cdr. H. Hallvarðsson

Harold Wilson James Callaghan Adm. Edward Ashmore

Strength

 Icelandic Coast Guard

4 large patrol vessels 2 small patrol vessels 2 armed trawlers

 Royal Navy

22 frigates 7 RFA supply vessels

 Ministry of Agriculture,  Fisheries and Food

6 defence tugs

Casualties and losses

No casualties 5 patrol vessels damaged 1 trawlerman wounded[78] 15 frigates damaged[79] 1 supply ship damaged

At the third United Nations
United Nations
Conference of the Law on the Sea in 1975, several countries supported a 100 nmi (185 km) limit to territorial waters.[29][30][80] On 15 July 1975, the Icelandic government announced its intention to extend its fishery limits.[81] The Third Cod War
War
(November 1975 – June 1976) began after Iceland again extended its fishing limits, now to 200 nmi (370 km) from its coast. The British government did not recognise the large increase to the exclusion zone and so an issue occurred with British fishermen and their activity in the disputed zone. The conflict, which was the most hard-fought of the Cod Wars, saw British fishing trawlers have their nets cut by the Icelandic Coast Guard, and there were several incidents of ramming by Icelandic ships and British trawlers, frigates and tugboats. One of the most serious incidents occurred on 11 December 1975. As reported by Iceland, V/s Þór, under the command of Helgi Hallvarðsson, was leaving port at Seyðisfjörður, where it had been minesweeping, when orders were received to investigate the presence of unidentified foreign vessels at the mouth of the fjord. The vessels were identified as three British ships: Lloydsman, an oceangoing tug three times bigger than V/s Þór; Star Aquarius, an oil rig supply vessel of British Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food; and her sister ship, Star Polaris. They were sheltering from a force nine gale within Iceland's 12-nautical-mile (22 km) territorial waters.[82] In the Icelandic account, when ordered to leave Icelandic territorial waters by the commander of Þór, the three tugboats initially complied. Hiwever, around two nautical miles (4 km) from the coast, the Star Aquarius allegedly veered to starboard and hit Þórs port side as the Coast Guards attempted to overtake her. Even as Þór increased speed, the Lloydsman again collided with its port side. The Þór had suffered considerable damage by these hits and so when the Star Aquarius came about, a blank round was fired from Þór. That did not deter the Star Aquarius, as it hit Þór a second time. Another shot was fired from Þór as a result, this time a live round that hit the bow of Star Aquarius. Then, the tugboats retreated. V/s Þór, which was close to sinking after the confrontation, sailed to Loðmundarfjörður for temporary repairs.[83] The British reports of the incident differ considerably and maintain that Þór attempted to board one of the tugboats, and as Þór broke away, the Lloydsman surged forward to protect the Star Aquarius. Captain Albert MacKenzie of the Star Aquarius said that Þór approached from the stern and hit the support vessel before it veered off and fired a shot from a range of about 100 yards (90 m). Niels Sigurdsson, the Icelandic Ambassador in London, said that Þór had been firing in self-defence after it had been rammed by British vessels. Iceland
Iceland
consulted the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
over the incident, which declined to intervene.[84] The immediate Royal Navy
Royal Navy
