Proposal for the no-fly zoneBoth Libyan officials and international states and organizations called for a no-fly zone over Libya in light of allegations that Muammar Gaddafi's military had conducted airstrikes against Libyan rebels in the 2011 Libyan Civil War, Libyan Civil War.
Timeline* 21 February 2011: Libyan deputy Permanent Representative to the UN Ibrahim Dabbashi called "on the UN to impose a no-fly zone on all of Tripoli to cut off all supplies of arms and mercenaries to the regime." * 23 February 2011: President of France, French President Nicolas Sarkozy pushed for the European Union (EU) to pass sanctions against Gaddafi (freezing Gaddafi family funds abroad) and demand he stop attacks against civilians. * 25 February 2011: Sarkozy said Gaddafi "must go." * 26 February 2011: United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was passed unanimously, referring the Libyan government to the International Criminal Court for gross human rights violations. It imposed an arms embargo on the country and a travel ban and assets freeze on the family of Muammar Al-Gaddafi and certain Government officials. * 28 February 2011: British Prime Minister David Cameron proposed the idea of a no-fly zone to prevent Gaddafi from "airlifting mercenaries" and "using his military aeroplanes and armoured helicopters against civilians." * 1 March 2011: The United States Senate, US Senate unanimously passed non-binding Senate resolution S.RES.85 urging the United Nations Security Council to impose a Libyan no-fly zone and encouraging Gaddafi to step down. The US had naval forces positioned off the coast of Libya, as well as forces already in the region, including the aircraft carrier . * 2 March 2011: The Governor General of Canada-Queen-in-Council, in-Council authorised, on the Advice (constitutional), advice of Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper, the deployment of the Royal Canadian Navy frigate to the Mediterranean, off the coast of Libya. Minister of National Defence (Canada), Canadian National Defence Minister Peter MacKay stated that "[w]e are there for all inevitabilities. And NATO is looking at this as well ... This is taken as a precautionary and staged measure." * 7 March 2011: United States Permanent Representative to NATO, US Ambassador to NATO Ivo Daalder announced that NATO decided to step up surveillance missions of Boeing E-3 Sentry, E-3 AWACS aircraft to twenty-four hours a day. On the same day, it was reported that an anonymous UN diplomat confirmed to Agence France Presse that France and Britain were drawing up a resolution on the no-fly zone that would be considered by the UN Security Council during the same week. The Gulf Cooperation Council also on that day called upon the UN Security Council to "take all necessary measures to protect civilians, including enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya." * 9 March 2011: The head of the Libyan National Transitional Council, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, "pleaded for the international community to move quickly to impose a no-fly zone over Libya, declaring that any delay would result in more casualties." Three days later, he stated that if pro-Gaddafi forces reached Benghazi, then they would kill "half a million" people. He stated, "If there is no no-fly zone imposed on Gaddafi's regime, and his ships are not checked, we will have a catastrophe in Libya." * 10 March 2011: France recognized the Libyan NTC as the legitimate government of Libya soon after Sarkozy met with them in Paris. This meeting was arranged by Bernard-Henri Lévy. * 12 March 2011: The Arab League "called on the United Nations Security Council to impose a no-fly zone over Libya in a bid to protect civilians from air attack." The Arab League's request was announced by Foreign Minister of Oman, Omani Foreign Minister Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah, who stated that all member states present at the meeting agreed with the proposal. On 12 March, thousands of Libyan women marched in the streets of the rebel-held town of Benghazi, calling for the imposition of a no-fly zone over Libya. * 14 March 2011: In Paris at the Élysée Palace, before the summit with the G8 Minister for Foreign Affairs, Sarkozy, who is also the president of the G8, along with Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (France), French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé met with US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and pressed her to push for intervention in Libya. * 15 March 2011: A resolution for a no-fly zone was proposed by Nawaf Salam, Lebanon's Ambassador to the UN. The resolution was immediately backed by France and the United Kingdom. * 17 March 2011: The UN Security Council, acting under the authority of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, UN Charter, approved a no-fly zone by a vote of ten in favour, zero against, and five abstentions, via United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. The five abstentions were: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and Germany. Less than twenty-four hours later, Libya announced that it would halt all military operations in response to the UN Security Council resolution. * 18 March 2011: The Libyan foreign minister, Moussa Koussa, said that he had declared a ceasefire, attributing the UN resolution. However, artillery shelling on Misrata and Ajdabiya continued, and government soldiers continued approaching Benghazi. Government troops and tanks entered the city on 19 March. Artillery and mortars were also fired into the city. * 18 March 2011: U.S. President Barack Obama orders military air strikes against Muammar Gaddafi's forces in Libya in his address to the nation from the White House. US President Obama later held a meeting with eighteen senior lawmakers at the White House on the afternoon of 18 March * 19 March 2011: French forces began the military intervention in Libya, later joined by coalition forces with strikes against armoured units south of Benghazi and attacks on Libyan air-defence systems, as UN Security Council Resolution 1973 called for using "all necessary means" to protect civilians and civilian-populated areas from attack, imposed a no-fly zone, and called for an immediate and with-standing cease-fire, while also strengthening travel bans on members of the regime, arms embargoes, and asset freezes. * 21 March 2011: Obama sent a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate. * 24 March 2011: In telephone negotiations, French foreign minister Alain Juppé agreed to let NATO take over all military operations on 29 March at the latest, allowing Turkey to veto strikes on Gaddafi ground forces from that point forward. Later reports stated that NATO would take over enforcement of the no-fly zone and the arms embargo, but discussions were still under way about whether NATO would take over the protection of civilians mission. Turkey reportedly wanted the power to veto airstrikes, while France wanted to prevent Turkey from having such a veto. * 25 March 2011: NATO Allied Joint Force Command in Naples took command of the no-fly zone over Libya and combined it with the ongoing arms embargo operation under the name Operation Unified Protector. * 26 March 2011: Obama addressed the nation from the White House, providing an update on the current state of the military intervention in Libya. * 28 March 2011: Obama addressed the American people on the rational for U.S. military intervention with NATO forces in Libya at the National Defense University. * 20 October 2011: When Hillary Clinton learned of the possible war crime and resulting death of Muammar Gaddafi she was covered to have said: "We came, we saw, he died" in paraphrasing the famous quote of the Roman imperator Julius Caesar veni, vidi, vici.
