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COCA-COLA (often referred to simply as COKE) is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
. Originally intended as a patent medicine , it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler , whose marketing tactics led Coca- Cola
Cola
to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century. The drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients, which were kola nuts (a source of caffeine ) and coca leaves. The current formula of Coca- Cola
Cola
remains a trade secret , although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published.

The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
produces concentrate , which is then sold to licensed Coca- Cola
Cola
bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce (350 ml) can contains 38 grams (1.3 oz) of sugar (usually in the form of high fructose corn syrup ). The bottlers then sell, distribute, and merchandise Coca- Cola
Cola
to retail stores, restaurants, and vending machines throughout the world. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors.

The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name. The most common of these is Diet Coke
Diet Coke
, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca- Cola
Cola
, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free , Coca- Cola
Cola
Cherry , Coca- Cola
Cola
Zero , Coca- Cola
Cola
Vanilla , and special versions with lemon , lime , and coffee. Based on Interbrand 's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca- Cola
Cola
was the world's third most valuable brand. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers downing more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 19th-century historical origins * 1.2 The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
* 1.3 Origins of bottling * 1.4 20th century * 1.5 New Coke * 1.6 21st century

* 2 Production

* 2.1 Ingredients * 2.2 Formula of natural flavorings

* 2.3 Use of stimulants in formula

* 2.3.1 Coca
Coca
– cocaine * 2.3.2 Kola nuts – caffeine

* 2.4 Franchised production model

* 3 Geographic spread

* 4 Brand portfolio

* 4.1 Logo design * 4.2 Contour bottle design * 4.3 Types * 4.4 Designer bottles

* 5 Competitors

* 6 Advertising

* 6.1 5 cents * 6.2 Holiday campaigns * 6.3 Sports sponsorship * 6.4 In mass media

* 7 Medicinal application * 8 Criticism * 9 Colombian death-squad allegations * 10 Use as political and corporate symbol * 11 Social causes * 12 See also * 13 References

* 14 Further reading

* 14.1 Primary sources

* 15 External links

HISTORY

19TH-CENTURY HISTORICAL ORIGINS

Eagle Drug and Chemical House in Columbus, Georgia John Pemberton , the original inventor of Coca- Cola
Cola
Believed to be the first coupon ever, this ticket for a free glass of Coca- Cola
Cola
was first distributed in 1888 to help promote the drink. By 1913, the company had redeemed 8.5 million tickets. This Coca-Cola advertisement from 1943 is still displayed in Minden , Louisiana. Early Coca- Cola
Cola
bottling machine at Biedenharn Museum and Gardens
Biedenharn Museum and Gardens
in Monroe , Louisiana

Confederate Colonel John Pemberton
John Pemberton
, who was wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine , began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. The prototype Coca- Cola
Cola
recipe was formulated at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus , Georgia , originally as a coca wine . He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani , a French coca wine. It is also worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-cola. The patent for this Spanish drink was bought by Coca- Cola
Cola
in 1953.

In 1885, Pemberton registered his French Wine Coca
Coca
nerve tonic. In 1886, when Atlanta
Atlanta
and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of French Wine Coca
Coca
. The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886. It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains , which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health. Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, indigestion, nerve disorders, headaches, and impotence . Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the _ Atlanta Journal _.

By 1888, three versions of Coca- Cola
Cola
– sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta
Atlanta
businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey, C.O. Mullahy, and E.H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years later asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the _name_ "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the _formula_.

Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca- Cola
Cola
Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the " Coca
Coca
Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side. Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University
Emory University
. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler specifically states: "..., on April 14, 1888, the young druggist purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an almost completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." Old German Coca- Cola
Cola
bottle opener .

The deal was actually between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton
John Pemberton
acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Walker, Candler "The Coca- Cola
Cola
Company" (the current corporation). When Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca- Cola
Cola
Company" burned in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.

After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca- Cola
Cola
in April 1888, he nevertheless was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta
Atlanta
pharmacist was quite anxious to establish a firmer legal claim to Coca-Cola, and hoped he could force his two competitors, Walker and Dozier, completely out of the business, as well.

On August 16, 1888, Dr. John Stith Pemberton suddenly died; Asa G. Candler then sought to move swiftly forward to attain his vision of taking full control of the whole Coca- Cola
Cola
operation.

Charley Pemberton, an alcoholic, was the one obstacle who unnerved Asa Candler more than anyone else. Candler is said to have quickly maneuvered to purchase the exclusive rights to the name "Coca-Cola" from Pemberton's son Charley right after Dr. Pemberton's death. One of several stories was that Candler bought the title to the name from Charley's mother for $300; approaching her at Dr. Pemberton's funeral. Eventually, Charley Pemberton was found on June 23, 1894, unconscious, with a stick of opium by his side. Ten days later, Charley died at Atlanta's Grady Hospital at the age of 40.

In Charles Howard Candler's 1950 book about his father, he stated: "On August 30th , he became sole proprietor of Coca-Cola, a fact which was stated on letterheads, invoice blanks and advertising copy."

