The clouded leopard (
Neofelis nebulosa) is a wild cat occurring from
the Himalayan foothills through mainland
Southeast Asia into China.
Since 2008, it is listed as Vulnerable on the
IUCN Red List. Its total
population is suspected to be fewer than 10,000 mature individuals,
with a decreasing population trend, and no single population numbering
more than 1,000 adults. The clouded leopard is the state animal of
the Indian state of Meghalaya.
4 Distribution and habitat
4.1 Distribution of subspecies
Ecology and behavior
7.1 In captivity
8 In culture
9 In the media
11 External links
Two cladograms proposed for the
The scientific name of the clouded leopard is
Neofelis nebulosa. It is
one of two members of the genus Neofelis, and is classified under the
family Felidae. It was first described by the British zoologist Edward
Griffith in 1821. The other member of this genus is the Sunda
clouded leopard (N. diardi), which was considered a subspecies of N.
nebulosa until 2006.
The clouded leopard is part of the
Panthera lineage, one of the eight
lineages of Felidae. This lineage comprises the species of Panthera
and Neofelis. The
Neofelis species diverged first from the lineage,
followed by the snow leopard. Genetic analysis of hair samples of
Neofelis species indicates that they diverged 1.4 million
years ago, after having used a now submerged land bridge to reach
Borneo and Sumatra from mainland Asia. Subsequent branching in the
lineage is disputed. Broadly, two different cladograms have been
proposed for the
The clouded leopard is considered to form an evolutionary link between
the big cats and the small cats. It represents the smallest of the
big cats, but despite its name, it is not closely related to the
Close-up of face
The fur of clouded leopards is of a dark grey or ochreous
ground-color, often largely obliterated by black and dark dusky-grey
blotched pattern. There are black spots on the head, and the ears are
black. Partly fused or broken-up stripes run from the corner of the
eyes over the cheek, from the corner of the mouth to the neck, and
along the nape to the shoulders. Elongated blotches continue down the
spine and form a single median stripe on the loins. Two large blotches
of dark dusky-grey hair on the side of the shoulders are each
emphasized posteriorly by a dark stripe, which passes on to the
foreleg and breaks up into irregular spots. The flanks are marked by
dark dusky-grey irregular blotches bordered behind by long, oblique,
irregularly curved or looped stripes. These blotches yielding the
clouded pattern suggest the English name of the cat. The underparts
and legs are spotted, and the tail is marked by large, irregular,
paired spots. Females are slightly smaller than males.
Their irises are usually either greyish-green or brownish-yellow in
color. Their legs are short and stout, with broad paws. They have
rather short limbs compared to the other big cats, but their hind
limbs are longer than their front limbs to allow for increased jumping
and leaping capabilities. Their ulnae and radii are not fused, which
also contributes to a greater range of motion when climbing trees and
Melanistic clouded leopards are uncommon. Clouded leopards weigh
between 11.5 and 23 kg (25 and 51 lb). Females vary in
head-to-body length from 68.6 to 94 cm (27.0 to 37.0 in),
with a tail 61 to 82 cm (24 to 32 in) long. Males are larger
at 81 to 108 cm (32 to 43 in) with a tail 74 to 91 cm
(29 to 36 in) long. Their shoulder height varies from 50 to
55 cm (20 to 22 in).
They have exceptionally long, piercing canine teeth, the upper being
about three times as long as the basal width of the socket. The
upper pair of canines may measure 4 cm (1.6 in) or
longer. They are often referred to as a “modern-day
sabre-tooth” because they have the largest canines in proportion to
their body size, matching the tiger in canine length. The first
premolar is usually absent, and they also have a very distinct long
and slim skull with well-developed occipital and sagittal crests to
support the enlarged jaw muscles.
The scientific name of the genus
Neofelis is a composite of the Greek
word νεο- meaning "new", and the
Latin word feles meaning "cat", so
it literally means "new cat".
Distribution and habitat
Clouded leopard at Aizawl, Mizoram, India
The clouded leopard occurs from the Himalayan foothills in Nepal,
India to Myanmar, southeastern Bangladesh, Thailand,
Peninsular Malaysia, Indochina, and in
China south of the Yangtze
River. It is regionally extinct in
Singapore and Taiwan. The
species prefers open- or closed-forest habitats to other habitat
types. It has been reported from relatively open, dry tropical
Myanmar and in Thailand.
In India, it occurs in Assam, northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal
Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and
Tripura. In Sikkim, clouded leopards were
camera-trapped at altitudes of 2,500–3,720 m
(8,200–12,200 ft) between April 2008 and May 2010 in the
Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve.
The clouded leopard was thought to be extinct in
Nepal since the late
1860s. But, in 1987 and 1988, four individuals were found in the
central part of the country, close to
Chitwan National Park
Chitwan National Park and in the
Pokhara Valley. These findings extended their known range westward,
suggesting they are able to survive and breed in degraded woodlands
that previously harboured moist subtropical semideciduous forest.
Since then, individuals have been recorded in the Shivapuri Nagarjun
National Park and in the Annapurna Conservation Area.
