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^ a. Joined to the federation under the name of Coahuila y Texas
Coahuila y Texas
also recognized as Coahuila
Coahuila
y Tejas. ^ b. The state's GDP
GDP
was 275,920,781 thousand of pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 21,556,311.01 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8]

Coahuila
Coahuila
(Spanish pronunciation: [koaˈwila] ( listen)), formally Coahuila
Coahuila
de Zaragoza (American Spanish: [koaˈwila ðe saɾaˈɣosa]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila
Coahuila
de Zaragoza (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila
Coahuila
de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico
Mexico
City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Coahuila
Coahuila
borders the Mexican states of Nuevo León
Nuevo León
to the east, Zacatecas
Zacatecas
and San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí
to the south, and Durango
Durango
and Chihuahua to the west. To the north, Coahuila
Coahuila
accounts for a 512 kilometres (318 mi) stretch of the Mexico–United States border, adjacent to the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Texas
Texas
along the course of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
(Río Bravo del Norte). With an area of 151,563 square kilometres (58,519 sq mi), it is the nation's third-largest state. It comprises 38 municipalities (municipios). In 2010, Coahuila's population is 2,748,391 inhabitants. The five largest cities in Coahuila
Coahuila
are the state capital city of Saltillo; the second largest is Torreón, third largest is Monclova
Monclova
(a former state capital), fourth largest is Ciudad Acuña, and fifth largest is Piedras Negras.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Flora and fauna

3 Demographics 4 Education

4.1 Basic education 4.2 Higher education

4.2.1 Iberoamerican University (Universidad Iberoamericana) 4.2.2 Technological Institute of La Laguna (Instituto Tecnológico de la Laguna) 4.2.3 Technological Institute of Saltillo
Saltillo
(Instituto Tecnológico de Saltillo) 4.2.4 Monterrey Institute Of Technology and Higher Studies 4.2.5 Autonomous University of La Laguna 4.2.6 Antonio Narro Agrarian Autonomous University (UAAAN) 4.2.7 Autonomous University of Coahuila (Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila)

5 Economy 6 Municipalities 7 Major communities 8 List of governors 9 Notable people 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] The name Coahuila
Coahuila
derives from native terms for the region, and has been known by variations such as Cuagüila and Cuauila. Some historians believe that this means “flying serpent”, “place of many trees”, or “place where serpents creep”. The official name of the state is Coahuila
Coahuila
de Zaragoza, in honor of General Ignacio Zaragoza. The Spanish explored the north of Mexico
Mexico
some decades after their victory in Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
the capital of the Aztecs. Such exploration was delayed because the northern climate was harsher and there was no gold. The first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Minas de la Trinidad in 1577. Saltillo
Saltillo
was settled in 1586, to form part of the province of Nueva Vizcaya
Nueva Vizcaya
of the Vice-royalty of New Spain. Later it became one of the first provinces of Nueva Extremadura to be explored by Europeans. " Coahuila
Coahuila
and Texas" was one of the constituent states of the newly independent United Mexican States
United Mexican States
under their 1824 Constitution, and included Texas, Coahuila
Coahuila
and Nuevo León. Later in the same year Nuevo León was detached, but Texas
Texas
remained a part of the state until 1836, when it seceded to form the Republic of Texas. Monclova
Monclova
was the capital of the state from 1833 to 1835. In 1840 Coahuila
Coahuila
briefly became a member of the short lived Republic of the Rio Grande. On February 19, 1856, Santiago Vidaurri
Santiago Vidaurri
annexed Coahuila
Coahuila
to his state, Nuevo León, but it regained its separate status in 1868. During the Mexican Revolution, Francisco Villa
Francisco Villa
attacked the city of Torreón.

