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Cochabamba
Cochabamba
(Aymara: Quchapampa, Quechua: Quchapanpa) is a city & municipality in central Bolivia, in a valley in the Andes
Andes
mountain range. It is the capital of the Cochabamba Department
Cochabamba Department
and is the fourth largest city in Bolivia, with a population of 630,587 according to the 2012 Bolivian census.[1] Its name is from a compound of the Quechua words qucha, meaning "lake", and pampa, "open plain".[2] Residents of the city and surrounding areas are commonly referred to as cochalas, or, more formally, cochabambinos. It is known as the "City of Eternal Spring" and "The Garden City" because of its spring-like temperatures all year round. It is also known as "La Llajta", which means "town" in Quechua.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre- Inca
Inca
and Inca 1.2 Spanish and Bolivian

2 Climate 3 People and culture 4 Government 5 Economy 6 Urban transport

6.1 Light Rail

7 Basic services 8 Media

8.1 Print media 8.2 Radio stations 8.3 Television channels

9 Education 10 Airport 11 Neighborhoods 12 Metropolitan area 13 Additional notes of interest 14 Migration 15 Notable residents 16 Twin towns-Sister cities 17 See also 18 Notes 19 References 20 External links

History[edit]

Palacio Portales built for mining magnate Simon Patiño

Sarco Templo la Merced

Exterior view of the Metropolitan Cathedral in Cochabamba.

Pre- Inca
Inca
and Inca[edit] The Cochabamba
Cochabamba
valley was inhabited for thousands of years due to its fertile productive soils and mild climate. Archaeological evidence suggests that the initial inhabitants were of indigenous ethnic groups: Tiwanaku, Tupuraya, Mojocoya, Omereque, and Inca
Inca
inhabited the valley at times before the Spanish arrived.[3] The area got its name, from Quechua Kochaj-pampa, as part of the Inca civilization. The area was conquered by Topa Inca
Inca
Yupanqui (ruled 1471-1493). His son Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
turned Cochabamba
Cochabamba
into a large production enclave or state farm to serve the Incas. Possibly depopulated during the conquest, Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
imported 14,000 people, called mitimas, to work the land. The principal crop was maize which could not be grown in much of the high and cold heartland of the Inca Empire. The maize was stored in 2,400 storehouses (qollqas) in the hills overlooking the valley or transported by llama caravan to storage sites in Paria, Cusco, of other Inca
Inca
administrative centers. Most of the maize was probably used to sustain the Inca
Inca
army during its campaigns.[4] Spanish and Bolivian[edit] The first Spanish inhabitant of the valley was Garci Ruiz de Orellana in 1542. He purchased the majority of the land from local tribal chiefs Achata and Consavana through a title registered in 1552 at the Imperial City of Potosí. The price paid was 130 pesos. His residence, known as the House of Mayorazgo, stands in the Cala Cala neighborhood. The city, called Villa de Oropesa, was founded on 2 August 1571 by order of Viceroy
Viceroy
Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa. It was to be an agricultural production centre to provide food for the mining towns of the relatively nearby Altiplano
Altiplano
region, particularly Potosí
Potosí
which became one of the largest and richest cities in the world during the 17th century — funding the vast wealth that ultimately made Spain a world power. With the silver mining industry in Potosi at its height, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
thrived during its first centuries. The city entered a period of decline during the 18th century as mining began to wane. In 1786, King Charles III of Spain
Charles III of Spain
renamed the city to the 'loyal and valiant' Villa of Cochabamba. This was done to commend the city's pivotal role in suppressing the indigenous rebellions of 1781 in Oruro by sending armed forces to Oruro to quell the uprisings. Since the late 19th century it has again been generally successful as an agricultural centre for Bolivia. The 1793 census shows that the city had a population of 22,305 persons. There were 12,980 mestizos, 6,368 Spaniards, 1,182 indigenous natives, 1,600 mulattos and 175 African slaves. In 1812, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
was the site of a riot against the Spanish Army. On May 27, thousands of women took up arms against the Spanish. According to historian Nathaniel Aguirre: "From Cochabamba, many men have fled. Not one woman. On the hillside, a great clamor. Cochabamba's plebeian women, at bay, fight from the center of a circle of fire. Surrounded by five thousand Spaniards, they resist with battered tin guns and a few arquebuses; and they fight to the last yell, whose echoes will resound throughout the long war for independence. Whenever his army weakens, General Manuel Belgrano will shout those words which never fail to restore courage and spark anger. The general will ask his vacillating soldiers: 'Are the women of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
present?"[5] To celebrate their bravery, Bolivia
Bolivia
now marks May 27 as Mother's Day.[6] In 1900, the population was 21,886. Besides a number of schools and charitable institutions, the diocese has 55 parishes, 80 churches and chapels, and 160 priests.[citation needed] In 1999 and 2000, large-scale protests reversed the privatisation of the city's water supply. In January 2007 city dwellers clashed with mostly rural protestors, leaving four dead and over 130 injured. The first democratically elected Prefect of Cochabamba, Manfred Reyes Villa, had allied himself with the leaders of Bolivia's Eastern Departments in a dispute with President Evo Morales
Evo Morales
over regional autonomy and other political issues. The protestors blockaded the highways, bridges, and main roads, having days earlier set fire to the departmental seat of government, trying to force the resignation of Reyes Villa. Citizens attacked the protestors, breaking the blockade and routing them, while the police did little to stop the violence. Further attempts by the protestors to reinstate the blockade and threaten the government were unsuccessful, but the underlying tensions have not been resolved. In July 2007, a monument erected by veterans of January's protest movement in honor of those killed and injured by government supporters was destroyed in the middle of the night, reigniting racial conflicts in the city. In August 2008, a nationwide referendum was held. The prefect of Cochabamba, Manfred Reyes Villa, was not confirmed by the voters of the department. Climate[edit] Cochabamba's famous "Eternal Spring" continues to hold sway over the hearts of true Cochalos. Neither experiencing the humid heat of Santa Cruz nor the frigid winds of La Paz, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
enjoys a semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk). At 17° south of the Equator, tropical days are balanced by the cool of mountain nights. The characteristic of the climate is an extended dry season that runs from May until October with a wet season that generally begins in November with the principal rains ending in March.