With this action on August 30, 1888, Candler's sole control became technically all true. Candler had negotiated with Margaret Dozier and her brother Woolfolk Walker a full payment amounting to $1,000, which all agreed Candler could pay off with a series of notes over a specified time span. By May 1, 1889, Candler was now claiming full ownership of the Coca- Cola
Cola
beverage, with a total investment outlay by Candler for the drink enterprise over the years amounting to $2,300.

In 1914, Margaret Dozier, as co-owner of the original Coca-Cola Company in 1888, came forward to claim that her signature on the 1888 Coca- Cola
Cola
Company bill of sale had been forged. Subsequent analysis of certain similar transfer documents had also indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery, as well, which some accounts claim was precipitated by his son Charley.

On September 12, 1919, Coca- Cola
Cola
Co. was purchased by a group of investors for $25 million and reincorporated. The company publicly offered 500,000 shares of the company for $40 a share.

In 1986, The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
merged with two of their bottling operators (owned by JTL Corporation and BCI Holding Corporation) to form Coca- Cola
Cola
Enterprises Inc. (CCE).

In December 1991, Coca- Cola
Cola
Enterprises merged with the Johnston Coca- Cola
Cola
Bottling Group, Inc.

ORIGINS OF BOTTLING

Bottling plant of Coca- Cola
Cola
Canada
Canada
Ltd. January 8, 1941. Montreal
Montreal
, Canada
Canada
.

The first bottling of Coca- Cola
Cola
occurred in Vicksburg , Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. The proprietor of the bottling works was Joseph A. Biedenharn . The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design of 1915 now so familiar.

It was then a few years later that two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee , namely Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead , proposed the idea of bottling and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899, Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca- Cola
Cola
bottling company. Candler remained very content just selling his company's syrup. The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for The Coca-Cola Company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers. This contract specified that bottles would be sold at 5¢ each and had no fixed duration, leading to the fixed price of Coca- Cola
Cola
from 1886 to 1959 .

20TH CENTURY

The first outdoor wall advertisement that promoted the Coca-Cola drink was painted in 1894 in Cartersville, Georgia . Cola
Cola
syrup was sold as an over-the-counter dietary supplement for upset stomach. By the time of its 50th anniversary, the soft drink had reached the status of a national icon in the USA. In 1935, it was certified kosher by Atlanta
Atlanta
Rabbi Tobias Geffen , after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients. Original framed Coca-Cola artist's drawn graphic presented by The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
on July 12, 1944 to Charles Howard Candler on the occasion of Coca-Cola's "1 Billionth Gallon of Coca- Cola
Cola
Syrup." Claimed to be the first installation anywhere of the 1948 model "Boat Motor" styled Coca-Cola soda dispenser, Fleeman's Pharmacy, Atlanta, Georgia. The "Boat Motor" soda dispenser was introduced in the late 1930s and manufactured till the late 1950s. Photograph circa 1948.

The longest running commercial Coca- Cola
Cola
soda fountain anywhere was Atlanta's Fleeman's Pharmacy, which first opened its doors in 1914. Jack Fleeman took over the pharmacy from his father and ran it until 1995; closing it after 81 years. On July 12, 1944, the one-billionth gallon of Coca- Cola
Cola
syrup was manufactured by The Coca- Cola
Cola
Company. Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955.

NEW COKE

Main article: New Coke _ The Las Vegas Strip
Las Vegas Strip
World of Coca-Cola _ museum in 2003

On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with "New Coke". Follow-up taste tests revealed most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi but Coca- Cola
Cola
management was unprepared for the public's nostalgia for the old drink, leading to a backlash . The company gave in to protests and returned to a variation of the old formula using high fructose corn syrup instead of cane sugar as the main sweetener, under the name Coca- Cola
Cola
Classic, on July 10, 1985.

21ST CENTURY

On July 5, 2005, it was revealed that Coca- Cola
Cola
would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab League boycotted the company in 1968.

In April 2007, in Canada, the name "Coca- Cola
Cola
Classic" was changed back to "Coca-Cola". The word "Classic" was removed because "New Coke" was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two. The formula remained unchanged. In January 2009, Coca- Cola
Cola
stopped printing the word "Classic" on the labels of 16-US-fluid-ounce (470 ml) bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States. The change is part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product's image. The word "Classic" was removed from all Coca- Cola
Cola
products by 2011.

In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke for two months; a separate pouring rights deal in 2013 saw Coke products removed from Costco food courts in favor of Pepsi. Some Costco locations (such as the ones in Tucson, Arizona
Tucson, Arizona
) additionally sell imported Coca- Cola
Cola
from Mexico with cane sugar instead of corn syrup from separate distributors. Coca- Cola
Cola
introduced the 7.5-ounce mini-can in 2009, and on September 22, 2011, the company announced price reductions, asking retailers to sell eight-packs for $2.99. That same day, Coca- Cola
Cola
announced the 12.5-ounce bottle, to sell for 89 cents. A 16-ounce bottle has sold well at 99 cents since being re-introduced, but the price was going up to $1.19.

