COCHABAMBA (Aymara : Quchapampa, Quechua : Quchapampa) is a city in
Bolivia , in a valley with the same name, in the Andes
mountain range . It is the capital of the
Cochabamba Department and is
the fourth largest city in
Bolivia , with a population of 630,587
according to the
2012 Bolivian census . Its name is from a compound
of the Quechua words qucha, meaning "lake", and pampa , "open plain ".
Residents of the city and surrounding areas are commonly referred to
as cochalas, or, more formally, cochabambinos.
It is known as the "City of Eternal Spring" and "The Garden City"
because of its spring-like temperatures all year round. It is also
known as "La Llajta", which means " town" in Quechua.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Pre-
* 1.2 Spanish and Bolivian
* 3 People and culture
* 4 Government
* 5 Economy
* 6 Urban transport
* 7 Basic services
* 8 Media
* 8.1 Print media
* 8.2 Radio stations
* 8.3 Television channels
* 9 Education
* 11 Neighborhoods
* 13 Additional notes of interest
* 14 Migration
* 15 Notable residents
* 16 Twin towns-Sister cities
* 17 See also
* 18 Notes
* 19 References
* 20 External links
Palacio Portales built for mining magnate Simon Patiño
Sarco Templo la Merced Exterior view of the Metropolitan
Cathedral in Cochabamba.
PRE-INCA AND INCA
Cochabamba valley was inhabited for thousands of years due to its
fertile productive soils and mild climate . Archaeological evidence
suggests that the initial inhabitants were of indigenous ethnic
Tiwanaku , Tupuraya, Mojocoya,
Omereque , and
the valley at times before the Spanish arrived.
The area got its name, from Quechua Kochaj-pampa, as part of the Inca
civilization . The area was conquered by Topa
Inca Yupanqui (ruled
1471-1493). His son
Huayna Capac turned
Cochabamba into a large
production enclave or state farm to serve the Incas. Possibly
depopulated during the conquest,
Huayna Capac imported 14,000 people,
called mitimas , to work the land. The principal crop was maize which
could not be grown in much of the high and cold heartland of the Inca
Empire. The maize was stored in 2,400 storehouses (qollqas ) in the
hills overlooking the valley or transported by llama caravan to
storage sites in Paria ,
Cusco , of other
Inca administrative centers.
Most of the maize was probably used to sustain the
Inca army during
SPANISH AND BOLIVIAN
The first Spanish inhabitant of the valley was Garci Ruiz de Orellana
in 1542. He purchased the majority of the land from local tribal
chiefs Achata and Consavana through a title registered in 1552 at the
Imperial City of
Potosí . The price paid was 130 pesos. His
residence, known as the House of Mayorazgo, stands in the Cala Cala
The city, called Villa de Oropesa, was founded on 2 August 1571 by
Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa
Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa . It was to be
an agricultural production centre to provide food for the mining towns
of the relatively nearby
Altiplano region, particularly
became one of the largest and richest cities in the world during the
17th century — funding the vast wealth that ultimately made Spain a
world power. With the silver mining industry in Potosi at its height,
Cochabamba thrived during its first centuries. The city entered a
period of decline during the 18th century as mining began to wane.
In 1786, King
Charles III of Spain
Charles III of Spain renamed the city to the 'loyal and
valiant' Villa of Cochabamba. This was done to commend the city's
pivotal role in suppressing the indigenous rebellions of 1781 in Oruro
by sending armed forces to Oruro to quell the uprisings. Since the
late 19th century it has again been generally successful as an
agricultural centre for Bolivia.
The 1793 census shows that the city had a population of 22,305
persons. There were 12,980 mestizos , 6,368 Spaniards, 1,182
indigenous natives, 1,600 mulattos and 175 African slaves .
In 1900, the population was 21,886.
Besides a number of schools and charitable institutions, the diocese
has 55 parishes, 80 churches and chapels, and 160 priests.
In 1999 and 2000, large-scale protests reversed the privatisation of
the city's water supply.
