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Clostridium
Clostridium
absonum, Clostridium
Clostridium
aceticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
acetireducens, Clostridium
Clostridium
acetobutylicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
acidisoli, Clostridium aciditolerans, Clostridium
Clostridium
acidurici, Clostridium
Clostridium
aerotolerans, Clostridium
Clostridium
aestuarii, Clostridium
Clostridium
akagii, Clostridium
Clostridium
aldenense, Clostridium
Clostridium
aldrichii, Clostridium
Clostridium
algidicarnis, Clostridium algidixylanolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
algifaecis, Clostridium
Clostridium
algoriphilum, Clostridium
Clostridium
alkalicellulosi, Clostridium
Clostridium
amazonense,[1] Clostridium aminophilum, Clostridium
Clostridium
aminovalericum, Clostridium
Clostridium
amygdalinum, Clostridium
Clostridium
amylolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
arbusti, Clostridium
Clostridium
arcticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
argentinense, Clostridium
Clostridium
asparagiforme, Clostridium aurantibutyricum, Clostridium
Clostridium
autoethanogenum, Clostridium
Clostridium
baratii, Clostridium
Clostridium
barkeri, Clostridium
Clostridium
bartlettii, Clostridium
Clostridium
beijerinckii, Clostridium
Clostridium
bifermentans, Clostridium
Clostridium
bolteae, Clostridium
Clostridium
bornimense, Clostridium
Clostridium
botulinum, Clostridium
Clostridium
bowmanii, Clostridium
Clostridium
bryantii, Clostridium
Clostridium
butyricum, Clostridium
Clostridium
cadaveris, Clostridium
Clostridium
caenicola, Clostridium
Clostridium
caminithermale, Clostridium
Clostridium
carboxidivorans, Clostridium carnis, Clostridium
Clostridium
cavendishii, Clostridium
Clostridium
celatum, Clostridium celerecrescens, Clostridium
Clostridium
cellobioparum, Clostridium cellulofermentans, Clostridium
Clostridium
cellulolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
cellulosi, Clostridium
Clostridium
cellulovorans, Clostridium
Clostridium
chartatabidum, Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium
Clostridium
chromiireducens, Clostridium
Clostridium
citroniae, Clostridium
Clostridium
clariflavum, Clostridium
Clostridium
clostridioforme, Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium
Clostridium
cochlearium, Clostridium
Clostridium
colletant, Clostridium cocleatum, Clostridium
Clostridium
colicanis, Clostridium
Clostridium
colinum, Clostridium collagenovorans, Clostridium
Clostridium
cylindrosporum, Clostridium
Clostridium
difficile, Clostridium
Clostridium
diolis, Clostridium
Clostridium
disporicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
drakei, Clostridium
Clostridium
durum, Clostridium
Clostridium
estertheticum, Clostridium estertheticum estertheticum, Clostridium estertheticum laramiense, Clostridium
Clostridium
fallax, Clostridium
Clostridium
felsineum, Clostridium
Clostridium
fervidum, Clostridium
Clostridium
fimetarium, Clostridium
Clostridium
formicaceticum, Clostridium frigidicarnis, Clostridium
Clostridium
frigoris, Clostridium
Clostridium
ganghwense, Clostridium
Clostridium
gasigenes, Clostridium
Clostridium
ghonii, Clostridium
Clostridium
glycolicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
glycyrrhizinilyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
grantii, Clostridium haemolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
halophilum, Clostridium
Clostridium
hastiforme, Clostridium
Clostridium
hathewayi, Clostridium
Clostridium
herbivorans, Clostridium
Clostridium
hiranonis, Clostridium
Clostridium
histolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
homopropionicum, Clostridium huakuii, Clostridium
Clostridium
hungatei, Clostridium
Clostridium
hydrogeniformans, Clostridium
Clostridium
hydroxybenzoicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
hylemonae, Clostridium jeddahense,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
jejuense, Clostridium
Clostridium
indolis, Clostridium innocuum, Clostridium
Clostridium
intestinale, Clostridium
Clostridium
irregulare, Clostridium isatidis, Clostridium
Clostridium
josui, Clostridium
Clostridium
kluyveri, Clostridium lactatifermentans, Clostridium
Clostridium
lacusfryxellense, Clostridium laramiense, Clostridium
Clostridium
lavalense, Clostridium
Clostridium
lentocellum, Clostridium
Clostridium
lentoputrescens, Clostridium
Clostridium
leptum, Clostridium
Clostridium
limosum, Clostridium
Clostridium
litorale, Clostridium
Clostridium
liquoris,[1] Clostridium lituseburense, Clostridium
Clostridium
ljungdahlii, Clostridium
Clostridium
lortetii, Clostridium