response was to dispatch a large frigate force, which was already well on the way to Icelandic waters, before the Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, or the Foreign Secretary, Anthony Crosland, were informed.[85] The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
saw the opportunity to demonstrate the capabilities of its older Type 12 and Type 81 frigates for sustained deployment in the area of the Denmark Strait, where they were expected to deter the passage of Soviet submarines while the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
was threatened by further serious defence and naval cuts by the Royal Navy's chief bête noire, the Chancellor of Exchequer and former Minister of Defence, Denis Healey.[86] The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
saw its strategic aim at the time to be as much as fighting Healey as the Soviet Navy.[87] The Second and Third Cod Wars
Cod Wars
were necessary wars for the Royal Navy, like the Falklands Operation, six years later.[88] To Crosland, also MP for the trawler port of Grimsby, the third war was a more serious threat to the Western Alliance than the Middle East was.[89] Another incident occurred in January 1976, when HMS Andromeda collided with the Þór, which sustained a hole in its hull; the hull of the Andromeda was dented. The British Ministry of Defence said that the collision represented a "deliberate attack" on the British warship 'without regard for life'. The Icelandic Coast Guard, on the other hand insisted, that Andromeda had rammed Þór by "overtaking the boat and then swiftly changing course'. After the incident and facing a growing number of ships enduring dockyard repairs, the Royal Navy ordered a 'more cautious approach' in dealing with 'the enemy cutting the trawlers' warps'.[90] On 19 February 1976, the British Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food announced that a fisherman from Grimsby
Grimsby
had become the first British casualty of the Third Cod War, when a hawser hit and seriously injured him after Icelandic vessels cut a trawl.[78] A British parliamentary source reported in a 1993 debate that a British trawlerman was 'accidentally' killed by a solid shot fired by an Icelandic patrol boat.[91] Britain deployed a total of 22 frigates and ordered the reactivation from reserve of the Type 41 frigate HMS Jaguar and Type 61 HMS Lincoln, refitting them as specialist rammers with reinforced wooden bows. In addition to the frigates, the British also deployed a total of seven supply ships, nine tugboats and three support ships to protect its fishing trawlers, but only six to nine of the vessels were on deployment at any one time.[92] The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
was prepared to accept serious damage to its Cold War
Cold War
frigate fleet, costing millions and disabling part of its North Atlantic
North Atlantic
capacity for more than a year. HMS Yarmouth had its bow torn off, HMS Diomede had a 40 ft gash ripped through its hull and HMS Eastbourne suffered such structural damage from ramming by Icelandic gunboats that it had to be reduced to a moored operational training frigate. Iceland
Iceland
deployed four patrol vessels (V/s Óðinn, V/s Þór, V/s Týr, and V/s Ægir) and two armed trawlers (V/s Baldur and V/s Ver).[92][93] The Icelandic government tried to acquire US Asheville class gunboats and when it wayd denied by Henry Kissinger, it tried to acquire Soviet Mirka class frigates instead.