EnforcementInitial planning for a possible no-fly zone took place in late February and early March, especially by NATO members France and the United Kingdom. France and the UK were early supporters of a no-fly zone and had sufficient airpower to impose a no-fly zone over the rebel-held areas, although they might need additional assistance for a more extensive exclusion zone. The US had the air assets necessary to enforce a no-fly zone, but was cautious about supporting such an action prior to obtaining a legal basis for violating Libya's sovereignty. Furthermore, due to the sensitive nature of military action by the US against an Arab nation, the US sought Arab participation in the enforcement of a no-fly zone. At a congressional hearing, United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates explained that "a no-fly zone begins with an attack on Libya to destroy the air defences ... and then you can fly planes around the country and not worry about our guys being shot down. But that's the way it starts." On 19 March, the deployment of French fighter jets over Libya began, and other states began their individual operations. Phase One started the same day with the involvement of the United States, United Kingdom, France, Italy and Canada. On 24 March, NATO ambassadors agreed that NATO would take command of the no-fly zone enforcement, while other military operations remained the responsibility of the group of states previously involved, with NATO expected to take control as early as 26 March. The decision was made after meetings of NATO members to resolve disagreements over whether military operations in Libya should include attacks on ground forces. The decision created a two-level power structure overseeing military operations. In charge politically was a committee, led by NATO, that included all states participating in enforcing the no-fly zone, while NATO alone was responsible for military action. Royal Canadian Air Force Lieutenant-General Charles Bouchard has been appointed to command the NATO military mission. After the death of Muammar Gaddafi on 20 October 2011, it was announced that the NATO mission would end on 31 October.
Operation names* NATO: Operation Unified Protector Before NATO took full command of operations at 06:00 GMT on 31 March 2011, the military intervention in the form of a no-fly zone and naval blockade was split between different national operations: * France: Opération Harmattan * United Kingdom: Operation Ellamy * Canada: Operation Mobile * United States: Operation Odyssey Dawn – Belgium, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Qatar, Spain, Greece and the United Arab Emirates placed their national contributions under U.S. command
Forces committedThese are the forces committed in alphabetical order. * Belgium: Six General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter jets of the Belgian Air Component, were already stationed at Araxos, Greece for an exercise, and flew their first mission in the afternoon of 21 March. They monitored the no-fly zone throughout the operation and have successfully attacked ground targets multiple times since 27 March, all of them without collateral damage. The Belgian Naval Component minehunter was part of NATO's Standing NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 1, SNMCMG1 at the start of the operation and assisted in NATO's naval blockade from 23 March. The ship was later replaced by the minehunter in August. * Bulgaria: The Bulgarian Navy participated in the naval blockade, along with a number of "special naval forces", two medical teams and other humanitarian help. The frigate left port on 27 April and arrived off the coast of Libya on 2 May. It patrolled for one month before returning to Bulgaria, with a supply stop at the Greek port of Souda. * Canada: The deployed seven (six front line, one reserve) McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet, CF-18 fighter jets, two Airbus CC-150 Polaris, CC-150 Polaris refueling airplanes, two CC-177 Globemaster III heavy transports, two Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules, CC-130J Super Hercules tactical transports, and two Lockheed CP-140 Aurora, CP-140 Aurora maritime patrol aircraft. The Royal Canadian Navy deployed the s and . A total of 440 Canadian Forces personnel participated in Operation Mobile. There were reports that special operations were being conducted by Joint Task Force 2 in association with Britain's Special Air Service (SAS) and Special Boat Service (SBS) as part of Canada's contribution. * Denmark: The Royal Danish Air Force participated with six F-16AM fighters, one Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules, C-130J-30 Super Hercules military transport plane and the corresponding ground crews. Only four F-16s were used for offensive operations, while the remaining two acted as reserves. The first mission by Danish aircraft was flown on 20 March and the first strikes were carried out on 23 March, with four aircraft making twelve sorties as part of Operation Odyssey Dawn. Danish F-16s flew a total of 43 missions dropping 107 precision bombs during Odyssey Dawn before switching to NATO command under Unified Protector Danish flights bombed approximately 17% of all targets in Libya and together with Norwegian flights proved to be the most efficient in proportion to the number of flights involved. Danish