Clostridium
lundense, Clostridium
Clostridium
luticellarii[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
magnum, Clostridium
Clostridium
malenominatum, Clostridium
Clostridium
mangenotii, Clostridium mayombei, Clostridium
Clostridium
maximum,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
methoxybenzovorans, Clostridium
Clostridium
methylpentosum, Clostridium
Clostridium
moniliforme,[1] Clostridium neopropionicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
nexile, Clostridium
Clostridium
nitrophenolicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
novyi, Clostridium
Clostridium
oceanicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
orbiscindens, Clostridium
Clostridium
oroticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
oryzae,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
oxalicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
papyrosolvens, Clostridium
Clostridium
paradoxum, Clostridium paraperfringens (Alias: C. welchii), Clostridium
Clostridium
paraputrificum, Clostridium
Clostridium
pascui, Clostridium
Clostridium
pasteurianum, Clostridium peptidivorans, Clostridium
Clostridium
perenne, Clostridium
Clostridium
perfringens, Clostridium
Clostridium
pfennigii, Clostridium
Clostridium
phytofermentans, Clostridium piliforme, Clostridium
Clostridium
polysaccharolyticum, Clostridium polyendosporum,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
populeti, Clostridium
Clostridium
propionicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
proteoclasticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
proteolyticum, Clostridium psychrophilum, Clostridium
Clostridium
puniceum, Clostridium
Clostridium
punense,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
purinilyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
putrefaciens, Clostridium putrificum, Clostridium
Clostridium
quercicolum, Clostridium
Clostridium
quinii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium
Clostridium
rectum, Clostridium
Clostridium
roseum, Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
saccharogumia, Clostridium saccharolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
saccharoperbutylacetonicum, Clostridium sardiniense, Clostridium
Clostridium
sartagoforme, Clostridium
Clostridium
saudiense,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
senegalense,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
scatologenes, Clostridium schirmacherense, Clostridium
Clostridium
scindens, Clostridium
Clostridium
septicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
sordellii, Clostridium
Clostridium
sphenoides, Clostridium
Clostridium
spiroforme, Clostridium
Clostridium
sporogenes, Clostridium
Clostridium
sporosphaeroides, Clostridium stercorarium, Clostridium stercorarium leptospartum, Clostridium stercorarium stercorarium, Clostridium stercorarium thermolacticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
sticklandii, Clostridium
Clostridium
straminisolvens, Clostridium subterminale, Clostridium
Clostridium
sufflavum, Clostridium
Clostridium
sulfidigenes, Clostridium
Clostridium
swellfunianum,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
symbiosum, Clostridium tagluense, Clostridium
Clostridium
tarantellae,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
tepidiprofundi, Clostridium
Clostridium
termitidis, Clostridium
Clostridium
tertium, Clostridium
Clostridium
tetani, Clostridium
Clostridium
tetanomorphum, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermaceticum, Clostridium thermautotrophicum, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermoalcaliphilum, Clostridium thermobutyricum, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermocellum, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermocopriae, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermohydrosulfuricum, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermolacticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermopalmarium, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermopapyrolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermosaccharolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermosuccinogenes, Clostridium
Clostridium
thermosulfurigenes, Clostridium
Clostridium
thiosulfatireducens, Clostridium
Clostridium
tyrobutyricum, Clostridium
Clostridium
uliginosum, Clostridium ultunense, Clostridium
Clostridium
ventriculi,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
villosum, Clostridium
Clostridium
vincentii, Clostridium
Clostridium
viride, Clostridium
Clostridium
vulturis,[1] Clostridium
Clostridium
xylanolyticum, Clostridium
Clostridium
xylanovorans