In January 2007 city dwellers clashed with mostly rural protestors,
leaving four dead and over 130 injured. The first democratically
elected Prefect of Cochabamba,
Manfred Reyes Villa , had allied
himself with the leaders of Bolivia's Eastern Departments in a dispute
Evo Morales over regional autonomy and other political
issues. The protestors blockaded the highways , bridges, and main
roads, having days earlier set fire to the departmental seat of
government, trying to force the resignation of Reyes Villa. Citizens
attacked the protestors, breaking the blockade and routing them, while
the police did little to stop the violence. Further attempts by the
protestors to reinstate the blockade and threaten the government were
unsuccessful, but the underlying tensions have not been resolved.
In July 2007, a monument erected by veterans of January's protest
movement in honor of those killed and injured by government supporters
was destroyed in the middle of the night, reigniting racial conflicts
in the city.
In August 2008, a nationwide referendum was held. The prefect of
Cochabamba, Manfred Reyes Villa, was not confirmed by the voters of
Cochabamba's famous "Eternal Spring" continues to hold sway over the
hearts of true Cochalos. Neither experiencing the humid heat of Santa
Cruz nor the frigid winds of
La Paz ,
Cochabamba enjoys a semi-arid
climate (Köppen : BSk). At 17° south of the Equator, tropical days
are balanced by the cool of mountain nights. The characteristic of the
climate is an extended dry season that runs from May until October
with a wet season that generally begins in November with the principal
rains ending in March.
CLIMATE DATA FOR COCHABAMBA
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial
PEOPLE AND CULTURE
HISTORICAL POPULATION OF COCHABAMBA
Source: 1793, 1967; 1835; 1854, 1950; 1900; 1992; 2001; 2012
Cochabamba is among Bolivia's most economically and
socially progressive cities. Commensurate with other large cities in
the Andean highlands of South America,
Cochabamba is a city of
contrasts. Its central commercial districts, bounded by Plaza Colón
and Plaza 14 de Septiembre, are generally equipped with modern urban
amenities and are where the majority of the city's business and
commercial industries are based. An active nightlife is centered
around Calle España and along the broad, tree-lined boulevard, El
Prado. In contrast, the remote area adjacent to the Wilstermann
Airport is visibly impoverished, with adobe homes and
unpaved roads, which is often the first impression visitors acquire
while commuting into the city.
The most widely spoken language in
Cochabamba is Spanish. Although
the Spanish that is spoken in the
Cochabamba region is generally
regarded as rather conservative in its phonetics and vocabulary, a few
Quechua and Aymara terminology (wawa , papa ) have been incorporated
into its standardized form.
As with most cities around the globe, English language is
increasingly spoken and understood, particularly among business-minded
indigenous and repatriated Cochabambinos. English-language instruction
has become incorporated into Bolivian education from elementary to
The city's racial demographics consist of the following visible
groups in order of prevalence: Western Hemispheric indigenous (mostly
of Quechua and Aymara ethnicity),
Mestizo or mixed Indigenous, and a
minority of white
Caucasoid and mixed white (Criollos ).
Cochabamba, formally the municipality of Cercado, is the capital of
Cochabamba department . The city government is divided into executive
and legislative branches. The mayor of
Cochabamba is the head of the
city government, elected by general election for a term of five years.
The mayor heads an executive branch, which includes six sub-mayors and
a variety of departments comprising 950 functionaries. The 11-member
municipal council is the legislative branch.
The current mayor is José María Leyes of the Social Democrat
Movement (MDS for its initials in Spanish).
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The area where
Cochabamba is situated is commonly referred to as the
granary of Bolivia. Its climate is milder than that of the Altiplano
region to the west and thus permits extensive agriculture, including
grains, potatoes, and coffee in the highlands and sugar cane, cocoa
beans , tobacco, and fruit in the Chapare tropical lowlands, an area
that had been one of the country's main coca -leaf-producing regions.
Cochabamba is also the industrial hub of Bolivia, producing cars ,
cleaning products, cosmetics, chemicals, and other items like cement.