A more serious turn of events came when Iceland
Iceland
threatened closure of the NATO
NATO
base at Keflavík, which would have severely impaired NATO's ability to deny access to the Atlantic Ocean to the Soviet Union. As a result, the British government agreed to have its fishermen stay outside Iceland's 200 nmi (370 km) exclusion zone without a specific agreement. On the evening of 6 May 1976, after the outcome of the Third Cod War had already been decided, the V/s Týr
V/s Týr
was trying to cut the nets of the trawler Carlisle when Captain Gerald Plumer of HMS Falmouth ordered it rammed. The Falmouth at the speed of more than 22 knots (41 km/h) rammed the Týr, almost capsizing her. The Týr did not sink and managed to cut the nets of Carlisle, and the Falmouth rammed it again. The Týr was heavily damaged and found herself propelled by only a single screw and pursued by the tug-boat Statesman. In the dire situation, Captain Guðmundur Kjærnested gave orders to man the guns, in spite of the overwhelming superiority of firepower HMS Falmouth enjoyed, to deter any further ramming. [94] The Third Cod War
War
saw 55 ramming incidents altogether.[95] In NATO-mediated sessions,[45] an agreement was reached between Iceland
Iceland
and the UK on 1 June 1976. The British were allowed to keep 24 trawlers within the 200 nmi and fish a total of 30,000 tons.[96] While Iceland
Iceland
came closest to withdrawing from NATO
NATO
and expelling US forces in the Second Cod War, Iceland
Iceland
actually took the most serious action in all of the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
in the Third Cod War
War
by ending diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 19 February 1976.[3] Although Icelandic government was firmly pro-Western, the government linked Iceland's NATO
NATO
membership with the outcomes of the fishery dispute. If a favorable outcome could not be reached, Iceland
Iceland
impied that it would withdraw from NATO. However, the government never explicitly linked the US Defence Agreement to the outcome of the dispute.[3] Results[edit] Iceland
Iceland
achieved its overall aims. As a result, the already-declining British fisheries were hit hard by being excluded from their prime fishing grounds[97] and the economies of the large northern fishing ports in the United Kingdom, such as Grimsby, Hull, and Fleetwood, were severely affected, with thousands of skilled fishermen and people in related trades being put out of work.[98] The cost for repairing the damaged Royal Navy
Royal Navy
frigates was probably over £1 million.[99] In 2012, the British government offered a multimillion-pound compensation deal and apology to fishermen who lost their livelihoods in the 1970s. More than 35 years after the workers lost their jobs, the £1,000 compensation offered to 2,500 fisherman was criticised for being insufficient and excessively delayed.[100] Scholarship[edit] A 2016 review article finds that the underlying drivers behind the desire to extend fishery limits were economic and legal for Iceland, but they were economic and strategic for the United Kingdom.[4] It, however, argues that "these underlying causes account for the tensions but are not enough to explain why bargaining failure occurred".[4] After all, the outbreak of each Cod War
War
was costly and risky for both sides. Several factors are mentioned to explain why bargaining failure occurred.[4] Ttyhe nature of nationalism and party competition for Iceland
Iceland
and pressure from the trawling industry for Britain are reasons that both sides took actions that were of noticeable risk to their broader security interests. Interdepartmental competition and unilateral behaviour by individual diplomats were also factors, with the British Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries influencing the British government's decision 'more than the Foreign Office'.[4] A 2017 study argues that both a combination of powerful domestic pressures on statesmen to escalate and miscalculation by those statesmen contributed to the outbreak of the Cod Wars.[11] The study argues that Iceland
Iceland
won each of the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
because Icelandic statesmen were too greatly constrained by domestic politics to offer compromises to the British, but British statesmen were not as constrained by public opinion at home.[11] Lessons drawn for international relations[edit] International relations scholars such as Robert Keohane, Joseph Nye, Hans Morgenthau, Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
and Ned Lebow have written on the Cod Wars.[4] The 2016 review article finds that lessons from the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
have most commonly been applied to liberal and realist international relations theory and theories on asymmetric bargaining.[4] It claims that the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
are widely seen as inconsistent with the precepts of the liberal peace, since democracy, trade and institutions are supposed to pacify interstate behavior.[4] The Cod Wars
Cod Wars
are also held up as an example of the decreasing salience of hard power in international relations, with implications for realist theory which emphasizes the importance of hard power.[4] Theorists on asymmetric bargaining have emphasized how Iceland, lacking structural power, can still have an issue power advantage, with its greater commitment to the cause.[4] A 2017 study argues that the occurrence of the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
is inconsistent with liberal international relations theory, including the democratic peace thesis, as the "supposedly pacifying factors of the liberal peace – democracy, trade and institutional ties – effectively made the disputes more contentious".[12] Legacy[edit] The Cod Wars
Cod Wars
are often mentioned in Icelandic and British newsreporting when either state is involved in a fishery dispute or when there are disputes of some sort between the two countries. The Cod Wars
Cod Wars
were extensively covered by media during the Icesave dispute between Iceland
Iceland
and the UK,[101][102][103][104] and in preparation for the Iceland- England
England
match at the round of 16 in Euro 2016.[105][106][107] In February 2017, the crews of two ships involved in the Cod Wars, the Hull trawler Arctic Corsair and the Icelandic patrolship Odinn, exchanged bells in a gesture of goodwill and sign of friendship between the cities of Hull and Reykjavík. The event was part of a project by Hull Museums on the history between Iceland
Iceland
and the United Kingdom during and after the Cod Wars.[108] See also[edit]