In 2015, clouded leopards were recorded by camera-traps for the first
time in the hill forests of
Karen State in Myanmar.
In 2009, a few clouded leopards were sighted in the Chittagong Hill
Tracts of south-eastern Bangladesh. Clouded leopards are mainly
found in Kassalong Reserve of Rangamati-Khagrachory and Sangu Reserve
forest in Banderban, all situated in Chittagong Hill Tracts. Few also
remain in Kaptai National Park in Rangamati. Other than Chittagong
Hill Tracts, there has been one sighting in Mymenshing in 2004, Mid
Bangladesh and one uncertain report in North East
Distribution of subspecies
At present, these three subspecies of
Neofelis nebulosa are
N. n. nebulosa (Griffith, 1821) — lives in Southern
China to eastern
N. n. macrosceloides (Hodgson, 1853) — lives in
Nepal to Myanmar;
N. n. brachyura (Swinhoe, 1862) — used to live in Taiwan, and is
considered extinct since the early 1990s. The last confirmed record
dates to 1989, when the skin of a young individual was found in the
Taroko area. It was not recorded during an extensive camera
trapping survey from 2000 to 2004 in southern Taiwan.
Ecology and behavior
Clouded leopard in the San Antonio Zoo and Aquarium
Clouded leopards are the most talented climbers among the cats. In
captivity, they have been observed to climb down vertical tree trunks
head first, and hang on to branches with their hind paws bent around
branchings of tree limbs. They are capable of supination and can even
hang down from branches only by bending their hind paws and their tail
around them. When jumping down, they keep hanging on to a branch this
way until the very last moment. They can climb on horizontal branches
with their back to the ground, and in this position make short jumps
forward. When balancing on thin branches, they use their long tails to
steer. They can easily jump up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) high.
Clouded leopards have been observed to scent mark in captivity by
urine-spraying and head-rubbing on prominent objects. Presumably, such
habits are used to mark their territory in the wild, although the size
of their home ranges is unknown. Like small cats, they are able to
purr  but they also can chuff  like big cats. Clouded leopards
are classified as
Neofelis (they are not small cats and are not big
cats). They otherwise have a wide range of vocalisations, including
mewing, hissing, growling, moaning, and snorting. When communicating,
two individuals will emit low snorting sounds that are called prusten
when approaching each other in a friendly manner. They also use
long-call communication over large distances, which could either be a
type of mating call between different territories or a warning call to
other cats encroaching on other territories. Apart from
information stemming from observations of captive clouded leopards,
little is known of their natural history and behavior in the wild.
Early accounts depict them as rare, secretive, arboreal, and nocturnal
denizens of dense primary forest. More recent observations suggest
they may not be as arboreal and nocturnal as previously thought. They
may use trees as daytime rest sites, but also spend a significant
proportion of time on the ground. Some daytime movement has been
observed, suggesting they are not strictly nocturnal but crepuscular.
However, the time of day when they are active depends on their prey
and the level of human disturbance.
They live a solitary lifestyle, resting in trees during the day and
hunting at night. When hunting, clouded leopards either come down from
their perches in the trees and stalk their prey or lie and wait for
the prey to come to them. After making a kill and eating, they usually
retreat to the trees to digest and rest.
Their partly nocturnal and far-ranging behaviour, their low densities,
and because they inhabit densely vegetated habitats and remote areas
makes the counting and monitoring of clouded leopards extremely
difficult. Consequently, little is known about their behaviour and
status. Available information on their ecology is anecdotal, based on
local interviews and a few sighting reports.
Home ranges have only been estimated in Thailand:
Four individuals were radio-collared in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary
from April 2000 to February 2003. Home ranges of two females were
25.7 km2 (9.9 sq mi) and 22.9 km2
(8.8 sq mi), and of two males 29.7 km2
(11.5 sq mi) and 49.1 km2 (19.0 sq mi).
Two individuals were radio-collared during a study from 1997 to 1999
in the Khao Yai National Park. The home range of one female was
39.4 km2 (15.2 sq mi), of the one male 42 km2
(16 sq mi). Both individuals had a core area of 2.9 km2
(1.1 sq mi).
Little is known of the diet of clouded leopards. Their prey includes
both arboreal and terrestrial vertebrates. Pocock presumed they
are adapted for preying upon herbivorous mammals of considerable bulk
because of their powerful build and the deep penetration of their
bites, attested by their long canines. Confirmed prey species
include hog deer, slow loris, brush-tailed porcupine, Malayan pangolin
and Indochinese ground squirrel. Known prey species in China
include barking deer and pheasants.
Both males and females average 26 months at first reproduction. Mating
usually occurs during December and March. The males tend to be very
aggressive during sexual encounters and have been known to bite the
female on the neck during courtship, severing her vertebrae. With this
in mind, male and female compatibility has been deemed extremely
important when attempting breeding in captivity. The pair will meet
and mate multiple times over the course of several days. The male
grasps the female by the neck and the female responds with
vocalization that encourages the male to continue. The male then
leaves and is not involved in raising the kittens.
six days on average, estrous cycle averages 30 days. After a gestation
period of 93 ± 6 days, females give birth to a litter of one to five
(most often three) cubs.