Clostridium
Clostridium
is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium
Clostridium
difficile. They are obligate anaerobes capable of producing endospores. The normal, reproducing cells of Clostridium, called the vegetative form, are rod-shaped, which gives them their name, from the Greek κλωστήρ or spindle. Clostridium
Clostridium
endospores have a distinct bowling pin or bottle shape, distinguishing them from other bacterial endospores, which are usually ovoid in shape. Clostridium
Clostridium
species inhabit soils and the intestinal tract of animals, including humans.[2] Clostridium
Clostridium
is a normal inhabitant of the healthy lower reproductive tract of women.[3][4]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Treatment 3 History 4 Use 5 References 6 External links

Overview[edit] Clostridium
Clostridium
contains around 100 species that include common free-living bacteria, as well as important pathogens.[5] The main species responsible for disease in humans are:[6]

Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum
can produce botulinum toxin in food or wounds and can cause botulism. This same toxin is known as Botox
Botox
and is used in cosmetic surgery to paralyze facial muscles to reduce the signs of aging; it also has numerous other therapeutic uses. Clostridium
Clostridium
difficile can flourish when other gut flora bacteria are killed during antibiotic therapy, leading to superinfection and potentially fatal pseudomembranous colitis (a severe necrotizing disease of the large intestine). Clostridium perfringens
Clostridium perfringens
causes a wide range of symptoms, from food poisoning to cellulitis, fasciitis, and gas gangrene. Clostridium tetani
Clostridium tetani
causes tetanus. Clostridium sordellii can cause a fatal infection in exceptionally rare cases after medical abortions.[7]

Bacillus
Bacillus
and Clostridium
Clostridium
are often described as gram-variable, because they show an increasing number of gram-negative cells as the culture ages.[8] Clostridium
Clostridium
and Bacillus
Bacillus
are both in the division Firmicutes, but they are in different classes, orders, and families. Microbiologists distinguish Clostridium
Clostridium
from Bacillus
Bacillus
by the following features:[2]

Clostridium
Clostridium
grows in anaerobic conditions; Bacillus
Bacillus
grows in aerobic conditions. Clostridium
Clostridium
forms bottle-shaped endospores; Bacillus
Bacillus
forms oblong endospores. Clostridium
Clostridium
does not form the enzyme catalase; Bacillus
Bacillus
secretes catalase to destroy toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism.