The Turbot War British naval history Lobster War Iceland– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations International waters 1993 Cherbourg incident

References[edit]

^ The Icelandic Coast Guard's name in Icelandic directly translates to "Territorial waters Guard". ^ a b Habeeb, William (1988). "6". Power and Tactics in International Negotiations: How Weak Nations Bargain with Strong Nations. Johns Hopkins University Press.  ^ a b c d e f g Guðmundsson, Guðmundur J. (2006). "The Cod and the Cold War". Scandinavian Journal of History.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Steinsson, Sverrir (2016-03-22). "The Cod Wars: a re-analysis". European Security. 0 (0): 1–20. doi:10.1080/09662839.2016.1160376. ISSN 0966-2839.  ^ Ledger, John (21 December 2015). "How the Cod War
War
of 40 years ago left a Yorkshire community devastated". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 13 January 2016.  ^ Thór, Jón Th. (1995). British Trawlers and Iceland
Iceland
1919–1976. University of Gothenburg. p. 182.  ^ Hellmann, Gunther; Herborth, Benjamin (2008-07-01). "Fishing in the mild West: democratic peace and militarised interstate disputes in the transatlantic community". Review of International Studies. 34 (03): 481–506. doi:10.1017/S0260210508008139. ISSN 1469-9044.  ^ Ireland, Michael J.; Gartner, Scott Sigmund (2001-10-01). "Time to Fight: Government Type and Conflict Initiation in Parliamentary Systems". The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 45 (5): 547–568. JSTOR 3176313.  ^ Prins, Brandon C.; Sprecher, Christopher (1999-05-01). "Institutional Constraints, Political Opposition, And Interstate Dispute Escalation: Evidence from Parliamentary Systems, 1946–89". Journal of Peace Research. 36 (3): 271–287. doi:10.1177/0022343399036003002. ISSN 0022-3433.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 100.  ^ a b c d Steinsson, Sverrir. "Neoclassical Realism in the North Atlantic: Explaining Behaviors and Outcomes in the Cod Wars". Foreign Policy Analysis. doi:10.1093/fpa/orw062.  ^ a b Steinsson, Sverrir (2017-06-06). "Do liberal ties pacify? A study of the Cod Wars". Cooperation and Conflict: 0010836717712293. doi:10.1177/0010836717712293. ISSN 0010-8367.  ^ a b Þorsteinsson, Björn (1976). Tíu þorskastríð 1415–1976.  ^ Thór, Jón Th. (1995). British trawlers and Iceland: 1919–1976. p. 9.  ^ a b c d e Jóhannesson, Gudni Thorlacius (2004-11-01). "How 'cod war' came: the origins of the Anglo-Icelandic fisheries dispute, 1958–61*". Historical Research. 77 (198): 543–574. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2004.00222.x. ISSN 1468-2281.  ^ Bale, B. (2010), Memories of the: Lincolnshire Fishing Industry Berkshire: Countryside Books pg. 35 ^ Thór, Jón Th. (1995). British trawlers and Iceland: 1919–1976. pp. 48–50.  ^ Thór, Jón Th. (1995). British trawlers and Iceland: 1919–1976. pp. 68, 79.  ^ Thór, Jón Th. (1995). British trawlers and Iceland: 1919–1976. p. 87.  ^ Thór, Jón Th. (1995). British trawlers and Iceland: 1919–1976. pp. 91–107.  ^ a b c d e Jóhannnesson, Guðni Th. (2007). Troubled Waters. NAFHA.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2007). Troubled Waters. p. 104.  ^ Thorsteinsson, Pétur (1992). Utanríkisþjónusta Íslands og utanríkismál: Sögulegt Yfirlit 1. p. 440.  ^ Ingimundarson, Valur (1996). Í eldlínu kalda stríðsins. p. 288.  ^ Þorsteinsson, Björn (1983). "Þorskastríð og fjöldi þeirra". Saga.  ^ Jónsson, Björn (1981). "Tíunda þorskastríðið 1975–1976". Saga.  ^ ""Why Did the Cod Wars
Cod Wars
Occur and Why Did Iceland
Iceland