A cub of clouded leopard
Initially, the young are blind and helpless, much like the young of
many other cats, and weigh from 140 to 280 g (4.9 to
9.9 oz). Unlike adults, the kittens' spots are "solid" —
completely dark rather than dark rings. The young can see within about
10 days of birth, are active within five weeks, and are fully weaned
at around three months of age. They attain the adult coat pattern at
around six months, and probably become independent after around 10
months. Females are able to bear one litter each year. The mother
is believed to hide her kittens in dense vegetation while she goes to
hunt, though little concrete evidence supports this theory, since
their lifestyle is so secretive.
In captivity, they have an average lifespan of 11 years. One
individual has lived to be almost 17 years old.
A coat made of clouded leopard skin. Poaching for illegal trade of
skin is one of the main threats to clouded leopard.
Many of the remaining forest areas are too small to ensure the
long-term persistence of clouded leopard populations. They are
threatened by habitat loss following large–scale deforestation and
commercial poaching for the wildlife trade. Skins, claws, and teeth
are offered for decoration and clothing, bones and meat as substitute
for tiger in traditional Asian medicines and tonics, and live animals
for the pet trade. Few poaching incidents have been documented, but
all range states are believed to have some degree of commercial
poaching. In recent years, substantial domestic markets existed in
Indonesia, Myanmar, and Vietnam.
In Myanmar, 301 body parts of at least 279 clouded leopards, mostly
skins and skeletons, were observed in four markets surveyed between
1991 and 2006. Three of the surveyed markets are situated on
international borders with
China and Thailand, and cater to
international buyers, although clouded leopards are completely
protected under Myanmar's national legislation. Effective
implementation and enforcement of
CITES is considered inadequate.
A clouded leopard resting atop a tree trunk at the Toronto Zoo
Neofelis nebulosa is listed in
CITES Appendix I and protected over
most of its range. Hunting is banned in Bangladesh, China, India,
Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is not
legally protected outside Bhutan's protected areas. Hunting is
regulated in Laos. No information about its protection status is
available from Cambodia. These bans, however, are poorly enforced
in India, Malaysia, and Thailand.
In the United States, the clouded leopard is listed as endangered
under the Endangered Species Act, further prohibiting trade in the
animals or any parts or products made from them.
A clouded leopard at the Feline Conservation Center, Rosamond,
Early captive-breeding programs involving clouded leopards were not
very successful, largely due to ignorance of courtship activity among
them in the wild. Experience has taught keepers that introducing pairs
of clouded leopards at a young age gives opportunities for the pair to
bond and breed successfully. Males have the reputation of being
aggressive towards females. Facilities breeding clouded leopards need
to provide the female with a secluded, off-exhibit area. Modern
breeding programs involve carefully regulated introductions between
prospective mating pairs, and take into account the requirements for
enriched enclosures. Stimulating natural behavior by providing
adequate space to permit climbing minimizes stress. This, combined
with a feeding program that fulfills the proper dietary requirements,
has promoted more successful breeding in recent years.[citation
In Tripura, a national park was set up in the Sipahijola Wildlife
Sanctuary where clouded leopards are kept in enclosures in a
In March 2011, two breeding females at the Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
in Nashville, Tennessee, gave birth to three cubs, which were raised
by zookeepers. Each cub weighed 0.5 lb (0.23 kg). In
June 2011, two cubs were born at the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium
in Tacoma, Washington. The breeding pair was brought from the Khao
Kheow Open Zoo in
Thailand in an ongoing education and research
exchange program. Four cubs were born at the Nashville Zoo in
2012. On May 22, 2015, four more cubs were born at Tacoma's Point
Defiance Zoo & Aquarium. The cubs were the fourth litter born to
Chai Li and her mate Nah Fun.
As of December 2011, 222 clouded leopards are believed to exist in
Rukai people of
Taiwan considered the hunting of clouded leopards
a taboo. In the 1970s the print of Rama Samaraweera's painting
Clouded leopard was a best-seller in the USA. Clouded leopard
(Kheleo) is the mascot for 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup, hosted by India
from 6 to 28 October 2017.
In the media
A clouded leopard is the antagonist of the fantasy animated feature
film Rugrats Go Wild.
Chrissie Hynde provides the voice and vocal
effects of the animal. Also, the 2017 Taiwanese furry visual novel
video game Nekojishi features an anthropomorphic clouded leopard
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Neofelis nebulosa (category)
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Clouded Leopard: Facing Dark Clouds of Extinction
Big cats on the Indian subcontinent
Extant in the wild
Asiatic lion (P. leo persica)
Bengal tiger (P. tigris tigris)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Indian leopard (P. pardus fusca)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Extinct in the Indian subcontinent
Asiatic cheetah (A. jubatus venaticus)
Asiatic lion (P. leo persica)
South African cheetah
South African cheetah (A. jubatus jubatus)
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)