In 2012, Coca- Cola
Cola
resumed business in Myanmar
Myanmar
after 60 years of absence due to U.S.-imposed investment sanctions against the country. Coca-Cola's bottling plant will be located in Yangon
Yangon
and is part of the company's five-year plan and $200 million investment in Myanmar
Myanmar
. Coca- Cola
Cola
with its partners is to invest USD 5 billion in its operations in India by 2020. In 2013, it was announced that Coca-Cola Life would be introduced in Argentina
Argentina
that would contain stevia and sugar .

In August 2014 the company announced it was forming a long-term partnership with Monster Beverage , with the two forging a strategic marketing and distribution alliance, and product line swap. As part of the deal Coca- Cola
Cola
was to acquire a 16.7% stake in Monster for $2.15 billion, with an option to increase it to 25%.

In December 2016, Coca- Cola
Cola
bought many of the former SABMiller
SABMiller
's Coca- Cola
Cola
operations.

PRODUCTION

INGREDIENTS

* Carbonated water * Sugar
Sugar
(sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) depending on country of origin) * Caffeine * Phosphoric acid * Caramel color (E150d) * Natural flavorings

A typical can of Coca- Cola
Cola
(12 fl ounces/355 ml) contains 38 grams of sugar (usually in the form of HFCS), 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium, and 140 calories. On May 5, 2014, Coca- Cola
Cola
said it is working to remove a controversial ingredient, brominated vegetable oil , from all of its drinks.

FORMULA OF NATURAL FLAVORINGS

Main article: Coca- Cola
Cola
formula

The exact formula of Coca-Cola's natural flavorings (but not its other ingredients, which are listed on the side of the bottle or can) is a trade secret . The original copy of the formula was held in SunTrust Bank 's main vault in Atlanta
Atlanta
for 86 years. Its predecessor, the Trust Company, was the underwriter for the Coca- Cola
Cola
Company's initial public offering in 1919. On December 8, 2011, the original secret formula was moved from the vault at SunTrust Banks to a new vault containing the formula which will be on display for visitors to its World of Coca- Cola
Cola
museum in downtown Atlanta. Coca-Cola Museum in Atlanta, Georgia

According to Snopes, a popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula. However, several sources state that while Coca- Cola
Cola
does have a rule restricting access to only two executives, each knows the entire formula and others, in addition to the prescribed duo, have known the formulation process.

On February 11, 2011, Ira Glass said on his PRI radio show, _This American Life _, that _TAL_ staffers had found a recipe in "Everett Beal's Recipe Book", reproduced in the February 28, 1979, issue of _ The Atlanta Journal-Constitution _, that they believed was either Pemberton's original formula for Coca-Cola, or a version that he made either before or after the product hit the market in 1886. The formula basically matched the one found in Pemberton's diary. Coca-Cola archivist Phil Mooney acknowledged that the recipe "could ... be a precursor" to the formula used in the original 1886 product, but emphasized that Pemberton's original formula is not the same as the one used in the current product.

USE OF STIMULANTS IN FORMULA

An early Coca
Coca
Cola
Cola
advertisement.

When launched, Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine and caffeine . The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut , leading to the name Coca- Cola
Cola
(the "K" in Kola was replaced with a "C" for marketing purposes).

Coca
Coca
– Cocaine

Pemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup, a significant dose; in 1891, Candler claimed his formula (altered extensively from Pemberton's original) contained only a tenth of this amount. Coca- Cola
Cola
once contained an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass. (For comparison, a typical dose or "line" of cocaine is 50–75 mg. ) In 1903, it was removed.

After 1904, instead of using fresh leaves, Coca- Cola
Cola
started using "spent" leaves – the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with trace levels of cocaine. Since then, Coca- Cola
Cola
uses a cocaine-free coca leaf extract prepared at a Stepan Company plant in Maywood, New Jersey .

In the United States, the Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant, which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia. Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, the Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt , a St. Louis, Missouri , pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use.

Long after the syrup had ceased to contain any significant amount of cocaine, in the southeastern U.S., "dope" remained a common colloquialism for Coca-Cola, and "dope-wagons" were trucks that transported it.

Kola Nuts – Caffeine

Kola nuts act as a flavoring and the source of caffeine in Coca-Cola. In Britain, for example, the ingredient label states "Flavourings (Including Caffeine)." Kola nuts contain about 2.0 to 3.5% caffeine, are of bitter flavor, and are commonly used in cola soft drinks . In 1911, the U.S. government initiated _United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca- Cola
Cola
_, hoping to force Coca- Cola
Cola
to remove caffeine from its formula. The case was decided in favor of Coca-Cola. Subsequently, in 1912, the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act was amended, adding caffeine to the list of "habit-forming" and "deleterious" substances which must be listed on a product's label.

Coca- Cola
Cola
contains 34 mg of caffeine per 12 fluid ounces (9.8 mg per 100 ml).