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Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1958". United Nations. Retrieved 4 November 2015.  ^ a b c "The Cod Wars". The National Archives. Retrieved 4 November 2015 ; "Icy fishing: UK and Iceland
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fish stock disputes" (PDF). House of Commons Library. 19 December 2012. p. 2. Retrieved 27 February 2016.  ^ a b c "The United Nations
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Convention on the Law of the Sea (A historical perspective)". United Nations. 1998. Retrieved 4 November 2015.  ^ a b c Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. Hafréttarstofnun Íslands. pp. 61–62.  ^ Associated people and organisations for HMS EASTBOURNE ON FISHERY PROTECTION DUTIES (Allocated Title) (accessed 20 Jan 2014); ^ Troubled Waters. Cod War, Fishing Disputes, and Britain's Fight for the Freedom of the High Seas, 1948–1964, thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the University of London by Gudni Thorlacius Jóhannesson (Queen Mary, University of London: 2004), p. 161: "...Barry Anderson, Captain of the Fishery Protection Squadron..." (accessed 20 Jan 2014); ^ Tyrone Daily Herald, 2 Sep 1958, p. 1 (OCR text; accessed 20 Jan 2014). ^ a b Magnússon, Gunnar (1959). Landhelgisbókin. Bókaútgáfan Setberg SF. p. 157.  ^ Ingimundarson, Valur (1996). Í eldlínu kalda stríðsins. p. 377.  ^ Sveinn Sæmundsson, Guðmundur skipherra Kjærnested, Örn og Örlygur. Reykjavík. 1984. p. 151. ^ Jón Björnsson, Íslensk skip. vol. III. Reykjavik. 1990 p. 8-142 ISBN 9979-1-0375-2 ^ Svipmyndir úr 70 ára sögu. Landhelgisgæsla Íslands. Reykjavík. 1996. pp. 30–31, 37–38. ISBN 9979-60-277-5 ^ Jóhannesson, Gudni Thorlacius (2004-11-01). "How 'cod war' came: the origins of the Anglo-Icelandic fisheries dispute, 1958–61*". Historical Research. 77 (198): 567–568. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2004.00222.x. ISSN 1468-2281.  ^ Jóhannesson, Gudni Thorlacius (2004-11-01). "How 'cod war' came: the origins of the Anglo-Icelandic fisheries dispute, 1958–61*". Historical Research. 77 (198): 559. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2004.00222.x. ISSN 1468-2281.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2003). "Did He Matter? The Colourful Andrew Gilchrist and the First Cod War". Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ Ingimundarson, Valur (1996). Í eldlínu kalda stríðsins. pp. 33–34.  ^ Ingimundarson, Valur (2002). Uppgjör við umheiminn. pp. 33, 36.  ^ a b c Bakaki, Zorzeta (2016-01-01). "Deconstructing Mediation: A Case Study of the Cod Wars". Negotiation Journal. 32 (1): 63–78. doi:10.1111/nejo.12147. ISSN 1571-9979.  ^ "Second United Nations
United Nations
Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1960". United Nations. Retrieved 4 November 2015.  ^ Jóhannesson, Gudni Thorlacius (2004-11-01). "How 'cod war' came: the origins of the Anglo-Icelandic fisheries dispute, 1958–61*". Historical Research. 77 (198): 573. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2004.00222.x. ISSN 1468-2281.  ^ Jóhannesson, Gudni Thorlacius (2004-11-01). "How 'cod war' came: the origins of the Anglo-Icelandic fisheries dispute, 1958–61*". Historical Research. 77 (198): 557, 562. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2004.00222.x. ISSN 1468-2281.  ^ An agreement was not reached with West Germany
West Germany
until November 26, 1975.Hart, Jeffrey A. The Anglo-Icelandic Cod War
War
of 1972–1973. 1976. P. 48.  ^ Until 7 September 1972. Hart, p. 28 ^ a b Guðmundsson, Guðmundur Hörður. 15. Annað þorskastríðið. Tímabilið 19. maí 1973 til nóvember 1973 (PDF). Short essay for history class at University of Iceland. Retrieved 15 March 2013.  ^ a b Hart, Jeffrey A. (1976). The Anglo-Icelandic Cod War