Climate
Climate
data for Cochabamba

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 35.0 (95) 30.0 (86) 30.6 (87.1) 30.0 (86) 28.9 (84) 30.0 (86) 28.3 (82.9) 30.6 (87.1) 30.6 (87.1) 32.8 (91) 31.7 (89.1) 32.8 (91) 35 (95)

Average high °C (°F) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 24.4 (75.9) 25.0 (77) 24.4 (75.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.9 (75) 25.6 (78.1) 26.1 (79) 25.6 (78.1) 25.0 (77) 24.5 (76.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 18.1 (64.6) 17.5 (63.5) 17.5 (63.5) 16.4 (61.5) 14.2 (57.6) 12.2 (54) 12.5 (54.5) 13.9 (57) 16.7 (62.1) 18.1 (64.6) 18.3 (64.9) 18.3 (64.9) 16.1 (61)

Average low °C (°F) 12.2 (54) 11.7 (53.1) 10.6 (51.1) 7.8 (46) 3.9 (39) 1.1 (34) 1.7 (35.1) 3.9 (39) 7.8 (46) 10.0 (50) 11.1 (52) 11.7 (53.1) 7.8 (46)

Record low °C (°F) 7.2 (45) 3.3 (37.9) 2.2 (36) −1.1 (30) −4.4 (24.1) −6.7 (19.9) −5.0 (23) −5.6 (21.9) −3.3 (26.1) 0.0 (32) 5.0 (41) 5.6 (42.1) −6.7 (19.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 94.0 (3.701) 68.8 (2.709) 38.4 (1.512) 12.7 (0.5) 2.3 (0.091) 1.3 (0.051) 2.5 (0.098) 7.6 (0.299) 6.1 (0.24) 20.8 (0.819) 38.1 (1.5) 70.1 (2.76) 362.7 (14.28)

Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[7]

People and culture[edit]

Historical population of Cochabamba

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1793 22,305 —    

1835 14,162 −1.08%

1854 35,800 +5.00%

1900 21,886 −1.06%

1950 74,949 +2.49%

1967 137,004 +3.61%

1992 414,307 +4.53%

2001 516,683 +2.48%

2012 630,587 +1.83%

Source: 1793, 1967;[8] 1835;[9] 1854, 1950;[10] 1900;[11] 1992;[12] 2001;[13] 2012[14]