FRANCHISED PRODUCTION MODEL

The actual production and distribution of Coca- Cola
Cola
follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca- Cola
Cola
franchises for one or more geographical areas. The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants, and food service distributors.

The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
owns minority shares in some of its largest franchises, such as Coca- Cola
Cola
Enterprises , Coca- Cola
Cola
Amatil , Coca- Cola
Cola
Hellenic Bottling Company, and Coca- Cola
Cola
FEMSA , but fully independent bottlers produce almost half of the volume sold in the world. Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes.

The bottling plant in Skopje
Skopje
, Macedonia , received the 2009 award for "Best Bottling Company".

GEOGRAPHIC SPREAD

Since it announced its intention to begin distribution in Burma
Burma
in June 2012, Coca- Cola
Cola
has been officially available in every country in the world except Cuba and North Korea. However, it is reported to be available in both countries as a grey import .

Coca- Cola
Cola
has been a point of legal discussion in the Middle East. In the early 20th century, a fatwa was created in Egypt to discuss the question of "whether Muslims were permitted to drink Coca- Cola
Cola
and Pepsi cola." The fatwa states: "According to the Muslim Hanefite, Shafi'ite, etc., the rule in Islamic law of forbidding or allowing foods and beverages is based on the presumption that such things are permitted unless it can be shown that they are forbidden on the basis of the Qur'an." The Muslim jurists stated that, unless the Qu'ran specifically prohibits the consumption of a particular product, it is permissible to consume. Another clause was discussed, whereby the same rules apply if a person is unaware of the condition or ingredients of the item in question.

BRAND PORTFOLIO

This is a list of variants of Coca- Cola
Cola
introduced around the world. In addition to the caffeine-free version of the original, additional fruit flavors have been included over the years. Not included here are versions of Diet Coke
Diet Coke
and Coca- Cola
Cola
Zero ; variant versions of those no-calorie colas can be found at their respective articles.

* CAFFEINE-FREE COCA-COLA (1983–present) – Coca- Cola
Cola
without the Caffeine. * COCA-COLA CHERRY (1985–present) – Coca- Cola
Cola
with a Cherry Flavor. Was available in Canada
Canada
starting in 1996. Called "Cherry Coca- Cola
Cola
(Cherry Coke)" in North America until 2006. * NEW COKE / COCA-COLA II (1985–2002) - A short-lived formula change, remained after the original formula returned and was later rebranded as Coca- Cola
Cola
II. * COCA-COLA WITH LEMON (2001–05) – Coca- Cola
Cola
with a Lemon flavor. Available in: Australia, American Samoa
American Samoa
, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Réunion , Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and West Bank
West Bank
-Gaza * COCA-COLA VANILLA (2002–05; 2007–present) – Coca
Coca
Cola
Cola
with a Vanilla flavor. Available in: Austria, Australia, China, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Malaysia, Slovakia, South-Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States. It was reintroduced in June 2007 by popular demand. * COCA-COLA WITH LIME (2005–present) – Coca- Cola
Cola
with a Lime flavor. Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. * COCA-COLA RASPBERRY (2005) – Coca- Cola
Cola
with a Raspberry flavor. Was only available in New Zealand. Currently available in the United States and the United Kingdom in Coca- Cola
Cola
Freestyle fountain since 2009. * COCA-COLA BLACK CHERRY VANILLA (2006–07) – Coca- Cola
Cola
with a combination of Black Cherry and Vanilla flavor. It replaced and was replaced by Vanilla Coke in June 2007. * COCA-COLA BLāK (2006–08) – Coca- Cola
Cola
with a rich coffee flavor, formula depends on country. Only available in the United States, France, Canada, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, and Lithuania * COCA-COLA CITRA (2005–present) – Coca- Cola
Cola
with a citrus flavor. Only available in Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand, and Japan. * COCA-COLA ORANGE (2007) – Coca- Cola
Cola
with an orange flavor. Was available in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar for a limited time. In Germany, Austria, and Switzerland it is sold under the label Mezzo Mix . Currently available in Coca- Cola
Cola
Freestyle fountain outlets in the United States since 2009 and in the United Kingdom since 2014. * COCA-COLA LIFE (2013–present) – A version of Coca- Cola
Cola
with stevia and sugar as sweeteners rather than just simply sugar. * COCA-COLA GINGER (2016–present) – A version that mixes in the taste of ginger beer. Only available in Australia and New Zealand.

LOGO DESIGN

The Coca- Cola
Cola
logo was created by John Pemberton's bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson , in 1885. Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo's distinctive cursive script. The writing style used, known as Spencerian script , was developed in the mid-19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period.

Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta
Atlanta
with publicity banners and streetcar signs.

CONTOUR BOTTLE DESIGN

"Coke bottle" redirects here. For the song, see Coke Bottle (song) .

The Coca- Cola
Cola
bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, was created by bottle designer Earl R. Dean . In 1915, The Coca-Cola Company launched a competition among its bottle suppliers to create a new bottle for their beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was."