War
of 1972–1973. Berkeley: University of California. pp. 19, 24.  ^ Guðmundsson, Guðmundur J. (2000). "Þorskar í köldu stríði". Ný saga: 67–68.  ^ "Icelandic Fisheries". Commons and Lords Hansard, the Official Report of debates in Parliament. UK Parliament. 22 March 1973. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ Inimundarson, Valur (2002). Uppgjör við umheiminn. pp. 146, 162–163.  ^ Ingimundarson, Valur (2002). Uppgjör við umheiminn. p. 147.  ^ "Interview by the BBC in 1973". Youtube.com. 5 December 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ a b c Sæmundsson, Sveinn (1984). Guðmundur skipherra Kjærnested. Örn og Örlygur ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 82.  ^ Flintham, Vic (2008). High Stakes: Britain's Air Arms in Action 1945-1990. Pen and Sword. p. 347. ISBN 1844158152.  ^ a b Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 90.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 91.  ^ "1973". The Napier Chronicles. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Hart, Jeffrey A. (1976). The Anglo-Icelandic Cod War
War
of 1972–1973. p. 44.  ^ Iceland, National and University Library of. "Timarit.is". timarit.is. Retrieved 2016-02-27.  ^ a b Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 101.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 102.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. pp. 88, 94, 101.  ^ Ingimundarson, Valur (2003-12-01). "A western cold war: the crisis in Iceland's relations with Britain, the United States, and NATO, 1971–74". Diplomacy & Statecraft. 14 (4): 94–136. doi:10.1080/09592290312331295694. ISSN 0959-2296.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 89.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 103.  ^ Jessup, John E. (1998).An encyclopedic dictionary of conflict and conflict resolution, 1945–1996. Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 130. ISBN 0-313-28112-2 ^ Fishing news international, V. 14, nº 7–12. A. J. Heighway Publications., 1975 ^ a b "C S Forester H86". Hulltrawler.net. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "Commons debate, 29 July 1974". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ The Illustrated London news, V. 262, nº 2. The Illustrated London News & Sketch Ltd., 1974 ^ a b Kassebaum, David (10 April 1997). "Cod Dispute Between Iceland and the United Kingdom". Inventory of Conflict and Environment. American University. Retrieved 25 February 2016.  ^ a b "Hansard debates – 19 February 1976". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Jones, Robert (2009) Safeguarding the Nation: The Story of the Modern Royal Navy. Seaforth Publishing, p. 119. ISBN 1848320434 ^ "Third United Nations
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Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1973–1982". United Nations. Retrieved 4 November 2015.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 112.  ^ Storey, Norman, What price cod? : a tugmaster's view of the cod wars. Beverley, North Humberside. Hutton Press. c 1992. ISBN 1-872167-44-6 ^ Atli Magnússon, Í kröppum sjó : Helgi Hallvarðsson skipherra segir frá sægörpum og svaðilförum. Örn og Örlygur. [Reykjavík]. 1992. p. 204-206 ISBN 9979-55-035-X Ib. : ^ Guðni Thorlacius Jóhannesson, Þorskastríðin þrjú : saga landhelgismálsins 1948–1976, Hafréttarstofnun Íslands. Reykjavík. 2006. ISBN 9979-70-141-2 (ib.) ^ S.Crosland. Tony Crosland. Cape. London (1982) ^ Admiral Sandy Woodward. One Hundred Days. Memoirs of a Falklands Battlegroup Commander. Naval Institute Press. RI ^ S.Woodward.Memoirs of a Falklands Battlegroup Commander.(1992)RI ^ Rear Admiral. Chris Parry. Down South. A Falklands War