F-16s flew the last fast-jet mission of Operation Unified Protector on 31 October 2011 finishing with a total of 599 missions flown and 923 precision bombs dropped during the entire Libya intervention. * France: French Air Force, which flew the highest percentage of NATO's strikes (35%), participated in the mission with 18 Dassault Mirage 2000, Mirage, 19 Dassault Rafale, Rafale, 6 Mirage F1, 6 Super Etendard, 2 E-2 Hawkeye, 3 Eurocopter Tiger, 16 Aérospatiale Gazelle aircraft. In addition, the French Navy anti-air destroyer and the frigate participated in the operations. On 22 March, the aircraft carrier arrived in international waters near Crete to provide military planners with a rapid-response air combat capability. Accompanying ''Charles de Gaulle'' were the frigates , , the fleet replenishment tanker , and one nuclear attack submarine. France did station three Mirage 2000-5 aircraft and 6 Mirage 2000D at Souda Bay, Crete. France also sent an amphibious assault helicopter carrier, the (relieved on July 14h by Mistral-class amphibious assault ship, Mistral), carrying 19 rotorcraft to operate off the coast of Libya. French Air Force and Navy flew 5 600 sorties (3100 CAS, 1200 reconnaissance, 400 air superiority, 340 air control, 580 air refueling) and delivered 1205 precision guided munitions (950 LGB and 225 AASM « hammer » missile, 15 SCALP missiles). Helicopters forces from Army Aviation aboard Tonnerre and Mistral LHD performed 41 nights raids / 316 sorties, destroyed 450 military objectives. The ammunition delivered were 432 Hot Missiles, 1500 68-mm rockets and 13 500 20- and 30-mm shell) by Gazelle and Tigre helicopters. French Navy provided Naval gunfire support and fired 3000 76- and 100-mm shells on (Jean Bart, Lafayette, Forbin, Chevalier Paul destroyers). * Greece: The of the Hellenic Navy was deployed to the waters off Libya as part of the Operation Unified Protector, naval blockade. The Hellenic Air Force provided Eurocopter AS332 Super Puma, Super Puma search-and-rescue helicopters and few Embraer R-99, Embraer 145 AEW&C airborne radar planes. * Italy: At the beginning of the operation, as a contribution to enforce the no-fly zone, the Italian government committed four Panavia Tornado, Tornado ECRs of the Italian Air Force in Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses, SEAD operations, supported by two Tornado IDS variants in an air-to-air refueling role and four F-16 ADF fighters as escort. After the transfer of authority to NATO and the decision to participate in strike air-ground operations, the Italian government increased the Italian contribution by adding four Italian Navy AV-8B plus (from Italian aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi), four Italian Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon, Eurofighters, and four Panavia Tornado, Tornado IDSs under NATO command. Other assets under national command participated in air patrolling and air refueling missions. As of 24 March, the Italian Navy was engaged in Operation Unified Protector with the light aircraft carrier , the and the auxiliary ship . Additionally, the and ''Maestrale''-class frigate were patrolling off the Sicily, Sicilian coast in an air-defence role. At a later stage, Italy increased its contribution to the NATO led mission by doubling the number of AV-8B Harriers and deploying an undisclosed number of AMX International AMX, AMX fighter-bombers and Lockheed Martin KC-130, KC-130J and Boeing KC-767, KC-767A tanker planes. The Italian Air Force also deployed its General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper, MQ-9A Reaper UAVs for real time video reconnaissance. * Jordan: Six Royal Jordanian Air Force fighter jets landed at a coalition airbase in Europe on 4 April to provide "logistical support" and act as an escort for Jordanian transport aircraft using the humanitarian corridor to deliver aid and supplies to National Transitional Council, opposition-held Cyrenaica, according to Foreign Minister Nasser Judeh. He did not specify the type of aircraft or what specific roles they may be called upon to perform, though he said they were not intended for combat. * NATO: Boeing E-3 Sentry, E-3 airborne early warning and control (AWACS) aircraft operated by NATO and crewed by member states help monitor airspace over the Mediterranean and in Libya. * Netherlands: The Royal Netherlands Air Force provided six F-16AM fighters and a McDonnell Douglas KC-10 Extender, KDC-10 refueling plane. These aircraft were stationed at the Decimomannu Air Base on Sardinia. The four F-16s were flying patrols over Libya, while the other two were being kept in reserve. Additionally, the Royal Netherlands Navy deployed the to assist in enforcing the weapons embargo. * Norway: The Royal Norwegian Air Force deployed six F-16AM fighters to Souda Bay Air Base with corresponding ground crews. On 24 March, the Norwegian F-16s were assigned to the US North African command and Operation Odyssey Dawn. It was also reported that Norwegian fighters along with Danish fighters had bombed the most targets in Libya in proportion to the number of planes involved. On 24 June, the number of fighters deployed was reduced from six to four. The Norwegian participation in the military efforts against the Libyan government came to an end in late July 2011, by which time Norwegian aircraft had dropped 588 bombs and carried out 615 of the 6493 NATO missions between 31 March and 1 August (not including 19 bombs dropped and 32 missions carried out under operation Odyssey Dawn). 