in northern Germany
in northern Lebanon
A clothes line or washing line is any type of rope
, cord, or twine
that has been stretched between two points (e.g. two sticks), outside or indoors, above the level of the ground. Clothing
that has recently been washed is hung along the line to dry, using clothes pegs or clothespin
s. Washing lines are attached either from a post or a wall, and are frequently located in back garden
s, or on balconies
. Longer washing lines often have props holding up sections in the middle due to the weight of the usually wet clothing.
More elaborate rotary washing lines save space and are typically retractable and square or triangular in shape, with multiple lines being used (such as the Hills Hoist
from Australia). Some can be folded up when not in use (although there is a very minor hazard of getting fingers caught, so there is usually a safety button).
, many tenement
buildings have a "drying green", which is a communal area predominantly used for clothes lines – it may also be used as a recreational space - as well as a clothes horse
connected to a pulley system inside which can be used in the frequently cold winter weather.
Comparison with clothes dryer
thumb|A rotary, or ''Hills Hoist
'', type of clothes line
Both clothes lines and clothes dryers
serve the same purpose: drying clothes that have been recently washed, or that are wet in general. Here are some advantages and disadvantages of using a clothes line instead of a mechanical dryer:
* Saves money.
* Zero greenhouse gas emissions per load
(2 kg CO2eq
of greenhouse gas emissions from the average mechanical clothes dryer per load).
* Less fabric wear and tear.
* Laundry items do not shrink (hot air from a mechanical clothes dryer may shrink items).
* No static cling
and no perfume smells throughout the neighborhood from fabric softener and anti-static dryer sheets.
* Laundry items stay softer to the touch (mechanical clothes dryers tend to remove short, soft, fine fibers), and may be less wrinkled.
* Laundry items often do not need ironing if line dried in a breeze.
* Avoids the potential of airborne lint and reduced air quality.
* Eliminates the noise from a mechanical clothes dryer.
* Does not vent indoor air to the outside and waste the large volume of conditioned (heated or cooled) air that a mechanical dryer's blower does.
* For a simple line drying arrangement (rope and clothes pins) the repair and replacement costs are about $20.00 per 1,000 loads of laundry or 2 cents per load. For non-commercial mechanical clothes drying the repair and replacement costs (including labor expenses) are about $200.00 per 1,000 loads of laundry or 20 cents per load.
* Putting laundry on a line usually takes more time than putting it into a mechanical dryer (as laundry items have to be hung up and fixed one by one).
* Laundry items need to be hung indoors during rainy weather, or may get wet if the weather changes.
* Neighbors may find it aesthetically unpleasant.
* Exposing laundry can lessen privacy, showing information about inhabitants' living habits.
* There may be a risk of theft or vandalism of clothes depending on where the clothes are hung.
* Environmental contaminants such as soil, dust, smoke, automotive or industrial pollutants, pollen and bird and animal droppings can come in contact with clothing.
* Clothespins can leave imprints on the clothes.
Drying laundry indoors
Laundry may be dried indoors rather than outdoors for a variety of reasons including:
* inclement weather
* physical disability
* lack of space for a line
* reduce the damage to fabrics from sun's UV rays
* legal restrictions
* to raise the humidity level indoors, and lower the air temperature indoors
* to preserve privacy and as a safeguard against vandalism
Several types of devices are available for indoor drying. A clotheshorse
can help save space in an apartment
, or clothes lines can be strung in the basement
during the winter. Small loads can simply be draped over furniture or a shower curtain pole. The drying time indoors will typically be longer than outdoor drying because of the lack of direct solar radiation
and the convective
assistance of the wind.
of the moisture from the clothes will cool the indoor air and increase the humidity level, which may or may not be desirable. In cold, dry weather, moderate increases in humidity make most people feel more comfortable. In warm weather, increased humidity makes most people feel even hotter. Increased humidity can also increase growth of fungi, which can cause health problems.