Chapman J. Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana , turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T. Clyde Edwards, plant superintendent Alexander Samuelsson, and Earl R. Dean , bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Root and his subordinates decided to base the bottle's design on one of the soda's two ingredients, the coca leaf or the kola nut , but were unaware of what either ingredient looked like. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola. Instead, Dean was inspired by a picture of the gourd-shaped cocoa pod in the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned to the plant to show Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle. Root gave Dean his approval.

Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning. Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off.

Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November 1915. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts . Dean resolved this issue by decreasing the bottle's middle diameter. During the 1916 bottler's convention, Dean's contour bottle was chosen over other entries and was on the market the same year. By 1920, the contour bottle became the standard for The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
. A revised version was also patented in 1923. Because the Patent Office releases the _Patent Gazette_ on Tuesday, the bottle was patented on December 25, 1923, and was nicknamed the "Christmas bottle." Today, the contour Coca- Cola
Cola
bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet..."even in the dark!".

As a reward for his efforts, Dean was offered a choice between a $500 bonus or a lifetime job at the Root Glass Company . He chose the lifetime job and kept it until the Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought out the Root Glass Company in the mid-1930s. Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories.

One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not emigrate to the United States until 1919. Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian hooped dress .

In 1944, Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca- Cola
Cola
bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products . Traynor's concurring opinion in _Escola v. Coca- Cola
Cola
Bottling Co. _ is widely recognized as a landmark case in U.S. law today.

TYPES

*

Earl R. Dean 's original 1915 concept drawing of the contour Coca- Cola
Cola
bottle *

The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts . *

Final production version with slimmer middle section.

DESIGNER BOTTLES

Karl Lagerfeld is the latest designer to have created a collection of aluminum bottles for Coca-Cola. Lagerfeld is not the first fashion designer to create a special version of the famous Coca- Cola
Cola
Contour bottle. A number of other limited edition bottles by fashion designers for Coca- Cola
Cola
Light soda have been created in the last few years.

In 2009, in Italy, Coca- Cola
Cola
Light had a Tribute to Fashion to celebrate 100 years of the recognizable contour bottle. Well known Italian designers Alberta Ferretti, Blumarine, Etro, Fendi, Marni, Missoni, Moschino, and Versace each designed limited edition bottles.

COMPETITORS

Pepsi , the flagship product of PepsiCo , The Coca- Cola
Cola
Company's main rival in the soft drink industry, is usually second to Coke in sales, and outsells Coca- Cola
Cola
in some markets. RC Cola
Cola
, now owned by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group , the third largest soft drink manufacturer, is also widely available.

Around the world, many local brands compete with Coke. In South and Central America Kola Real
Kola Real
, known as Big Cola
Cola
in Mexico, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. On the French island of Corsica , Corsica Cola
Cola
, made by brewers of the local Pietra beer , is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. In the French region of Brittany
Brittany
, Breizh Cola
Cola
is available. In Peru, Inca Kola outsells Coca-Cola, which led The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
to purchase the brand in 1999. In Sweden, Julmust outsells Coca- Cola
Cola
during the Christmas season. In Scotland, the locally produced Irn-Bru was more popular than Coca- Cola
Cola
until 2005, when Coca- Cola
Cola
and Diet Coke
Diet Coke
began to outpace its sales. In the former East Germany , Vita Cola
Cola
, invented during Communist rule, is gaining popularity.

In India, Coca- Cola
Cola
ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up . The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
purchased Thums Up in 1993. As of 2004 , Coca- Cola
Cola
held a 60.9% market-share in India. Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, due to a United States embargo. French brand Mecca Cola
Cola
and British brand Qibla Cola
Cola
are competitors to Coca- Cola
Cola
in the Middle East.

In Turkey, Cola
Cola
Turka , in Iran and the Middle East, Zamzam Cola
Cola
and Parsi Cola
Cola
, in some parts of China, China Cola
Cola
, in Slovenia
Slovenia
, Cockta , and the inexpensive Mercator Cola, sold only in the country's biggest supermarket chain, Mercator , are some of the brand's competitors. Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a serious competitor to Coca- Cola
Cola
in many regions. Laranjada is the top-selling soft drink on Madeira
Madeira
.

ADVERTISING

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See also: Coca- Cola
Cola
slogans _ An 1890s advertisement showing model Hilda Clark in formal 19th-century attire . The ad is titled Drink Coca- Cola
Cola
5¢_ . (US). Coca- Cola
Cola
ghost sign in Fort Dodge, Iowa . Older Coca- Cola
Cola
ghosts behind Borax and telephone ads. April 2008. Coca- Cola
Cola
delivery truck of Argentina, with the slogan "Drink Coca- Cola
Cola
– delicious, refreshing".

Coca-Cola's advertising has significantly affected American culture , and it is frequently credited with inventing the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in a red-and-white suit. Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the 1930s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom , the motif was already common. Coca- Cola
Cola
was not even the first soft drink company to use the modern image of Santa Claus in its advertising: White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923, after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915. Before Santa Claus, Coca- Cola
Cola
relied on images of smartly dressed young women to sell its beverages. Coca-Cola's first such advertisement appeared in 1895, featuring the young Bostonian actress Hilda Clark as its spokeswoman.