75% of the missions performed by the Royal Norwegian Air Force was so called SCAR (Strike Coordination and Reconnaissance) missions. US military sources confirmed that on the night of 25 April, two F-16s from the Royal Norwegian Air Force bombed the residence of Gaddafi inside Tripoli. * Qatar: The Qatar Armed Forces contributed with six Dassault Mirage 2000, Mirage 2000-5EDA fighter jets and two C-17 strategic transport aircraft to coalition no-fly zone enforcement efforts. The Qatari aircraft were stationed in Crete. At later stages in the Operation, Qatari Special Forces had been assisting in operations, including the training of the Tripoli Brigade and rebel forces in Benghazi and the Nafusa mountains. Qatar also brought small groups of Libyans to Qatar for small-unit leadership training in preparation for the rebel advance on Tripoli in August. * Romania: The Romanian Naval Forces participated in the naval blockade with the frigate . * Spain: The Spanish Armed Forces participated with six McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, F-18 fighter aircraft, fighters, two Boeing 707, Boeing 707-331B(KC) tanker aircraft, the , the submarine and two CASA/IPTN CN-235, CN-235 MPA maritime surveillance plane. Spain participated in air control and maritime surveillance missions to prevent the inflow of arms to the Libyan regime. Spain also made available to NATO the Spanish air base at Rota. * Sweden: The Swedish Air Force committed eight Saab JAS 39 Gripen, JAS 39 Gripen jets for the international air campaign after being asked by NATO to take part in the operations on 28 March. Sweden also sent a Saab 340 AEW&C for airborne early warning and control and a C-130 Hercules for aerial refueling. Sweden was the only country neither a member of NATO nor the Arab League to participate in the no-fly zone. * Turkey: The Turkish Navy participated by sending the s, TCG ''Yildirim'' & TCG ''Orucreis'', the s, TCG ''Gemlik'' & TCG ''Giresun'', the tanker TCG ''Akar'', and the submarine TCG ''Yildiray''. in the NATO-led naval blockade to enforce the arms embargo. It also provided six F-16 Fighting Falcon jets for aerial operations. On 24 March, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Turkey's parliament approved Turkish participation in military operations in Libya, including enforcing the no-fly zone in Libya. * United Arab Emirates: On 24 March, the United Arab Emirates Air Force sent six General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-16 Fighting Falcon and six Dassault Mirage 2000, Mirage 2000 fighter jets to join the mission. This was also the first combat deployment of the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon variants#F-16E/F, Desert Falcon variant of F-16, which is the most sophisticated F-16 variant. The planes were based at the Italian Decimomannu Air Base, Decimomannu air base on Sardinia. * United Kingdom: The United Kingdom deployed the Royal Navy frigates and , nuclear attack submarines and , the destroyer and the mine countermeasure vessel . The participated with 16 Panavia Tornado, Tornado and 10 Eurofighter Typhoon, Typhoon fighters operating initially from Great Britain, but later forward deployed to the Italian base at Gioia del Colle Air Base, Gioia del Colle. Nimrod R1 and Sentinel R1 surveillance aircraft were forward deployed to RAF Akrotiri in support of the action. In addition the RAF deployed a number of other support aircraft such as the Boeing E-3 Sentry, Sentry AEW.1 Airborne early warning and control, AWACS aircraft and Vickers VC10, VC10 air-to-air refueling tankers. According to anonymous sources, members of the SAS, SBS and Special Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR) helped to coordinate the air strikes on the ground in Libya. On 27 May, the UK deployed four UK AgustaWestland Apache, Apache helicopters on board . * United States: The United States deployed a naval force of 11 ships, including the amphibious assault ship , the amphibious transport dock , the guided-missile destroyers and , the Nuclear submarine#United States Navy, nuclear attack submarines and , the cruise missile submarine and the amphibious command ship . Additionally, Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, A-10 ground-attack aircraft, two Rockwell B-1 Lancer, B-1B bombers, three Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit stealth bombers, McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II, AV-8B Harrier II jump-jets, Boeing EA-18G Growler, EA-18G Growler electronic warfare aircraft, P-3 Orions, and both McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle and F-16 fighter aircraft, fighters were involved in action over Libya. Lockheed U-2, U-2 reconnaissance aircraft were stationed on Cyprus. On 18 March, two Lockheed AC-130, AC-130Us arrived at RAF Mildenhall as well as additional tanker aircraft. On 24 March 2 E-8Cs operated from Naval Station Rota Spain, which indicated an increase of ground attacks. An undisclosed number of CIA operatives were said to be in Libya to gather intelligence for airstrikes and make contacts with rebels. The US also used MQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicle, UAVs to strike targets in Libya on 23 April.