The economy of
Cochabamba is characterized by produce goods and
Boliviana de Aviación
Boliviana de Aviación has its headquarters in
Cochabamba. The defunct airline
Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano (LAB Airlines)
had its management offices on the grounds of Jorge Wilstermann Airport
in Cochabamba. In
Cochabamba construction has been rapidly
increasing in the last couple of years with more than 750 construction
sites per year.
Cochabamba is one of the main hubs for cocaine dealers in South
America. In June 2012 the Colombian newspaper El Tiempo gained
access to intelligence reports that showed that cocaine cartels were
the economic force behind condominiums and real estate as well as
industries such as meat processing.
The metropolitan area of
Cochabamba (Vinto, Tiquipaya, Quillacollo,
Cochabamba and Sacaba) has an extensive transportation
system, which cover all the districts.
There are almost 70 bus and minibus lines, from A to Z, and dozens of
minibuses and taxi lines trufis. Most lines have
GPS system for
monitoring and regulation of hour (line 1, line 16, line L, Line 3V,
line 20, line 30, etc.). The service or commonly called T.RU.FI (taxi
con ruta fija) has at least 60 lines; they are identified by signs on
the roof of the vehicle showing the route from the initial stop until
the final stop is also indicated line number to which it belongs.
The busiest bus lines are:
* Line "Q" (CBBA-QLLO)
* Line "W" (CBBA-QLLO)
* Line "3V"
* Line "B" (Airport)
* Line "K"
* Line "X-10"
* Line "36"
* Line "1"
* Line "30"
* Line "13"
* Line "Z-12" (CBBA-TIQUIPAYA)
And the busiest taxi trufi lines are:
* Taxi Trufi "110"
* Taxi Trufi "260" (Cochabamba-
* Taxi Trufi "270" (Cochabamba-
* Taxi Trufi "103" (Green line and White Line)
* Taxi Trufi "106" (
* Taxi Trufi "130" (Circular)
* Taxi Trufi "209" (Circular) (Cochabamba-
* Taxi Trufi "123"
* Taxi Trufi "224" (
* Taxi Trufi "240" (
* Taxi Trufi "244" (
* Taxi Trufi "115"
Cochabamba account generally higher quality basic services in
Bolivia, except, probably SEMAPA .
These companies are nationally recognized:
Comteco , a company dedicated to the public telephone service to
national and district levels, also has Internet service, cable TV, and
EMSA Municipal Sanitation Company, responsible for the pickup,
transportation, storage and removed from urban waste produced. EMSA
covers 88% of the city and collects 400 tonnes of waste are produced
per day. Through the municipal government of Cochabamba, special
containers made available throughout the city for the storage of solid
waste common. The municipality's sole disposal facility, the K'ara
K'ara waste dump (Botadero K'ara K'ara), has been the center of a
long-running controversy over pollution of the air and groundwater; it
is frequently blockaded by neighboring residents demanding changes.
Cochabamba, as a department with high turnover, have established many
There are several newspapers in Cochabamba; there is also movement of
national and international newspapers, highlighting the following:
* Periódico Los Tiempos
* Diario Opinión
* Periódico La Voz
* Editorial Canelas S.A. - Gente
* Semanario Gente linda
The main radio stations scattered across the department and the
* Estrella FM 93,1
* Centro Ltda.
* Mega DJ
* La Voz del Juno
* Kancha Parlaspa
* Bandera Tricolor
* Gaviota Dorada
* Del Valle
* San Rafael
* La Voz del Valle - Punata
* Triunfo Morena
* La Verdad F.M.100.7
* M"> Universidad del Valle
The city is the home of the
University of San Simón (UMSS, for
"Universidad Mayor de San Simón"), one of the largest and most
prominent public universities in Bolivia. UMSS is the second best
Bolivia according to QS World University Rankings in
2013, but measured by the webmetric scores as the first one during
2013-2017. Among the private universities in
Bolivia ranking between
the top ten are the Universidad Privada Boliviana (a prestigious
business university), Universidad del Valle (strong university in
medicine with large enrollment of international students) and
Universidad Católica Boliviana "San Pablo". Other well-ranked
universities includes Escuela Militar de Ingenieria "Antonio Jose de
Sucre", Universidad Simón I. Patiño, Universidad de Aquino Bolivia,
Universidad Adventista de
Bolivia and Universidad Privada Abierta
Cochabamba became the second recipient city of
Brazilians student in
Bolivia after the city of Santa Cruz due to the
affordable and good living conditions of the city.