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Diary. Penquin (2013). London. ^ K. Threakston. British Foreign Secretaries since 1974. ^ Ships Monthly – Volume 39 – Page 35 – Endlebury Publishing Company, 2004 ^ "Tuesday 30 March 1993". hansardarchiv.es. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2015-11-10.  ^ a b Jane's fighting ships : the standard reference of the world's navies. London, [1900–]. ^ Atli Magnússon, Í kröppum sjó : Helgi Hallvarðsson skipherra segir frá sægörpum og svaðilförum. Örn og Örlygur. [Reykjavík]. 1992. p. 201-202 ^ Óttar Sveinsson, Útkall : Týr er að sökkva. Útkall. [Reykjavík] 2004. ISBN 9979-9569-6-8 (ib.) ^ " Cod Wars
Cod Wars
Britishseafishing.co.uk". britishseafishing.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-08.  ^ Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. (2006). Þorskastríðin þrjú. p. 145.  ^ Georg H. Engelhard One hundred and twenty years of change in fishing power of English North Sea
North Sea
trawlers, in Advances in fisheries science: 50 years on from Beverton and Holt (Ed.) Andy Payne, John Cotter, Ted Potter, John Wiley and Sons, 2008, ISBN 1-4051-7083-2, p. 1 doi:10.1002/9781444302653.ch1, mirror ^ Teed, Peter: The Dictionary of Twentieth Century History, 1914–1990. Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 95. ISBN 0-19-211676-2 ^ Robinson, Robb (1996). Trawling: the rise and fall of the British trawl fishery. University of Exeter Press. p. 243. ISBN 0859894800.  ^ Nick Drainey (6 April 2012). " Cod Wars
Cod Wars
payment is 'too little, too late'". The Times. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ Loftsdóttir, Kristín (2016-03-14). "Building on Iceland's 'Good Reputation': Icesave, Crisis and Affective National Identities". Ethnos. 81 (2): 338–363. doi:10.1080/00141844.2014.931327. ISSN 0014-1844.  ^ Bergmann, E. (2014-01-30). Iceland
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and the International Financial Crisis: Boom, Bust and Recovery. Springer. ISBN 9781137332004.  ^ "BBC News - Iceland
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holds referendum on Icesave repayment plan". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-09.  ^ " Iceland
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did beat England: It's time to brush up on the Cod Wars". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-05-09.  ^ "Celebrate Icelandic victory in the Cod Wars
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invoke the spirit of the Cod Wars
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Sources[edit]

Ingo Heidbrink: "Deutschlands einzige Kolonie ist das Meer" Die deutsche Hochseefischerei und die Fischereikonflikte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Hamburg (Convent Vlg) 2004. Kurlansky, Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. New York: Walker & Company, 1997 (reprint edition: Penguin, 1998). ISBN 0-8027-1326-2, ISBN 0-14-027501-0. Glantz, Michael H. (2005). Climate variability, climate change, and fisheries. Cambridge University Press. pp. 264–283. ISBN 9780521017824.  Jónsson, Hannes (1982). Friends in conflict: the Anglo-Icelandic cod wars and the Law of the Sea. C. Hurst. ISBN 0-208-02000-4

External links[edit]

Case Study – The Cod War MV Miranda Site Website of the MV Miranda, a Trawler support vessel Britain's Small Wars – The Cod War BBC Video footage from the BBC Fiskveiðideilur Íslendinga við erlendar þjóðir, by Guðni Jóhannesson (in Icelandic) BBC 'On this Day' 1973: Royal Navy
Royal Navy
moves to protect trawlers BBC 'On this Day' 1975: "Attack on British vessels heightens Cod War"

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