Bases committed* France: Saint-Dizier – Robinson Air Base, Saint-Dizier, Dijon Air Base, Dijon, Nancy – Ochey Air Base, Nancy, Istres-Le Tubé Air Base, Istres, Solenzara Air Base, Solenzara, Avord Air Base, Avord * Greece: Souda Bay#Souda Air Base, Souda, Aktion National Airport, Aktion, Araxos Airport, Araxos, and Andravida Air Base, Andravida * Italy: Amendola, Decimomannu Air Base, Decimomannu, Gioia del Colle Air Base, Gioia del Colle, Trapani-Birgi Airport, Trapani, Pantelleria Airport, Pantelleria, Capodichino * Spain: Naval Station Rota Spain, Rota, Morón Air Base, Morón, Torrejón Air Base, Torrejón * Turkey: Incirlik Air Base, Incirlik, Izmir Air Base, İzmir * United Kingdom: RAF Akrotiri, RAF Marham, RAF Waddington, RAF Leuchars, RAF Brize Norton, Aviano Air Base, Aviano (IT) * United States: Aviano Air Base, Aviano (IT), RAF Lakenheath (UK), RAF Mildenhall (UK), Naval Air Station Sigonella, Sigonella (IT), Spangdahlem Air Base, Spangdahlem (GE), Ellsworth AFB (US)
Actions by other states* Albania: Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha said that Albania is ready to help. Prime Minister Berisha supported the decision of the coalition to protect civilians from the Libyan regime of Gaddafi. Berisha also offered assistance to facilitate the international coalition actions. In a press release of the Prime Ministry, these operations are considered entirely legitimate, having as main objective the protection of freedoms and universal rights that Libyans deserve. On 29 March, Foreign Minister Edmond Haxhinasto said Albania would open its airspace and territorial waters to coalition forces and said its seaports and airports were at the coalition's disposal upon request. Haxhinasto also suggested that Albania could make a "humanitarian" contribution to international efforts. In mid-April, the ''International Business Times'' listed Albania alongside several other NATO member states, including Romania and Turkey, that have made "modest" contributions to the military effort, although it did not go into detail. * Australia: Prime Minister Julia Gillard and others in her Australian Labor Party, Labor government have said Australia will not contribute militarily to enforcement of the UN mandate despite registering strong support for its implementation, but the opposition Australian Liberal Party, Liberal Party's defence spokesman has called upon the government to consider dispatching Australian military assets if requested by . Defence Minister Stephen Smith (Australian politician), Stephen Smith said the government would be willing to send C-17 Globemaster heavy transport planes for use in international operations "as part of a humanitarian contribution", if needed. Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd described Australia as the "third largest [humanitarian contributor to Libya] globally after the United States and the European Union" on 27 April, after a humanitarian aid ship funded by the Australian government docked in Misurata. * Croatia: President Ivo Josipović said that if it becomes necessary Croatia will honour its NATO membership and participate in the actions in Libya. He also stressed that while Croatia is ready for military participation according to its capabilities, it will mostly endeavor to help on the humanitarian side. On 29 April, the government announced it planned to send two Croatian Army officers to assist with Operation Unified Protector pending formal presidential and parliamentary approval. * Cyprus: After the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, President Demetris Christofias asked the British government not to use its military base at Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Akrotiri, an British overseas territory, overseas territory of the United Kingdom on the island of Cyprus, in support of the intervention, though this request had no legal weight as Nicosia cannot legally bar the United Kingdom from using the base. The Cypriot government reluctantly allowed Qatar Emiri Air Force fighter jets and a transport plane to refuel at Larnaca International Airport on 22 March after their pilots declared a fuel emergency while in transit to Crete for participation in international military operations. * Estonia: Foreign Minister Urmas Paet said on 18 March that his country has no current plans to join in military operations in Libya, but it would be willing to participate if called upon to do so by NATO or the European Union. The Estonian Air Force does not presently operate any fighter aircraft, though it does operate a few helicopters and transport planes. * European Union: Finnish foreign minister Alexander Stubb announced that the proposed #Proposed troop deployment, EUFOR Libya operation is being prepared, waiting for a request from the UN. * Germany: Germany has withdrawn all forces from NATO operations in the Mediterranean Sea as its government decided not to take part in any military operations against Libya. However it is increasing the number of AWACS personnel in Afghanistan by up to 300 to free forces of other states. Germany allows the usage of military installations on its territory for the intervention in Libya. On 8 April, German officials suggested that Germany could potentially contribute troops to "[ensure] with military means that humanitarian aid gets to those who need it". As of early June, the German government is reportedly considering opening a center for training police in Benghazi. On 24 July, Germany lent €100 million Euros ($144 million United States dollar, USD) to the rebels for "civilian and humanitarian purposes". * Indonesia: President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono called for a ceasefire by all sides, but said that if a UN peacekeeping force was established to monitor a potential truce, "Indonesia is more than willing to take part." * Kuwait: The Arab state will make a "logistic contribution", according to the British Prime Minister David Cameron. * Malta: Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi said no coalition forces would be allowed to stage from military bases in Malta, but Maltese airspace would be open to international forces involved in the intervention. On 20 April, two French Mirages were reportedly allowed to make emergency landings in Malta after running low on fuel. * Poland: US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, UK Secretary of Defence Liam Fox, and NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen have urged the Polish government to contribute to military operations. As of June 2011, Warsaw has not committed to participation. * Sudan: The government has "quietly granted permission" for coalition states to traverse its airspace for operations in the Libyan theater if necessary, Reuters reported in late March.