1941 saw the first use of the nickname "Coke" as an official trademark for the product, with a series of advertisements informing consumers that "Coke means Coca-Cola". In 1971 a song from a Coca- Cola
Cola
commercial called "I\'d Like to Teach the World to Sing ", produced by Billy Davis , became a hit single . The typeface YOU 2 that was created for the "Share a Coke" campaign Coca-Cola sales booth on the Cape Verde island of Fogo in 2004. Coke advertisement in Budapest, 2013.

Coke's advertising is pervasive, as one of Woodruff 's stated goals was to ensure that everyone on Earth drank Coca- Cola
Cola
as their preferred beverage. This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta
Atlanta
, where Coke was born.

Some Coca- Cola
Cola
television commercials between 1960 through 1986 were written and produced by former Atlanta
Atlanta
radio veteran Don Naylor (WGST 1936–1950, WAGA 1951–1959) during his career as a producer for the McCann Erickson advertising agency . Many of these early television commercials for Coca- Cola
Cola
featured movie stars, sports heroes, and popular singers.

During the 1980s, Pepsi- Cola
Cola
ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, "fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke _actually_ chose the Pepsi." Statisticians pointed out the problematic nature of a 50/50 result: most likely, the taste tests showed that in blind tests, most people cannot tell the difference between Pepsi and Coke. Coca-Cola ran ads to combat Pepsi's ads in an incident sometimes referred to as the _cola wars _; one of Coke's ads compared the so-called Pepsi challenge to two chimpanzees deciding which tennis ball was furrier. Thereafter, Coca- Cola
Cola
regained its leadership in the market.

Selena was a spokesperson for Coca- Cola
Cola
from 1989 until the time of her death. She filmed three commercials for the company. During 1994, to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca- Cola
Cola
issued special Selena coke bottles.

The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
purchased Columbia Pictures
Columbia Pictures
in 1982, and began inserting Coke-product images into many of its films. After a few early successes during Coca-Cola's ownership, Columbia began to under-perform, and the studio was sold to Sony
Sony
in 1989.

Coca- Cola
Cola
has gone through a number of different advertising slogans in its long history, including "The pause that refreshes", "I'd like to buy the world a Coke", and "Coke is it".

In 2006, Coca- Cola
Cola
introduced My Coke Rewards , a customer loyalty campaign where consumers earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca- Cola
Cola
products into a website. These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries.

In Australia in 2011, Coca- Cola
Cola
began the "share a Coke" campaign, where the Coca- Cola
Cola
logo was replaced on the bottles and replaced with first names. Coca- Cola
Cola
used the 150 most popular names in Australia to print on the bottles. The campaign was paired with a website page, Facebook page, and an online "share a virtual Coke". The same campaign was introduced to Coca-Cola, Diet Coke
Diet Coke
"> A Freightliner Coca-Cola Christmas truck in Dresden
Dresden
, Germany, 2004.

The "Holidays are coming!" advertisement features a train of red delivery trucks, emblazoned with the Coca- Cola
Cola
name and decorated with Christmas lights , driving through a snowy landscape and causing everything that they pass to light up and people to watch as they pass through.

The advertisement fell into disuse in 2001, as the Coca- Cola
Cola
company restructured its advertising campaigns so that advertising around the world was produced locally in each country, rather than centrally in the company's headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2007, the company brought back the campaign after, according to the company, many consumers telephoned its information center saying that they considered it to mark the beginning of Christmas. The advertisement was created by U.S. advertising agency Doner, and has been part of the company's global advertising campaign for many years.

Keith Law, a producer and writer of commercials for Belfast
Belfast
CityBeat , was not convinced by Coca-Cola's reintroduction of the advertisement in 2007, saying that "I don't think there's anything Christmassy about HGVs and the commercial is too generic."

In 2001, singer Melanie Thornton recorded the campaign's advertising jingle as a single, _Wonderful Dream (Holidays are Coming)_, which entered the pop-music charts in Germany at no. 9. In 2005, Coca-Cola expanded the advertising campaign to radio, employing several variations of the jingle.

In 2011, Coca- Cola
Cola
launched a campaign for the Indian holiday Diwali . The campaign included commercials, a song, and an integration with Shah Rukh Khan's film _ Ra.One _.

SPORTS SPONSORSHIP

Coca- Cola
Cola
was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the 1928 games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since. This corporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta
Atlanta
, which allowed Coca- Cola
Cola
to spotlight its hometown. Most recently, Coca- Cola
Cola
has released localized commercials for the 2010 Winter Olympics
2010 Winter Olympics
in Vancouver; one Canadian commercial referred to Canada's hockey heritage and was modified after Canada
Canada
won the gold medal game on February 28, 2010 by changing the ending line of the commercial to say "Now they know whose game they're playing".