An average-sized wash load will convert approximately of ambient heat into latent heat that is stored in the evaporated water, as follows. A typical 4 kg load of laundry can contain 2.2 kg of water, after being spun in a laundry machine. To determine how much heat has been converted in drying a load of laundry, weigh the clothes when they are wet and then again after the clothes have dried. The difference is the weight of the water that was evaporated from them. Multiply that weight in kg
by 2,257 kJ/kg, which is the heat of vaporization per kilogram
, to obtain the number of kilojoules that went into evaporating the water, or multiply by 0.6250 kWh/kg to get kilowatt-hours
. (Note: If the moisture later condenses
inside the house, the latent heat will be converted back into ambient heat which could increase the temperature of the air in the room slightly.)
[Diamond, Sheldon R. (1970). Fundamental Concepts of Modern Physics. USA: AMSCO School Publications, Inc. pp. 205. "During evaporation... The surroundings thereby become the ultimate source of the energy required to change the phase of aterfrom liquid to gas."]
To obtain a good approximation of the effect this would have in a particular situation, the process can be traced on a psychrometric chart
Factors that determine the drying duration
Various factors determine the duration of drying and can help to decide rather to use a drier or a clothes line
* The environmental temperature
- increase of temperature decreases the drying duration
* The environmental humidity
- decrease of humidity will decrease the drying duration
velocity - Sometimes people put a fan
near the clothes when drying them indoors
* Direct sun - usually only the external line will be exposed to direct sun, so usually people put the thickest clothes on the most external line.
* Cloth thickness
Drying laundry in freezing conditions
Laundry may be dried outdoors when the temperature is well below the freezing point. First, the moisture in the laundry items will freeze and the clothing will become stiff. Then the frost on the clothes will sublimate into the air
, leaving the items dry. It takes a long time and it is usually much quicker to dry them indoors, but indoor drying transfers heat from the air to water vapor, so it is a trade-off between speed and energy efficiency, however the added humidity cancels out the reduction in air temperature to some extent.
Controversy in North America
Controversy surrounding the use of clothes lines has prompted many governments to pass "right-to-dry" laws allowing their use.
According to Ian Urbina, a reporter for ''The New York Times
'', "the majority of the 60 million people who now live in the country’s roughly 300,000 private communities" are forbidden from using outdoor clothes lines.
, the states of Florida, Colorado, Hawaii, Arizona, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin had passed laws forbidding bans on clothes lines, while Utah allows local jurisdictions to forbid such bans. At least eight states restrict homeowners' associations from forbidding the installation of solar-energy systems, and lawyers have debated whether or not those laws might apply to clothes lines. A British filmmaker, Steven Lake, was planning to release a documentary in 2011 titled ''Drying for Freedom'' about the clothes-line controversy in the United States.
In Canada, the province of Nova Scotia's first NDP government passed ''An Act to Prevent Prohibitions on the Use of Clotheslines'' on December 10, 2010 to allow all homeowners in the province to use clotheslines, regardless of restrictive covenants.
The province of Ontario lifted bans on clothes lines in 2008.]
Some affluent Canadian suburban municipalities such as Hampstead, Québec or Outremont, Québec prohibit clotheslines.
Image:ClothespinsOnALine.jpg|Clothes pins (or pegs) on a clothes line
Image:Clothes line with pegs nearby.jpg|Pegs on a clothes line
Image:Washing Line, Iceland.jpg|Washing line in Iceland
Image:Clothesline.jpg|T clothes line
Image:PostcardMondayMorningInNewYorkCity1907.jpg|Clothes lines in New York City, from a 1904 postcard
Image:Back_to_backs_with_washing.jpg|Across-street line in Armley, Leeds, showing pulley operated at street level, July 2004.
Image:Clothesline-varal.JPG|Clotheslines fiber made with polyurethane
File:El-Jadida,Tor.jpg|Clothesline in El Jadida
File:Retractable clothes line 1.JPG|Retractable clothes line
File:Umbella-style clothesline.jpg|A folding umbrella-style clothes line
* Drying cabinet
* Enthalpy of vaporization
* Sheila Maid
* Penman equation
* Project Laundry List, New-Hampshire, US, organisation to encourage outdoor drying
* Gilbert Toyne
Article about washing lines and clothes pegs
Project Laundry List
"Instructables" article on minimizing the work involved in using a clothes line
Category:Laundry drying equipment