Action by international forces
Civilian losses:14 May: NATO air strike hit a large number of people gathered for Friday prayers in the eastern city of Brega leaving 11 religious leaders dead and 50 others wounded. :24 May: NATO air strikes in Tripoli kill 19 civilians and wound 150, according to Libyan state television. :31 May: Libya claims that NATO strikes have left up to 718 civilians dead. :19 June: NATO air strikes hit a residential house in Tripoli, killing seven civilians, according to Libyan state television. :20 June: A NATO airstrike in Sorman, near Tripoli, killed fifteen civilians, according to government officials. Eight rockets apparently hit the compound of a senior government official, in an area where NATO confirmed operations had taken place. :25 June: NATO strikes on Brega hit a bakery and a restaurant, killing 15 civilians and wounding 20 more, Libyan state television claimed. The report further accused the coalition of "crimes against humanity". The claims were denied by NATO. :28 June: NATO airstrike on the town of Tawergha, 300 km east of the Libyan capital, Tripoli kills eight civilians. :25 July: NATO airstrike on a medical clinic in Zliten kills 11 civilians, though the claim was denied by NATO, who said they hit a vehicle depot and communications center. :20 July: NATO attacks Libyan state TV, Aljamahiriya TV, Al-Jamahiriya. Three journalists killed. :9 August: Libyan government claims 85 civilians were killed in a NATO airstrike in Majer, a village near Zliten. A spokesman confirms that NATO bombed Zliten at 2:34 a.m. on 9 August, but says he was unable to confirm the casualties. Commander of the NATO military mission, Lieutenant-General (Canada), Lieutenant General Charles Bouchard says "I cannot believe that 85 civilians were present when we struck in the wee hours of the morning, and given our intelligence. But I cannot assure you that there were none at all". :15 September: Gaddafi spokesman Moussa Ibrahim declares that NATO air strikes killed 354 civilians and wounded 700 others, while 89 other civilians are supposedly missing. He also claims that over 2,000 civilians have been killed by NATO air strikes since 1 September. NATO denied the claims, saying they were unfounded. : 2 March 2012: United Nations Human Rights Council release their report about the aftermath of the Libyan civil war, concluding that in total 60 civilians were killed and 55 wounded by the NATO air campaign. In May that same year, Human Rights Watch published a report claiming that at least 72 civilians were killed.
Military losses on the coalition side* 22 March: One USAF F-15E flying from Aviano crashed in Bu Marim, northwest of Benghazi. The pilot was rescued alive by United States Marine Corps, US Marines from the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit based on the . The weapons systems officer evaded hostile forces and was subsequently repatriated by undisclosed forces. The aircraft crashed due to a mechanical failure. The rescue operation involved two Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey aircraft, two Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopters, and two McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II aircraft, all launched from the USS ''Kearsarge''. The operation involved the Harriers' dropping bombs and strafing the area around the crash site before an Osprey recovered at least one of the downed aircraft's crew; injuring six local civilians in the process. * 27 April: An F-16 from the United Arab Emirates Air Force crashed at Naval Air Station Sigonella at about 11:35 local time; the pilot ejected safely. The aircraft was confirmed to be from the UAE by the country's General Command of the armed forces, and had been arriving from Sardinia when it crashed. * 21 June: An unmanned US Navy MQ-8 Fire Scout went down over Libya, possibly due to enemy fire. NATO confirmed that they lost radar contact with the unmanned helicopter as it was performing an intelligence and reconnaissance mission near Zliten. NATO began investigating the crash shortly after it occurred. On 5 August, it was announced that the investigation had concluded that the cause of the crash was probably enemy fire; with operator or mechanical failure ruled out and the inability of investigators to access the crash site the "logical conclusion" was that the aircraft had been shot down. * 20 July: A British airman was killed in a traffic accident in Italy while part of a logistical convoy transferring supplies from the UK to NATO bases in the south of Italy from which air strikes were being conducted against Libya.
ReactionSince the start of the campaign, there have been allegations of violating the limits imposed upon the intervention by Resolution 1973 and by US law. At the end of May 2011, Western troops were captured on film in Libya, despite Resolution 1973 specifically forbidding "a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory". In the article however, it reports that armed Westerners but not Western troops were on the ground. In a March 2011 Gallup (company), Gallup poll, 47% of Americans had approved of military action against Libya, compared with 37% disapproval. On 10 June, US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates criticized some of the NATO member nations for their efforts, or lack thereof, to participate in the intervention in Libya. Gates singled out Germany, Poland, Spain, Turkey, and the Netherlands for criticism. He praised Canada, Norway and Denmark, saying that although those three countries had only provided 12% of the aircraft to the operation, their aircraft had conducted one-third of the strikes. On 24 June, the US House voted against Joint Resolution 68, which would have authorized continued US military involvement in the NATO campaign for up to one year. The majority of Republicans voted against the resolution, with some questioning US interests in Libya and others criticizing the White House for overstepping its authority by conducting a military expedition without Congressional backing. House Democrats were split on the issue, with 115 voting in favor of and 70 voting against. Despite the failure of the President to receive legal authorization from Congress, the Obama administration continued its military campaign, carrying out the bulk of NATO's operations until the overthrow of Gadaffi in October. On 9 August, the head of UNESCO, Irina Bokova deplored a NATO strike on Libyan State TV, Aljamahiriya TV, Al-Jamahiriya, that killed 3 journalists and wounded others. Bokova declared that media outlets should not be the target of military activities. On 11 August, after the NATO airstrike on Majer (on 9 August) that allegedly killed 85 civilians, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on all sides to do as much as possible to avoid killing innocent people.