The U.S.– Mexico
Mexico
border fence near Texas
Texas
and Coahuila

On April 4, 2004, the border city of Piedras Negras was flooded. More than 30 people died and more than 4,000 lost their homes. In 2007 Coahuila
Coahuila
became the first state in Mexico
Mexico
to offer civil unions (Pacto Civil de Solidaridad) to same-sex couples.[9] Geography[edit] The Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
runs northwest to southeast through the State, and the higher elevations are home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. The northernmost fingers of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Sierra del Burro and the Sierra del Carmen, reach to the border with the United States at the Rio Grande. East of the range, the land slopes gently toward the Rio Grande, and is drained by several rivers, including the Salado and its tributary, the Sabinas
Sabinas
River. The Tamaulipan mezquital, a dry shrubland ecoregion, occupies the eastern portion of the State, and extends across the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
into southern Texas. The portion of the State west of the Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
lies on the Mexican Plateau, and is part of the Chihuahuan Desert. The Bolsón de Mapimí is a large endorheic basin which covers much of the western portion of the State and extends into adjacent portions of Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas. The Nazas River, which flows east from Durango, and the Aguanaval River, which flows north from Zacatecas, empty into lakes in the Bolsón. Torreón, the most populous city in the State, lies on the Nazas in the irrigated Laguna Region, the (Comarca Lagunera), which straddles the border of Coahuila
Coahuila
and Durango. Coahuila
Coahuila
contains two biosphere reserves. Maderas del Carmen
Maderas del Carmen
lies on the northern border of the State, and includes sections of the Chihuahuan desert and sky islands of pine-oak forest in the Sierra del Carmen. The springs, lakes, and wetlands of Cuatro Ciénegas
Cuatro Ciénegas
lie west of Monclova
Monclova
on the west slope of the Sierra Madre. Coahuila
Coahuila
is largely arid or semi-arid, but the rivers of the State support extensive irrigated agriculture, particularly cotton. The Parras
Parras
district in the southern part of the State produces wines and brandies. The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre produce timber. Flora and fauna[edit]

Flora and fauna of Coahuila

Ursus americanus Felis concolor Tamiasciurus Cynomys ludovicianus Aquila chrysaetos

Meleagris gallopavo Crotalus molossus Antilocapra americana Odocoileus virginianus Didelphis virginiana

Acer grandidentatum Opuntia ficus-indica Echinocactus grusonii Cylindropuntia imbricata Pinus ponderosa

Demographics[edit]

Religion in Coahuila
Coahuila
(2010 census)[10]

Roman Catholicism

80.4%

Other Christian

12.0%

Other Religion

0.0%

No religion

5.5%

Unspecified

2.1%

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1895 242,021 —    

1900 296,938 +22.7%

1910 362,092 +21.9%

1921 393,480 +8.7%

1930 436,425 +10.9%

1940 550,717 +26.2%

1950 720,619 +30.9%

1960 907,734 +26.0%

1970 1,114,956 +22.8%

1980 1,557,265 +39.7%

1990 1,972,340 +26.7%

1995 2,173,775 +10.2%

2000 2,298,070 +5.7%

2005 2,495,200 +8.6%

2010 2,748,391 +10.1%

2015[11] 2,954,915 +7.5%

The last population census run across Mexico
Mexico
in the year 2015, reports Coahuila
Coahuila
de Zaragoza as having 2,954,915 inhabitants, which, considering its size, means that the state has a very low density, in fact as low as only 15 persons per square kilometer. Coahuila's population is mainly made up of Criollos along with Mestizos. Less than 7,500 natives reside in Coahuila, or merely 0.3% of the total population. The rest of the population is composed of Americans, Canadian, and Japanese communities. The rest of the demographic particulars in the state are very similar to national averages, such as a high life expectancy (reaching 75 years of age) and a Catholic majority. Education[edit] Basic education[edit] Basic public education in Coahuila
Coahuila
is mainly managed by the state's Secretary of Education, but federal-sustained schools are also very common. There are also a lot of private schools in the main cities of the state. Higher education[edit] Some of the most recognized universities in Coahuila
Coahuila
include: Iberoamerican University (Universidad Iberoamericana)[edit] A private university part of the Jesuit University System with a campus in Torreón
Torreón
and a university extension center in Saltillo.