Cochabamba is served by the modern Jórge Wilstermann International
IATA code CBB), which handles domestic and international
flights. It houses the headquarters of
Boliviana de Aviación
Boliviana de Aviación (BOA )
Bolivia's national airline and
Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano , Bolivia's
former national airline. Other domestic airlines that serve the
airport include Amaszonas, Ecojet, and Transportes Aéreo Militar.
Cochabamba is a steadily emerging market within the Bolivian real
estate industry. Since 2010, it became the city with most surface area
in construction in
Bolivia overpassing Santa Cruz and La Paz. There
are many middle and large buildings under construction by 2012. An
annual mild climate, abundant greenery, mountain vistas, and a
progressive local economy are factors that have contributed to the
city's appeal for Bolivian nationals, expatriates and foreigners
alike. Historic and affluent neighbourhoods such as Cala Cala, El
Mirador, and Lomas de Aranjuez showcase some of the city's most
* Queru Queru - North
* La Recoleta - North
* Cala Cala - North
* Lomas de Aranjuez - North
* El Mirador - North
* Las Brisas - North
* Sarco - Northwest
* Mayorazgo - Northwest
* Barrio Profesional - Northwest
* America Oeste - Northwest
* Colquiri - Northwest
* Muyurina - Northeast
* Tupuraya - Northeast
Cochabamba Valley, Dec. 1987
* Hippodromo - West
* Villa Busch - West
* Temporal - North
* La Chimba - Southwest
* Aeropuerto - Southwest
* Ticti Norte - Fringe North
* Jaihuayco - South
* Zona sud - South
* Ticti - South
* Valle Hermoso - South
The city is connected with the next towns and cities:
ADDITIONAL NOTES OF INTEREST
Cochabamba is also mentioned in the documentary The Corporation ,
about their fight against privatisation of water by a foreign-owned
company. The people protested against this and won. The privatisation
had gone to such an extent that even rain water was not allowed to be
Cochabamba protests of 2000 .
Cochabamba has been confirmed to be the seat of a future South
American Parliament when it is formed by
UNASUR has yet to
determine what the composition of the Parliament will be, but existing
treaties all agree it will meet in Cochabamba.
Cochabamba was the first place rugby union in
Bolivia was formally
Cochabamba was featured as a location in the story in the 1983
film, Scarface . Powerful drug lord Alejandro Sosa resided there,
governed large coca plantations and owned cocaine labs where upon
further refining, would be shipped to Tony Montana in Florida.
Cochabamba is the setting of the 2010 movie También la lluvia
(Even the rain), which takes place during the water war of 2000. It
depicts a team making a movie about the colonization of Latin America,
when the protests against privatization arise. The star is Mexican
Gael García Bernal
Gael García Bernal , and the film has received good criticism.
Cochabamba is also the site of several major spam operators, as
confirmed by the watchdog group Spamhaus.
Cochabamba has been a destination for many Bolivians
due to relatively improved economic opportunities and a more temperate
climate. Bolivia's current President
Evo Morales and ex-president
Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada were both Senators representing Cochabamba,
although they were born in Oruro and
La Paz respectively and
Cochabamba at the start of their political careers.
After the road to the eastern city of
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz de la Sierra was
completed in the 1950s, thousands of people from
to the lowlands and permanently settled. Many migrants from Cochabamba
and their descendants now identify themselves as Cambas after
absorbing the regional Bolivian culture of the eastern lowlands, but
maintain familiar ties with relatives that remained in Cochabamba.
A large population of Bolivian and Bolivian-descended residents is in
the Greater Washington, D.C.-
Northern Virginia area of
United States (2005 US Census estimates 27,452 +/- 8,883 Bolivians for
DC, Virginia, and Maryland ); the highest concentration is in
Arlington County ,
Virginia . These figures may represent a census
undercount of undocumented Bolivian alien residents. These combined
communities have become the centre for recent and established Bolivian
immigrants, most of whom are from the department and city of
Cochabamba, hence, locally regarded as Little
Cochabamba or Arlibamba.