Responsibility to protectThe military intervention in Libya has been cited by the Council on Foreign Relations as an example of the responsibility to protect policy adopted by the UN at the 2005 World Summit. According to Gareth Evans (politician), Gareth Evans, "[t]he international military intervention (SMH) in Libya is not about bombing for democracy or Muammar Gaddafi's head. Legally, morally, politically, and militarily it has only one justification: protecting the country's people." However, the Council also noted that the policy had been used only in Libya, and not in countries such as Côte d'Ivoire, undergoing a 2010–2011 Ivorian crisis, political crisis at the time, or in response to 2011 Yemeni protests, protests in Yemen. A CFR expert, Stewert Patrick, said that "There is bound to be selectivity and inconsistency in the application of the responsibility to protect norm given the complexity of national interests at stake in...the calculations of other major powers involved in these situations." In January 2012, the Arab Organization for Human Rights, Palestinian Centre for Human Rights and the International Legal Assistance Consortium published a report describing alleged human rights violations and accusing NATO of war crimes.
Reaction within LibyaAccording to a Gallup poll conducted in 2012, 75% of Libyans were in favor of the NATO intervention, compared to 22% who were opposed. A 2011 Orb International poll also found broad support for the intervention, with 85% of Libyans saying that they strongly supported the action taken to remove the Ghadafi regime.
U.S. House of RepresentativesOn 3 June 2011, the United States House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives passed a resolution, calling for a withdrawal of the United States military from the air and naval operations in and around Libya. It demanded that the administration provide, within 14 days, explanation of why the President Barack Obama did not come to Congress for permission to continue to take part in the mission. On 13 June, the House passed resolution prohibiting the use of funds for operations in the conflict, with 110 Democrats and 138 Republicans voting in favor. On 24 June, the House rejected Joint Resolution 68, which would have provided the Obama administration with authorization to continue military operations in Libya for up to one year.
CriticismThe military intervention was criticized, both at the time and subsequnetly, on a variety of grounds.
United Kingdom Parliament InvestigationAn in depth investigation into the Libyan intervention and its aftermath was conducted by the U.K. Parliament's House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons' cross-party Foreign Affairs Committee, the final conclusions of which were released on 14 September 2016 in a report titled ''Libya: Examination of intervention and collapse and the UK's future policy options''. The report was strongly critical of the British government's role in the intervention.Britain's Libya intervention led to growth of ISIS, inquiry finds
No evidence of civilian massacres by GaddafiAlison Pargeter, a freelance Middle East and North Africa (MENA) analyst, told the Committee that when Gaddafi's forces re-took Ajdabiya they did not attack civilians, and this had taken place in February 2011, shortly before the NATO intervention. She also said that Gaddafi's approach towards the rebels had been one of "appeasement", with the release of Islamist prisoners and promises of significant development assistance for Benghazi.
Briefing to ClintonAccording to the report, France's motive for initiating the intervention was economic and political as well as humanitarian. In a briefing to Hillary Clinton on 2 April 2011, her adviser Sidney Blumenthal reported that, according to high-level French intelligence, France's motives for overthrowing Gaddafi were to increase France's share of Libya's oil production, strengthen French influence in Africa, and improve President Sarkozy's standing at home. The report also highlighted how Islamic extremists had a large influence on the uprising, which was largely ignored by the West to the future detriment of Libya. The American Libertarian Party (United States), Libertarian Party opposed the U.S. military intervention and LP Chair Mark Hinkle in a statement described the position of the Libertarian Party: "President Obama's decision to order military attacks on Libya is only surprising to those who actually think he deserved the Nobel Peace Prize. He has now ordered bombing strikes in six different countries, adding Libya to Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen." Former Green Party (United States), Green Party presidential candidate Ralph Nader branded President Obama as a "war criminal" and called for his impeachment.
Resource controlSome critics of Western military intervention suggested that resources—not democratic or humanitarian concerns—were the real impetus for the intervention, among them a journalist of London Arab nationalist newspaper Al-Quds Al-Arabi, the Russian TV network RT and the (then-)leaders of Venezuela and Zimbabwe, Hugo Chávez and Robert Mugabe.Chiripasi, Thomas.
