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Clupeidae
Clupeidae
is a family of ray-finned fishes, comprising, for instance, the herrings, shads, sardines, ilish, and menhadens. The clupeids include many of the most important food fishes in the world, and are also commonly caught for production of fish oil and fish meal. Many members of the family have a body protected with shiny cycloid scales (very smooth and uniform scales), a single dorsal fin, with a fusiform body for quick, evasive swimming and pursuit of prey composed of small planktonic animals. Due to their small size, and position in the lower trophic level of many marine food webs, the levels of methylmercury they bioaccumulate are very low, reducing the risk of mercury poisoning when consumed. Description and biology[edit] Clupeids are mostly marine forage fish, although a few species are found in fresh water. No species has scales on the head, and some are entirely scaleless. The lateral line is short or absent, and the teeth are unusually small where they are present at all. Clupeids typically feed on plankton, and range from 2 to 75 cm (0.8 to 30 in.) in length.[1] The family arguably also contains the "Sundasalangidae", a paedomorphic taxon first thought to be a distinct salmoniform family, but then discovered to be deeply nested in Clupeidae.[1] In the fossil record clupeids date back to the early Paleogene. Clupeids spawn huge numbers of eggs (up to 200,000 in some species) near the surface of the water. After hatching, the larvae live among the plankton until they develop a swim bladder and transform into adults. These eggs and fry are not protected or tended to by parents. The adults typically live in large shoals, seeking protection from piscivorous predators such as birds, sharks and other predatory fish, toothed whales, marine mammals and jellyfish. They also form bait balls.[2]<[1] Commercially important species of Clupeidae
Clupeidae
include for instance the Atlantic menhaden
Atlantic menhaden
( Brevoortia
Brevoortia
tyrannus), the Atlantic and Baltic herrings ( Clupea
Clupea
harengus), the Pacific herring
Pacific herring
(C. pallasii) and the European pilchard
European pilchard
or sardine ( Sardina
Sardina
pilchardus). The family currently comprises 54 genera and approximately 200 species.[1] Taxonomy[edit] Taxonomy based on the works of Van der Laan 2017[3] and Nelson, Grande & Wilson 2016.[4]

†Knightia Platanichthys  ?Subfamily Spratelloidinae Jordan 1925 sesnu Lavoue et al. 2014

Jenkinsia Spratelloides

Subfamily Clupeinae Cuvier 1816 sensu Lavoue et al. 2013

Clupea Ethmidium Hyperlophus Potamalosa Ramnogaster Sprattus

Subfamily Ehiravinae (Deraniyagala 1929)

Clupeichthys Clupeoides Clupeonella Corica Dayella Ehirava Gilchristella Minyclupeoides Sauvagella Spratellomorpha Sundasalanx

Subfamily Alosinae Svetovidov 1952

Alosa Brevoortia Sardina Sardinops

Subfamily Dorosomatinae Gill 1861

Harengula Lile Rhinosardinia Tribe Congothrissini

Congothrissa

Tribe Pellonulini

Laeviscutella Limnothrissa Microthrissa
Microthrissa
[Poecilothrissa] Nannothrissa Odaxothrissa
Odaxothrissa
[Cynothrissa] Pellonula Potamothrissa Sierrathrissa Stolothrissa Thrattidion

Tribe Anodontostomatini

Anodontostoma Clupanodon Gonialosa Gudusia Konosirus Nematalosa Tenualosa

Tribe Dorosomatini

Amblygaster Dorosoma Escualosa Ethmalosa Herklotsichthys Hilsa Opisthonema Sardinella

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). "Clupeidae" in FishBase. December 2014 version. ^ Nelson, Gareth (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.  ^ van der Laan, Richard (December 2017). Freshwater fish list (PDF) (23rd ed.). p. 997. ISSN 2468-9157. CS1 maint: Date and year (link) ^ Nelson, Joseph S.; Terry C. Grande; Mark V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336. 

v t e

Herrings

True herrings

Clupea Araucanian herring Atlantic herring

Baltic herring

Pacific herring

Chosa herring White Sea herring

Other herrings

Freshwater herrings Longfin herrings Round herrings Thread herrings

Misc herrings

Alewife Atlantic thread herring Australian herring Blueback herring Deepsea herring Hilsa herring Scaled herring Skipjack herring Wolf herring

Herring
Herring
boats

Herring
Herring
buss Herring
Herring
seiner Drifter (fishing boat) Tradewind (schooner) Lydia Eva (steam drifter) Reaper (sailing vessel)

As food

Herring
Herring
(food) Avruga caviar Bloater Brathering Buckling Dressed herring Gibbing Gwamegi Herring
Herring
soup Kibinago Kipper

Craster kipper

Pickled herring Schmaltz herring Solomon Gundy Soused herring Surströmming Rollmops Vorschmack

Related topics

Herring
Herring
gull Red herring Herring
Herring
fair The Herring
Herring
Song Herringbone Scania Market Scottish east coast fishery Marc Guylaine Netz über Bord Herring
Herring
Hunt

v t e

Forage fish

Marine

Clupeidae

Anchovies herring Ilisha mackerel (small) menhaden sardine shad sprats

Other

Capelin goldband fusilier halfbeak smelt krill squid (small)

Freshwater

Minnow

Leuciscinae dace shiner

Other

Carp
Carp
(small) killifish mosquitofish herrings

river herring alewives

sucker

Related topics

Bait ball Bait fish Feeder fish Fish migration Filter feeder Food fish Ichthyoplankton Juvenile fish Predator fish Sardine
Sardine
run Shoaling and schooling

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q27141 ADW: Clupeidae EoL: 6893 EPPO: 1CLUPF Fauna Europaea: 12019 Fossilworks: 53981 GBIF: 7332 ITIS: 161700 NCBI: 5

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