Currently, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is among Bolivia's most economically and socially progressive cities. Commensurate with other large cities in the Andean highlands of South America, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is a city of contrasts. Its central commercial districts, bounded by Plaza Colón and Plaza 14 de Septiembre, are generally equipped with modern urban amenities and are where the majority of the city's business and commercial industries are based. An active nightlife is centered around Calle España and along the broad, tree-lined boulevard, El Prado. In contrast, the remote area adjacent to the Wilstermann International Airport
Airport
is visibly impoverished, with adobe homes and unpaved roads, which is often the first impression visitors acquire while commuting into the city. The most widely spoken language in Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is Spanish. Although the Spanish that is spoken in the Cochabamba
Cochabamba
region is generally regarded as rather conservative in its phonetics and vocabulary, a few Quechua and Aymara terminology (wawa [child], papa [potato]) have been incorporated into its standardized form. As with most cities around the globe, English language is increasingly spoken and understood, particularly among business-minded indigenous and repatriated Cochabambinos. English-language instruction has become incorporated into Bolivian education from elementary to college levels. The city's demographics consist of the following visible groups in order of prevalence: Western Hemispheric indigenous (mostly of Quechua and Aymara ethnicity), Mestizo
Mestizo
or mixed Indigenous, and a minority of white Caucasoid
Caucasoid
and mixed white (Criollos). Government[edit] Cochabamba, formally the municipality of Cercado, is the capital of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
department. The city government is divided into executive and legislative branches. The mayor of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is the head of the city government, elected by general election for a term of five years. The mayor heads an executive branch, which includes six sub-mayors and a variety of departments comprising 950 functionaries.[15] The 11-member municipal council is the legislative branch. The current mayor is José María Leyes of the Social Democrat Movement (MDS for its initials in Spanish). Economy[edit]

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The area where Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is situated is commonly referred to as the granary of Bolivia. Its climate is milder than that of the Altiplano region to the west and thus permits extensive agriculture, including grains, potatoes, and coffee in the highlands and sugar cane, cocoa beans, tobacco, and fruit in the Chapare tropical lowlands, an area that had been one of the country's main coca-leaf-producing regions.[citation needed] Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is also the industrial hub of Bolivia, producing cars, cleaning products, cosmetics, chemicals, and other items like cement. The economy of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is characterized by produce goods and services. Recently, the software industry is becoming important with one big company (Jalasoft [1]) and several small software developers. The airline Boliviana de Aviación
Boliviana de Aviación
has its headquarters in Cochabamba.[16] The defunct airline Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano
Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano
(LAB Airlines) had its management offices on the grounds of Jorge Wilstermann Airport
Airport
in Cochabamba.[17][18] In Cochabamba
Cochabamba
construction has been rapidly increasing in the last couple of years with more than 750 construction sites per year. Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is one of the main hubs for cocaine dealers in South America.[19][20][21][22] In June 2012 the Colombian newspaper El Tiempo gained access to intelligence reports that showed that cocaine cartels were the economic force behind condominiums and real estate as well as industries such as meat processing.[23] Urban transport[edit] The metropolitan area of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
(Vinto, Tiquipaya, Quillacollo, Colcapirhua, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
and Sacaba) has an extensive transportation system, which cover all the districts. There are almost 70 bus and minibus lines, from A to Z, and dozens of minibuses and taxi lines trufis. Most lines have GPS
GPS
system for monitoring and regulation of hour (line 1, line 16, line L, Line 3V, line 20, line 30, etc.). The service or commonly called T.RU.FI (taxi con ruta fija) has at least 60 lines; they are identified by signs on the roof of the vehicle showing the route from the initial stop until the final stop is also indicated line number to which it belongs. The busiest bus lines are:

Line "Q" (CBBA-QLLO) Line "W" (CBBA-QLLO) Line "3V" Line "B" (Airport) Line "K" Line "X-10" Line "36" Line "1" Line "30" Line "13" Line "Z-12" (CBBA-TIQUIPAYA)

And the busiest taxi trufi lines are:

Taxi Trufi "110" Taxi Trufi "260" (Cochabamba- Quillacollo
Quillacollo
Line) Taxi Trufi "270" (Cochabamba- Quillacollo
Quillacollo
Line) Taxi Trufi "103" (Green line and White Line) Taxi Trufi "106" ( Tiquipaya
Tiquipaya
Line) Taxi Trufi "130" (Circular) Taxi Trufi "209" (Circular) (Cochabamba- Quillacollo
Quillacollo
Line) Taxi Trufi "123" Taxi Trufi "224" ( Sacaba
Sacaba
Line) Taxi Trufi "240" ( Sacaba
Sacaba
Line) Taxi Trufi "244" ( Sacaba
Sacaba
Line) Taxi Trufi "115"

Light Rail[edit] Construction on an interurban light rail network linking Cochabamba with Suticollo, El Castillo and San Simon University began in 2017 and is due to be finished in 2020.[24] Basic services[edit] Cochabamba
Cochabamba
account generally higher quality basic services in Bolivia, except, probably SEMAPA. These companies are nationally recognized: Comteco, a company dedicated to the public telephone service to national and district levels, also has Internet service, cable TV, and many others. EMSA Municipal Sanitation Company, responsible for the pickup, transportation, storage and removed from urban waste produced. EMSA covers 88% of the city and collects 400 tonnes of waste are produced per day.[25] Through the municipal government of Cochabamba, special containers made available throughout the city for the storage of solid waste common. The municipality's sole disposal facility, the K'ara K'ara waste dump (Botadero K'ara K'ara), has been the center of a long-running controversy over pollution of the air and groundwater; it is frequently blockaded by neighboring residents demanding changes.[25] Media[edit] Cochabamba, as a department with high turnover, have established many media including: Print media[edit] There are several newspapers in Cochabamba; there is also movement of national and international newspapers, highlighting the following:

Periódico Los Tiempos Diario Opinión Periódico La Voz Editorial Canelas S.A. - Gente Semanario Gente linda

Radio stations[edit] The main radio stations scattered across the department and the capital are:

Estrella FM 93,1 Centro Ltda. Mega DJ Milenio La Voz del Juno Kancha Parlaspa Bandera Tricolor Cochabamba Gaviota Dorada Del Valle San Rafael La Voz del Valle - Punata Continental Oro Triunfo Morena Epoca La Verdad F.M.100.7 M&D Comunicaciones Universal Fantástico 97.1 Panorama FM 90.9 Punata
Punata
radio Panorama FM 88.9 FM-100 Clásica FM Stereo 98.7 – La voz de América Bethel FFM 95.5 Ritmo 97.5 La Triple Nueve 99.9 La Fabrica de la Musica 107.1 Magnal de Capinota Radios Fides Cochabamba, Punata
Punata
y Chapare CEPRA Pongo Khasa 1,390 AM Sonido Lider 95.9 FM Sonido Lider Pio XII FM 97.9 Mundial Porvenir Radio Cosmos de Bolivia CEPRA - Centro de Producción Radiofónica CEPRA - Radio Morochota Enlace Radio HIT 105.7 Radio Disney Bolivia

Television channels[edit] In the capital and throughout the department there are many television channels that broadcast on a local, provincial, national or international all day or part of it. The transmission towers that transmit channels nationally and internationally are in the high Cala Cala, Villa Moscu or Villa Taquiña.

Canal 2: Canal 2 Cochabamba
Cochabamba
Corazón de América (local) Canal 4: Red ATB (national) Canal 5: Red Bolivisión (national) Canal 7: Bolivia
Bolivia
TV (Channel of the State) Canal 9: Red Uno de Bolivia
Bolivia
(national) Canal 11: TVU (local) Canal 13: Red Unitel (national) Canal 15: Cristo Viene la Red (Religious Channel) Canal 17: sko TV (local) Canal 18: Radio Televisión Popular (RTP) (national) Canal 20: Piñami de Comunicaciones (provincial) Canal 21: Tele C (local) Canal 24: Red ADVenir Internacional (Christian Channel/International) Canal 26: Metro TV (local) Canal 27: Sistema Cristiano de Comunicaciones (local) Canal 30: 30 TV (local) Canal 36: Cadena A (national) Canal 39: Univalle TV (local) Canal 42: Red PAT (national) Canal 48: Red Unitepc (local) Canal 51: MTV Cochabamba(local) Canal 57: RTL Canal de Noticias(local)

Education[edit]