Cochabamba contains Bolivian-cuisine restaurants and the
Escuela Bolivia; a school-within-a-school programme for children and
After to the mid-1990s, many people from
Cochabamba with a low income
Italy in search of work. Most of the 16,400
(2005 estimate) Bolivians in
Bergamo are from
includes both legal and work visa-expired immigrants. This migration
is due to the strong relationship between the Roman Catholic Diocese
Bergamo and the Archdiocese of
Simón Iturri Patiño (1862–1947), mining magnate
Educators and Intellectuals
Jaime Escalante , professor and teacher whose life was dramatized
in the 1988 film
Stand and Deliver
Stand and Deliver
Renato Prada Oropeza , professor, semiologist, writer
Musicians -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;">
Bergamo Italy, since 2008
Argentina , since 1989
Nantes , France, since 1999
Kunming China, since 1990
Montevideo , since 2005
Miami, FL United States, since 1994
Lima , since 2005
Argentina , since 2009
* World People\'s Conference on
2000 Cochabamba protests
* ^ A B "Ciudades/Comunidades/Centros poblados y Localidades
Empadronadas en el Censo de Población y Vivienda 2012". Instituto
Nacional de Estadística de Bolivia. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
* ^ Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk\'ancha pdf
* ^ http://www.voltairenet.org/article120410.html
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Publishing, pp 268-173; La Lone, Mary B. and La Lone, Darrell E.
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* ^ "
Bolivia – Cochabamba". Sistema de Clasificación
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* ^ "Hitos En La Producción Estadística" (in Spanish). National
Institute of Statistics of
Bolivia . 2 November 2011. Archived from
the original on 20 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
* ^ Zambrana 1986 , p. 14
* ^ Mollinedo 1974 , p. 58
* ^ Oficina Nacional de Inmigración 1904 , p. 145
* ^ "Estadisticas Sociales: Poblacion 1992" (in Spanish).
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Provincia box, COCHABAMBA (PRIMERA) in the Seccion Muninipal box, and
click Ver infomacion to verify data.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-02.
* ^ Jordán Arandia, Oscar E. (2010-05-30). "Mi compromiso es con
Cochabamba". Los Tiempos. Cochabamba. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
* ^ "Contáctenos Archived 2010-02-08 at the
Wayback Machine .."
Boliviana de Aviación
Boliviana de Aviación . Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
* ^ "World Airline Directory."
Flight International . March
21–27, 2000. 91.
* ^ "Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano\'s History."
Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano .
January 9, 2007. Retrieved on February 27, 2010.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-09.
* ^ "
Cochabamba Journal; A Nice Place to Live (Just Ask the Drug
Barons)". New York Times. May 23, 1989.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-15.
* ^ A B "Bataderos asfixian a Cochabamba". Los Tiempos. 18 April
* ^ Spamhaus Blacklist, 2015
* ^ "2005 American Community Survey". US Census Bureau.
* ^ "2005 American Community Survey". US Census Bureau.
* ^ "2005 American Community Survey". US Census Bureau.
* ^ Homenaje de Pentagrama de Recuerdo Archived 2009-03-21 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ A B C D E F G H I "Convenios Internacionales" (official
website) (in Spanish). Cochabamba, Bolivia: Gobierno Autónomo
Municipal de Cochabamba. Archived from the original on 2015-04-04.
* Mollinedo, Arthenio (1974). "Aspectos Generales de la Poblacion
Boliviana" (PDF) (in Spanish). Bolivian Catholic University—San
Pablo. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
* Oficina Nacional de Inmigración (1904). Censo General de la
Población de la República de
Bolivia Según el Empadronamiento de
1e. de Septiembre de 1900 (in Spanish). La Paz,
Bolivia : JM Gamarra.
OCLC 8837699 . Retrieved 28 January 2014.
* Zambrana, Jorge (1986). La Urbanización de la Ciudad de
Cochabamba: Examen Crítico (in Spanish). College of Architects of
OCLC 1247798 .
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