Criticism from world leadersThe intervention prompted a widespread wave of criticism from several world leaders, including: Iran's Supreme Leader of Iran, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, Ayatollah Khamenei (who said he supported the National Liberation Army (Libya), rebels but not Western intervention), Venezuelan President of Venezuela, President Hugo Chávez (who referred to Gaddafi as a "martyr"), South African President Jacob Zuma, and List of Presidents of Zimbabwe, President of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe (who referred to the Western nations as "vampires"), as well as the governments of Raúl Castro in Cuba, Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, Kim Jong-il in North Korea, Hifikepunye Pohamba in Namibia, and others. Gaddafi himself referred to the intervention as a "colonial Crusades, crusade ... capable of unleashing a full-scale war", a sentiment that was echoed by Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin: "
Other criticismsIn 2015 through 2016 the British parliament's Foreign Affairs Select Committee conducted an extensive and highly critical inquiry into the British government's involvement in the intervention. It concluded that the early threat to civilians had been overstated and that the significant Islamist element in the rebel forces had not been recognised, due to an intelligence failure. By summer 2011 the initial limited intervention to protect Libyan civilians had become a policy of regime change. However, that new policy did not include proper support for a new government, leading to a Failed state, political and economic collapse in Libya and the growth of ISIL in North Africa. The Foreign Affairs Select Committee saw no evidence that the UK Government carried out a proper analysis of the nature of the rebellion in Libya and it "selectively took elements of Muammar Gaddafi's rhetoric at face value; and it failed to identify the militant Islamist extremist element in the rebellion. UK strategy was founded on erroneous assumptions and an incomplete understanding of the evidence". The former Prime Minister David Cameron was ultimately responsible for this British policy failure. A 2013 paper by Alan Kuperman argued that NATO went beyond its remit of providing protection for civilians and instead supported the rebels by engaging in regime change. It argued that NATO's intervention likely extended the length (and thus damage) of the civil war, which Kuperman argued could have ended in less than two months without NATO intervention. The paper argued that the intervention was based on a misperception of the danger Gadaffi's forces posed to the civilian population, which Kuperman suggests was caused by existing bias against Gadaffi due to his past actions (such as support for terrorism), sloppy and sensationalistic journalism during the early stages of the war and propaganda from anti-government forces. Kuperman suggests that this demonization of Gadaffi, which was used to justify the intervention, ended up discouraging efforts to accept a ceasefire and negotiated settlement, turning a humanitarian intervention into a dedicated regime change. Micah Zenko argues that the Obama administration deceived the public by pretending the intervention was intended to protect Libyan civilians instead of achieving regime change when "in truth, the Libyan intervention was about regime change from the very start".
CostsOn 22 March 2011, BBC News presented a breakdown of the likely costs to the UK of the mission. Journalist Francis Tusa, editor of Defence Analysis, estimated that flying a Tornado GR4 would cost about Pound sterling, £35,000 an hour (c. US$48,000), so the cost of patrolling one sector of Libyan airspace would be £2M–3M (US$2.75M–4.13M) per day. Conventional airborne missiles would cost £800,000 each and Tomahawk cruise missiles £750,000 each. Professor Malcolm Charmers of the Royal United Services Institute similarly suggested that a single cruise missile would cost about £500,000, while a single Tornado sortie would cost about £30,000 in fuel alone. If a Tornado was downed the replacement cost would be upwards of £50m. By 22 March the US and UK had already fired more than 110 cruise missiles. Chancellor of the Exchequer, UK Chancellor George Osborne had said that the MoD estimate of the operation cost was "tens rather than hundreds of millions". On 4 April Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton said that the RAF was planning to continue operations over Libya for at least six months. The total number of sorties flown by NATO numbered more than 26,000, an average of 120 sorties per day. 42% of the sorties were strike sorties, which damaged or destroyed approximately 6,000 military targets. At its peak, the operation involved more than 8,000 servicemen and women, 21 NATO ships in the Mediterranean and more than 250 aircraft of all types. By the end of the operation, NATO had conducted over 3,000 hailings at sea and almost 300 boardings for inspection, with 11 vessels denied transit to their next port of call. Eight NATO and two non-NATO countries flew strike sorties. Of these, Denmark, Canada, and Norway together were responsible for 31%, the United States was responsible for 16%, Italy 10%, France 33%, Britain 21%, and Belgium, Qatar, and the UAE the remainder.
AftermathSince the end of the war, which overthrew Gaddafi, there has been Factional violence in Libya (2011–2014), violence involving various militias and the new state security forces. The violence has escalated into the Second Libyan Civil War. Critics described the military intervention as "disastrous" in its destabilization of entire regions in the Middle East and North Africa, facilitating the transfer of arms to extremists across countries. Libya became what many scholars described as a failed state — a state that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly. Libya has become the main exit for European migrant crisis, migrants trying to get to Europe. In September 2015, South African President Jacob Zuma said that "consistent and systematic bombing by NATO forces undermined the security and caused conflicts that are continuing in Libya and neighbouring countries ... It was the actions taken, the bombarding of Libya and killing of its leader, that opened the flood gates." U.S. President Barack Obama acknowledged there had been issues with following up the conflict planning, commenting in an interview with ''The Atlantic'' magazine that British Prime Minister David Cameron had allowed himself to be "distracted by a range of other things".
See also* Aftermath of the Libyan Civil War * European migrant crisis * Second Libyan Civil War * Day of Revenge * Protests against the 2011 military intervention in Libya * United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 * American intervention in Libya (2015–present), US military campaign in Libya against ISIS * Bombing of Libya (1986), Bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, response to 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing * Iraqi no-fly zones, two similar operations carried out over Iraq: ** Operation Northern Watch ** Operation Southern Watch * Operation Deny Flight, similar operation carried out during the Bosnian War (1992–1995) ** 1995 NATO bombing campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina * Ouadi Doum air raid, 1986 French air raid on Libyan airbase in Chad * 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War
Further reading* * * * *