Since 1978 , Coca- Cola
Cola
has sponsored the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
, and other competitions organized by FIFA. One FIFA
FIFA
tournament trophy, the FIFA World Youth Championship from Tunisia in 1977 to Malaysia in 1997 , was called " FIFA
FIFA
Coca
Coca
Cola
Cola
Cup". In addition, Coca- Cola
Cola
sponsors the annual Coca- Cola
Cola
600 and Coke Zero 400 for the NASCAR
NASCAR
Sprint Cup Series at Charlotte Motor Speedway
Charlotte Motor Speedway
in Concord, North Carolina and Daytona International Speedway
Daytona International Speedway
in Daytona, Florida.

Coca- Cola
Cola
has a long history of sports marketing relationships, which over the years have included Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
, the National Football League , the National Basketball Association , and the National Hockey League , as well as with many teams within those leagues. Coca- Cola
Cola
has had a longtime relationship with the NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers , due in part to the now-famous 1979 television commercial featuring "Mean Joe" Greene , leading to the two opening the Coca- Cola
Cola
Great Hall at Heinz Field in 2001 and a more recent Coca- Cola
Cola
Zero commercial featuring Troy Polamalu
Troy Polamalu
.

Coca- Cola
Cola
is the official soft drink of many collegiate football teams throughout the nation, partly due to Coca- Cola
Cola
providing those schools with upgraded athletic facilities in exchange for Coca-Cola's sponsorship. This is especially prevalent at the high school level, which is more dependent on such contracts due to tighter budgets.

Coca- Cola
Cola
was one of the official sponsors of the 1996 Cricket World Cup held on the Indian subcontinent . Coca- Cola
Cola
is also one of the associate sponsor of Delhi Daredevils in Indian Premier League .

In England, Coca- Cola
Cola
was the main sponsor of The Football League between 2004 and 2010, a name given to the three professional divisions below the Premier League
Premier League
in soccer (football). In 2005, Coca- Cola
Cola
launched a competition for the 72 clubs of The Football League — it was called "Win a Player". This allowed fans to place one vote per day for their favorite club, with one entry being chosen at random earning £250,000 for the club; this was repeated in 2006. The "Win A Player" competition was very controversial, as at the end of the 2 competitions, Leeds United A.F.C. had the most votes by more than double, yet they did not win any money to spend on a new player for the club. In 2007, the competition changed to "Buy a Player". This competition allowed fans to buy a bottle of Coca- Cola
Cola
or Coca-Cola Zero and submit the code on the wrapper on the Coca- Cola
Cola
website. This code could then earn anything from 50p to £100,000 for a club of their choice. This competition was favored over the old "Win a Player" competition, as it allowed all clubs to win some money. Between 1992 and 1998, Coca- Cola
Cola
was the title sponsor of the Football League Cup (Coca- Cola
Cola
Cup), the secondary cup tournament of England.

Between 1994 and 1997, Coca- Cola
Cola
was also the title sponsor of the Scottish League Cup , renaming it the Coca- Cola
Cola
Cup like its English counterpart. From 1998 to 2001, the company were the title sponsor of the Irish League Cup in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, where it was named the Coca- Cola
Cola
League Cup.

Coca- Cola
Cola
is the presenting sponsor of the Tour Championship , the final event of the PGA Tour held each year at East Lake Golf Club in Atlanta
Atlanta
, GA.

Introduced March 1, 2010, in Canada, to celebrate the 2010 Winter Olympics , Coca- Cola
Cola
sold gold colored cans in packs of 12 355 mL (12 imp fl oz; 12 US fl oz) each, in select stores.

In 2012, Coca- Cola
Cola
(Philippines) hosted/sponsored the Coca- Cola
Cola
PBA Youngstars in the Philippines.

IN MASS MEDIA

Coca- Cola
Cola
advertised on a Volkswagen T2 in Maringá , Paraná , Brazil
Brazil
, 2012.

Coca- Cola
Cola
has been prominently featured in countless films and television programs. Since its creation, it remains as one of the most prominent elements of the popular culture . It was a major plot element in films such as _ One, Two, Three _, _The Coca- Cola
Cola
Kid _, and _ The Gods Must Be Crazy _, among many others. It provides a setting for comical corporate shenanigans in the novel _Syrup _ by Maxx Barry . In music, in the Beatles ' song, " Come Together ", the lyrics say, "He shoot Coca-Cola, he say...". The Beach Boys also referenced Coca- Cola
Cola
in their 1964 song "All Summer Long" (i.e. "'Member when you spilled Coke all over your blouse?")

The best selling artist of all time and worldwide cultural icon, Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
, promoted Coca- Cola
Cola
during his last tour of 1977 . The Coca- Cola
Cola
Company used Elvis' image to promote the product. For example, the company used a song performed by Presley, A Little Less Conversation , in a Japanese Coca- Cola
Cola
commercial.

Other artists that promoted Coca- Cola
Cola
include the Beatles , David Bowie , George Michael
George Michael
, Elton John , and Whitney Houston , who appeared in the Diet Coca- Cola
Cola
commercial, among many others.