Universidad del Valle

The city is the home of the University of San Simón (UMSS, for "Universidad Mayor de San Simón"), one of the largest and most prominent public universities in Bolivia. UMSS is the second best university in Bolivia
Bolivia
according to QS World University Rankings in 2013, but measured by the webmetric scores as the first one during 2013-2017. Among the private universities in Bolivia
Bolivia
ranking between the top ten are the Universidad Privada Boliviana (a prestigious business university), Universidad del Valle (strong university in medicine with large enrollment of international students) and Universidad Católica Boliviana "San Pablo". Other well-ranked universities includes Escuela Militar de Ingenieria "Antonio Jose de Sucre", Universidad Simón I. Patiño, Universidad de Aquino Bolivia, Universidad Adventista de Bolivia, Universidad Privada Domingo Savio and Universidad Privada Abierta Latinoamericana (UPAL). Cochabamba became the second recipient city of Brazilians student in Bolivia after the city of Santa Cruz due to the affordable and good living conditions of the city. Also is the home of one of the best schools of Bolivia, Colegio San Agustín Airport[edit] Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is served by the modern Jorge Wilstermann International Airport
Airport
( IATA
IATA
code CBB), which handles domestic and international flights. It houses the headquarters of Boliviana de Aviación
Boliviana de Aviación
(BOA) Bolivia's national airline and Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano, Bolivia's former national airline. Other domestic airlines that serve the airport include Amaszonas, Ecojet, and Transportes Aéreo Militar. Neighborhoods[edit] Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is a steadily emerging market within the Bolivian real estate industry. Since 2010, it became the city with most surface area in construction in Bolivia
Bolivia
overpassing Santa Cruz and La Paz. There are many middle and large buildings under construction by 2012. An annual mild climate, abundant greenery, mountain vistas, and a progressive local economy are factors that have contributed to the city's appeal for Bolivian nationals, expatriates and foreigners alike. Historic and affluent neighbourhoods such as Cala Cala, El Mirador, and Lomas de Aranjuez showcase some of the city's most distinguished residences.

Queru Queru - North La Recoleta - North Cala Cala - North Lomas de Aranjuez - North El Mirador - North Las Brisas - North Sarco - Northwest Mayorazgo - Northwest Barrio Profesional - Northwest America Oeste - Northwest Colquiri - Northwest Muyurina - Northeast Tupuraya - Northeast

Cochabamba
Cochabamba
Valley, Dec. 1987

Hippodromo - West Villa Busch - West Temporal - North La Chimba - Southwest Aeropuerto - Southwest Ticti Norte - Fringe North Jaihuayco - South Zona sud - South Ticti - South Valle Hermoso - South

Metropolitan area[edit] The city is connected with the next towns and cities:

Quillacollo Sacaba Vinto Colcapirhua Tiquipaya Cliza Tarata Punata

Additional notes of interest[edit]

Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is also mentioned in the documentary The Corporation, about their fight against privatisation of water by a foreign-owned company. The people protested against this and won. The privatisation had gone to such an extent that even rain water was not allowed to be collected. Read Cochabamba
Cochabamba
protests of 2000. Cochabamba
Cochabamba
has been confirmed to be the seat of a future South American Parliament when it is formed by UNASUR. UNASUR
UNASUR
has yet to determine what the composition of the Parliament will be, but existing treaties all agree it will meet in Cochabamba. Cochabamba
Cochabamba
was the first place rugby union in Bolivia
Bolivia
was formally established. Cochabamba
Cochabamba
was featured as a location in the story in the 1983 film, Scarface. Powerful drug lord Alejandro Sosa resided there, governed large coca plantations and owned cocaine labs where upon further refining, would be shipped to Tony Montana in Florida. Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is the setting of the 2010 movie También la lluvia (Even the rain), which takes place during the water war of 2000. It depicts a team making a movie about the colonization of Latin America, when the protests against privatization arise. The star is Mexican actor Gael García Bernal, and the film has received good criticism. Cochabamba
Cochabamba
is also the site of several major spam operators, as confirmed by the watchdog group Spamhaus.[26]