Building at the Iberoamerican University

Technological Institute of La Laguna (Instituto Tecnológico de la Laguna)[edit] The most recognized public technological university of La Laguna Region located in the city of Torreón. Technological Institute of Saltillo
Saltillo
(Instituto Tecnológico de Saltillo)[edit] Monterrey Institute Of Technology and Higher Studies[edit] It is the most known technological university in Mexico
Mexico
with two campuses: one in Saltillo
Saltillo
and another one in Torreón. Autonomous University of La Laguna[edit] Antonio Narro Agrarian Autonomous University (UAAAN)[edit] Autonomous University of Coahuila (Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila)[edit] It is considered the best public university of the states and it has campuses and schools all across Coahuila. Economy[edit] About 95% of Mexico's coal reserves are found in Coahuila, which is the country's top mining state. Torreón
Torreón
has Met-Mex Peñoles, a mining company. The city is the world's largest silver producer and Mexico's largest gold producer. It also has Lala, a dairy products company, which produces 40% of Mexico's milk consumption. Saltillo
Saltillo
also has a growing automobile industry, hosting General Motors and Chrysler
Chrysler
assembly plants. As of 2005, Coahuila's economy represents 3.5% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or US$22,874 million.[12] Coahuila's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 221,273 people are employed in the manufacturing sector.[13] Foreign direct investment in Coahuila
Coahuila
was US$143.1 million for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Coahuila
Coahuila
is approximately 190 pesos per day.[citation needed] On the other hand, Coahuila
Coahuila
is the Mexican state with the highest level of public debt in the nation. Municipalities[edit] Main article: Municipalities of Coahuila Coahuila
Coahuila
is subdivided into five regions and 38 municipalities (municipios). Major communities[edit]

Saltillo, the capital of Coahuila.

Ciudad Acuña

Acuña

Ciudad Frontera Guerrero Ciudad Melchor Múzquiz Francisco I. Madero Matamoros Monclova

Monclova

Nueva Rosita Parras
Parras
de la Fuente Piedras Negras

Piedras Negras

Ramos Arizpe Sabinas Saltillo San Pedro Torreón

Torreón

List of governors[edit] Main article: Governor of Coahuila This list is incomplete

José María Garza Galán (1886–1893)[14] José María Múzquiz (1894) Miguel Cárdenas (1894–1909) Jesús de Valle (1909–1911) Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza
(1911–1913) Gustavo Espinoza Mireles (1917–1920) Luis Gutiérrez Ortíz (1920–1921) Arnulfo González (1921–1923) Carlos Garza Castro (1923–1925) Manuel Pérez Treviño (1925–1929) Bruno Neira González (1929-1929) Nazario S. Ortiz Garza (1929–1933) Jesús Valdez Sánchez (1933–1937) Pedro Rodríguez Triana (1937–1941) Gabriel Cervera Riza (1941-1941) Benecio López Padilla (1941–1945) Ignacio Cepeda Dávila (1945–1947) Ricardo Ainslie Rivera (1947–1948) Paz Faz Risa (1948-1948) Raúl López Sánchez (1948–1951) Roman Cepeda Flores (1951–1957) Raúl Madero González (1957–1963) Braulio Fernández Aguirre (1963–1969) Eulalio Gutiérrez
Eulalio Gutiérrez
Treviño (1969–1975) Oscar Flores Tapia (1975–1981) Francisco José Madero González (1981-1981) José de las Fuentes Rodríguez (1981–1987) Eliseo Mendoza Berrueto (1987–1993) Rogelio Montemayor Seguy (1993–1999) Enrique Martínez y Martínez
Enrique Martínez y Martínez
(1999–2005) Humberto Moreira Valdés (2005–2011) (Left) Jorge Torres López
Jorge Torres López
(2011) (Humberto Moreira's substitute) Rubén Moreira Valdez
Rubén Moreira Valdez
(2011–2017)

Notable people[edit]

Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza
- President of Mexico Luis Farell
Luis Farell
- Combat pilot and general Eulalio Gutiérrez
Eulalio Gutiérrez
- President of Mexico Joakim Soria
Joakim Soria
- MLB
MLB
closer Pablo Montero
Pablo Montero
- Singer and actor Horacio Piña - MLB
MLB
pitcher Mario Domm
Mario Domm
- musician and lead singer of Mexican pop band Camila Sangre Chicana - Professional wrestler Dr. Wagner
Dr. Wagner
- Professional wrestler Dr. Wagner, Jr.
Dr. Wagner, Jr.
- Professional wrestler Ari Telch - Actor Andrea Villarreal - Feminist and revolutionary Rosario Ybarra
Rosario Ybarra
- Politician and senator Humberto Zurita - Actor, director and producer Francisco Indalecio Madero
Francisco Indalecio Madero
- President of Mexico
Mexico
November 1911 – February 1913 Reading Wood Black - Founder of Uvalde, Texas, spent American Civil War years in Coahuila Susana Zabaleta
Susana Zabaleta
- singer and actress Oribe Peralta
Oribe Peralta
- football player Marco Antonio Rubio
Marco Antonio Rubio
- Professional boxer Raul Allegre - Former football placekicker in the National Football League

See also[edit]

Geography portal North America portal Latin America portal Mexico
Mexico
portal

Coahuila
Coahuila
y Texas Nueva Extremadura Nueva Vizcaya State Anthem of Coahuila States of Mexico

References[edit]

^ "La diputación provincial y el federalismo mexicano" (in Spanish).  ^ "Senadores por Coahuila
Coahuila
LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved October 20, 2010.  ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Coahuila". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved October 20, 2010.  ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.  ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved October 20, 2010.  ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.  ^ "Coahuila". 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.  ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.  ^ "Mexican state moves to allow same-sex unions", Advocate News, Gay.com, January 11, 2007 ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010". INEGI. Retrieved 2013-02-04.  ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-08.  ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico
Mexico
- A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico
Mexico
City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 90.  ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico
Mexico
- A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico
Mexico
City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 92.  ^ Benjamin, Thomas, and William McNellie. Other Mexicos: Essays on Regional Mexican History, 1876-1911. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press, 1984.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coahuila.

Geographic data related to Coahuila
Coahuila
at OpenStreetMap (in Spanish) Coahuila
Coahuila
State Government (in English) Coahuila
Coahuila
State Government  "Coahuila". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.   "Coahuila". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 

v t e

State of Coahuila

Saltillo
Saltillo
(capital)

Municipalities and (municipal seats)

Abasolo (Abasolo) Acuña (Ciudad Acuña) Allende (Allende) Arteaga (Arteaga) Candela (Candela) Castaños
Castaños
(Castaños) Cuatrociénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza) Escobedo (Escobedo) Francisco I. Madero (Francisco I. Madero) Frontera (Ciudad Frontera) General Cepeda
General Cepeda
(General Cepeda) Guerrero
Guerrero
(Guerrero) Hidalgo (Hidalgo) Jiménez (Jiménez) Juárez (Juárez) Lamadrid
Lamadrid
(Lamadrid) Matamoros (Matamoros de la Laguna) Monclova
Monclova
(Monclova) Morelos
Morelos
(Morelos) Múzquiz (Santa Rosa de Múzquiz) Nadadores
Nadadores
(Nadadores) Nava (Nava) Ocampo (Ocampo) Parras
Parras
( Parras
Parras
de la Fuente) Piedras Negras (Piedras Negras) Progreso (Progreso) Ramos Arizpe
Ramos Arizpe
(Ramos Arizpe) Sabinas
Sabinas
(Sabinas) Sacramento (Sacramento) Saltillo
Saltillo
(Saltillo) San Buenaventura (San Buenaventura) San Juan de Sabinas
Sabinas
(Nueva Rosita) San Pedro de las Colonias (San Pedro de las Colonias) Sierra Mojada
Sierra Mojada
(Sierra Mojada) Torreón
Torreón
(Torreón) Viesca
Viesca
(Viesca) Villa Unión (Villa Unión) Zaragoza (Zaragoza)

v t e

States of Mexico

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Baja California
Sur Campeche Chiapas Chihuahua Coahuila Colima Durango Guanajuato Guerrero Hidalgo Jalisco México Mexico
Mexico
City Michoacán Morelos Nayarit Nuevo León Oaxaca Puebla Querétaro San Luis Potosí Sinaloa Sonora Tamaulipas Tlaxcala Veracruz Zacatecas Quintana Ro

.