Not all musical references to Coca- Cola
Cola
went well. A line in "Lola " by the Kinks was originally recorded as "You drink champagne and it tastes just like Coca-Cola." When the British Broadcasting Corporation refused to play the song because of the commercial reference, lead singer Ray Davies re-recorded the lyric as "it tastes just like cherry cola" to get airplay for the song.

Political cartoonist Michel Kichka satirized a famous Coca-Cola billboard in his 1982 poster "And I Love New York." On the billboard, the Coca- Cola
Cola
wave is accompanied by the words "Enjoy Coke." In Kichka's poster, the lettering and script above the Coca- Cola
Cola
wave instead read "Enjoy Cocaine."

MEDICINAL APPLICATION

Coca- Cola
Cola
is sometimes used for the treatment of gastric phytobezoars . In about 50% of cases studied, Coca- Cola
Cola
alone was found to be effective in gastric phytobezoar dissolution. Unfortunately, this treatment can result in the potential of developing small bowel obstruction in a minority of cases, necessitating surgical intervention.

CRITICISM

Main article: Criticism of Coca- Cola
Cola

Criticism of Coca- Cola
Cola
has arisen from various groups, concerning a variety of issues, including health effects , environmental issues , and business practices . The Coca- Cola
Cola
Company, its subsidiaries and products have been subject to sustained criticism by both consumer groups , leftist activists , and watchdogs , particularly since the early 2000s.

Coca- Cola
Cola
is rich in sugar, especially sucrose , which causes dental caries when consumed regularly. Besides this, the high caloric value contributes to obesity . Both are major health issues in the developed world.

COLOMBIAN DEATH-SQUAD ALLEGATIONS

In July 2001, the Coca- Cola
Cola
company was sued over its alleged use of political far-right wing death squads (the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia ) to kidnap, torture, and kill Colombian bottler workers that were linked with trade union activity. Coca- Cola
Cola
was sued in a US federal court in Miami by the Colombian food and drink union Sinaltrainal. The suit alleged that Coca- Cola
Cola
was indirectly responsible for "contracted with or otherwise directed paramilitary security forces that utilized extreme violence and murdered, tortured, unlawfully detained or otherwise silenced trade union leaders". This sparked campaigns to boycott Coca- Cola
Cola
in the UK, US, Germany, Italy, and Australia. Javier Correa, the president of Sinaltrainal, said the campaign aimed to put pressure on Coca- Cola
Cola
"to mitigate the pain and suffering" that union members had suffered.

Speaking from the Coca- Cola
Cola
company's headquarters in Atlanta, company spokesperson Rafael Fernandez Quiros said "Coca- Cola
Cola
denies any connection to any human-rights violation of this type" and added "We do not own or operate the plants".

A documentary on the controversy, titled _The Coca- Cola
Cola
Case_, was released in 2010.

USE AS POLITICAL AND CORPORATE SYMBOL

As sold in China Astronauts served Coca- Cola
Cola
from this device on the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
in 1995.

Coca- Cola
Cola
has a high degree of identification with the United States, being considered by some an "American Brand" or as an item representing America. During World War II
World War II
, this gave rise to brief production of the White Coke as a neutral brand. The drink is also often a metonym for the Coca- Cola
Cola
Company.

Coca- Cola
Cola
was introduced to China in 1927, and was very popular until 1949. When the Cultural Revolution began in 1949, the beverage was no longer imported into China, as it was perceived to be a symbol of decadent Western culture and the capitalist lifestyle. Importation and sales of the beverage resumed in 1979, after diplomatic relations between the United States and China were restored.

There are some consumer boycotts of Coca- Cola
Cola
in Arab countries due to Coke's early investment in Israel during the Arab League boycott of Israel (its competitor Pepsi stayed out of Israel). Mecca Cola
Cola
and Pepsi have been successful alternatives in the Middle East.

A Coca- Cola
Cola
fountain dispenser (officially a Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus or FGBA) was developed for use on the Space Shuttle as a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, water, and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation. FGBA-1 flew on STS-63 in 1995 and dispensed pre-mixed beverages, followed by FGBA-2 on STS-77 the next year. The latter mixed CO₂, water, and syrup to make beverages. It supplied 1.65 liters each of Coca- Cola
Cola
and Diet Coke.

SOCIAL CAUSES

In 2012, Coca- Cola
Cola
was listed as a partner of the (RED) campaign, together with other brands such as Nike , Girl , American Express , and Converse . The campaign's mission is to prevent the transmission of the HIV virus from mother to child by 2015 (the campaign's byline is "Fighting For An AIDS Free Generation").

SEE ALSO

* Food portal * Drink portal * United States portal * Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia (U.S. state)
portal * Atlanta
Atlanta
portal

* Coca- Cola
Cola
HBC AG * Coca- Cola
Cola
treatment of phytobezoars * Coca
Coca
Colla * Colalife * Fanta * List of Coca- Cola
Cola
brands * Mexican Coke * Open Cola
Cola
(drink) * Premix and postmix

REFERENCES

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Cola
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