Migration[edit] Historically, Cochabamba
Cochabamba
has been a destination for many Bolivians due to relatively improved economic opportunities and a more temperate climate. Bolivia's current President Evo Morales
Evo Morales
and ex-president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
were both Senators representing Cochabamba, although they were born in Oruro and La Paz
La Paz
respectively and immigrated to Cochabamba
Cochabamba
at the start of their political careers. After the road to the eastern city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
was completed in the 1950s, thousands of people from Cochabamba
Cochabamba
migrated to the lowlands and permanently settled. Many migrants from Cochabamba and their descendants now identify themselves as Cambas after absorbing the regional Bolivian culture of the eastern lowlands, but maintain familiar ties with relatives that remained in Cochabamba. A large population of Bolivian and Bolivian-descended residents is in the Greater Washington, D.C.-Baltimore– Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
area of United States
United States
(2005 US Census estimates 27,452 +/- 8,883 Bolivians for DC,[27] Virginia,[28] and Maryland[29]); the highest concentration is in Arlington County, Virginia. These figures may represent a census undercount of undocumented Bolivian alien residents. These combined communities have become the centre for recent and established Bolivian immigrants, most of whom are from the department and city of Cochabamba, hence, locally regarded as Little Cochabamba
Cochabamba
or Arlibamba. Little Cochabamba
Cochabamba
contains Bolivian-cuisine restaurants and the Escuela Bolivia; a school-within-a-school programme for children and adults. After to the mid-1990s, many people from Cochabamba
Cochabamba
with a low income emigrated to Bergamo, Italy
Italy
in search of work. Most of the 16,400 (2005 estimate) Bolivians in Bergamo
Bergamo
are from Cochabamba
Cochabamba
which includes both legal and work visa-expired immigrants. This migration is due to the strong relationship between the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bergamo
Bergamo
and the Archdiocese of Cochabamba. Notable residents[edit]

Business people

Simón Iturri Patiño (1862–1947), mining magnate

Educators and Intellectuals

Jaime Escalante, professor and teacher whose life was dramatized in the 1988 film Stand and Deliver Renato Prada Oropeza, professor, semiologist, writer

Musicians & singers

Edwin Arturo Castellanos Mendoza (b. 1966), musician, artist, politician, Mayor of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
(2010 - 2015 term) Katia Escalera, Soprano Gastón Paz Zegarra, (b. 1929). Most regarded Bolivian Opera singer - Baritone Jaime Laredo, (b. 1941), classical violinist Teófilo Vargas Candia (1866–1961), musician and composer,

[30] author of the Cochabamba
Cochabamba
Hymn

Los Kjarkas
Los Kjarkas
(since 1965) Cochabambino folk music group, an exemplar of Bolivian traditional music, performers and authors of the famous song "Llorando se Fue", which has been covered internationally

Literary figures

Nataniel Aguirre
Nataniel Aguirre
(1843–1888), author. Guido Ernesto Cabrerizo (1954), author and poet. Adela Zamudio
Adela Zamudio
(1874–1925), author and poet, a strong defender of women's rights Jesús Lara (1898–1975), author and poet Ramon Rocha Monroy (1950-), author, journalist Gaby Vallejo Canedo (1941), author, professor of Literature Edmundo Paz Soldán
Edmundo Paz Soldán
- author Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz
Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz
(1931–1980), author and prominent politician Javier del Granado
Javier del Granado
(1913–1996), poet laureate Julia Urquidi (1926-2010), writer, remembered as Mario Vargas Llosa's first wife Renato Prada Oropeza
Renato Prada Oropeza
(1937–2011), novelist and poet Sara Ugarte de Salamanca, poet who had the memorial built to the heroines on 1812 Óscar Únzaga de la Vega (1916–1959), journalist and historian

Activists and influential persons

Oscar Olivera (1955) Activist, was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize in 2001

Twin towns-Sister cities[edit]

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Cochabamba
Cochabamba
has cooperations with:[31]

Bergamo
Bergamo
Italy, since 2008[31] Córdoba, Argentina, since 1989[31] Nantes, France, since 1999[31] Kunming
Kunming
China, since 1990[31] Montevideo, since 2005[31] Miami, FL
Miami, FL
United States, since 1994[31] Lima, since 2005[31] Viedma, Argentina, since 2009[31]

See also[edit]

World People's Conference on Climate
Climate
Change 2000 Cochabamba
Cochabamba
protests Freternindad Folklórica y Cultural Caporales Universitarios de San Simon

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Ciudades/Comunidades/Centros poblados y Localidades Empadronadas en el Censo de Población y Vivienda 2012". Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Bolivia. Retrieved 2015-06-10.  ^ Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha pdf[page needed] ^ Voltaire, Wilson García Mérida,Red. "Huayna Capac, el inca que fundó Cochabamba, por Wilson García Mérida". voltairenet.org. Retrieved 25 March 2018.  ^ D'Altroy, Terence N. (2003), The Incas, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp 268-173; La Lone, Mary B. and La Lone, Darrell E. (1987), "The Inca
Inca
State in the Southern Highlands: State Administrative and Production Enclaves," Ethnohistory, pp. 50-51 ^ Juan de la Rosa by Nathaniel Aguirre ^ Memory of Fire Vol 2: Faces and Masks by Eduardo Galeano p.106 ^ " Bolivia
Bolivia
– Cochabamba". Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial. Retrieved 28 January 2014.  ^ "Hitos En La Producción Estadística" [Milestones in Statistical Production] (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia. 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.  ^ Zambrana 1986, p. 14 ^ Mollinedo 1974, p. 58 ^ Oficina Nacional de Inmigración 1904, p. 145 ^ "Estadisticas Sociales: Poblacion 1992" [Social Statistics Population 1992] (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadistica de Bolivia. 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014. Select COCHABAMBA in the Departamento box, CERCADO in the Provincia box, COCHABAMBA (PRIMERA) in the Seccion Muninipal box, and click Ver infomacion to verify data.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-28.  ^ http://www.censosbolivia.bo/comunitaria/comunitaria/mpComunitariaVer.aspx?Depto=03&Prov=01&Seccion=01 ^ Jordán Arandia, Oscar E. (2010-05-30). "Mi compromiso es con Cochabamba". Los Tiempos. Cochabamba. Retrieved 2010-06-02.  ^ "Contáctenos Archived 2010-02-08 at the Wayback Machine.." Boliviana de Aviación. Retrieved on February 27, 2010. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 21–27, 2000. 91. ^ "Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano's History." Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano. January 9, 2007. Retrieved on February 27, 2010. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2012-06-12.  ^ http://www.unodc.org/documents/publications/Perspectives-May08-WEB.pdf ^ Sandelson, Michael (22 October 2017). " Cochabamba
Cochabamba
cocaine smugglers convicted". theforeigner.no. Retrieved 25 March 2018.  ^ " Cochabamba
Cochabamba
Journal; A Nice Place to Live (Just Ask the Drug Barons)". New York Times. May 23, 1989.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-15. Retrieved 2012-06-12.  ^ "Empresa ejecutora del tren metropolitano en Cochabamba
Cochabamba
prevé quitar 18 t de rieles". La Razón. Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ a b "Bataderos asfixian a Cochabamba". Los Tiempos. 18 April 2010.  ^ Spamhaus Blacklist, 2015 ^ "2005 American Community Survey". US Census Bureau.  ^ "2005 American Community Survey". US Census Bureau.  ^ "2005 American Community Survey". US Census Bureau.  ^ Homenaje de Pentagrama de Recuerdo Archived 2009-03-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Convenios Internacionales" (official website) (in Spanish). Cochabamba, Bolivia: Gobierno Autónomo Municipal de Cochabamba. Archived from the original on 2015-04-04. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 

References[edit]

Mollinedo, Arthenio (1974). "Aspectos Generales de la Poblacion Boliviana" [General Aspectos of the Bolivian Population] (PDF) (in Spanish). Bolivian Catholic University—San Pablo. Retrieved 27 January 2014.  Oficina Nacional de Inmigración (1904). Censo General de la Población de la República de Bolivia
Bolivia
Según el Empadronamiento de 1e. de Septiembre de 1900 [General Census of the Population of the Republic of Bolivia
Bolivia
as the Enumeration of September 1st 1900] (in Spanish). La Paz, Bolivia: JM Gamarra. OCLC 8837699. Retrieved 28 January 2014.  Zambrana, Jorge (1986). La Urbanización de la Ciudad de Cochabamba: Examen Crítico [The Urbanization of the City of Cochabamba: Critical Review] (in Spanish). College of Architects of Bolivia. OCLC 1247798. 

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 142039

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