Clostridium
Clostridium
and Desulfotomaculum are both in the class Clostridia
Clostridia
and order Clostridiales, and they both produce bottle-shaped endospores, but they are in different families. Clostridium
Clostridium
can be distinguished from Desulfotomaculum on the basis of the nutrients each genus uses (the latter requires sulfur). Glycolysis
Glycolysis
and fermentation of pyruvic acid by Clostridia
Clostridia
yield the end products butyric acid, butanol, acetone, isopropanol, and carbon dioxide.[8] The Schaeffer-Fulton stain
Schaeffer-Fulton stain
(0.5% malachite green in water) can be used to distinguish endospores of Bacillus
Bacillus
and Clostridium
Clostridium
from other microorganisms.[9] There is a commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test kit (Bactotype) for the detection of C. perfringens and other pathogenic bacteria.[10] Treatment[edit] In general, the treatment of clostridial infection is high-dose penicillin G, to which the organism has remained susceptible.[11] Clostridium welchii
Clostridium welchii
and Clostridium tetani
Clostridium tetani
respond to sulfonamides.[12] Clostridia
Clostridia
are also susceptible to tetracyclines, carbapenems (imipenem), metronidazole, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol.[13] The vegetative cells of clostridia are heat-labile and are killed by short heating at temperatures above 72–75 °C. The thermal destruction of Clostridium
Clostridium
spores requires higher temperatures (above 121.1 °C, for example in an autoclave) and longer cooking times (20 min, with a few exceptional cases of > 50 min recorded in the literature). Clostridia
Clostridia
and Bacilli
Bacilli
are quite radiation-resistant, requiring doses of about 30 kGy, which is a serious obstacle to the development of shelf-stable irradiated foods for general use in the retail market.[14] The addition of lysozyme, nitrate, nitrite and propionic acid salts inhibits clostridia in various foods.[15][16][17] Fructooligosaccharides (fructans) such as inulin, occurring in relatively large amounts in a number of foods such as chicory, garlic, onion, leek, artichoke, and asparagus, have a prebiotic or bifidogenic effect, selectively promoting the growth and metabolism of beneficial bacteria in the colon, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, while inhibiting harmful ones, such as clostridia, fusobacteria, and bacteroides.[18] History[edit] In the late 1700s, Germany experienced a number of outbreaks of an illness that seemed connected to eating certain sausages. In 1817, the German neurologist Justinus Kerner
Justinus Kerner
detected rod-shaped cells in his investigations into this so-called sausage poisoning. In 1897, the Belgian biology professor Emile van Ermengem published his finding of an endospore-forming organism he isolated from spoiled ham. Biologists classified van Ermengem's discovery along with other known gram-positive spore formers in the genus Bacillus. This classification presented problems, however, because the isolate grew only in anaerobic conditions, but Bacillus
Bacillus
grew well in oxygen.[2] In 1924, Ida A. Bengtson
Ida A. Bengtson
separated van Ermengem's microorganisms from the Bacillus
Bacillus
group and assigned them to a new genus, Clostridium. By Bengtson's classification scheme, Clostridium
Clostridium
contained all of the anaerobic endospore-forming rod-shaped bacteria, except the genus Desulfotomaculum.[2] Use[edit]

Clostridium thermocellum can use lignocellulosic waste and generate ethanol, thus making it a possible candidate for use in production of ethanol fuel. It also has no oxygen requirement and is thermophilic, which reduces cooling cost. Clostridium acetobutylicum
Clostridium acetobutylicum
was first used by Chaim Weizmann
Chaim Weizmann
to produce acetone and biobutanol from starch in 1916 for the production of cordite (smokeless gunpowder). Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum
produces a potentially lethal neurotoxin used in a diluted form in the drug Botox, which is carefully injected to nerves in the face, which prevents the movement of the expressive muscles of the forehead, to delay the wrinkling effect of aging. It is also used to treat spasmodic torticollis and provides relief for around 12 to 16 weeks.[19] Clostridium butyricum
Clostridium butyricum
MIYAIRI 588 strain is marketed in Japan, Korea, and China for Clostridium
Clostridium
difficile prophylaxis due to its reported ability to interfere with the growth of the latter. Clostridium histolyticum has been used as a source of the enzyme collagenase, which degrades animal tissue. Clostridium
Clostridium
species excrete collagenase to eat through tissue and, thus, help the pathogen spread throughout the body. The medical profession uses collagenase for the same reason in the débridement of infected wounds.[2] Hyaluronidase, deoxyribonuclease, lecithinase, leukocidin, protease, lipase, and hemolysin are also produced by some clostridia that cause gas gangrene.[8][20] Clostridium
Clostridium
ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass.[21] Clostridium diolis converts dicarboxylic acids to 1,3-propanediol.[citation needed] Genes from Clostridium thermocellum have been inserted into transgenic mice to allow the production of endoglucanase. The experiment was intended to learn more about how the digestive capacity of monogastric animals could be improved. Nonpathogenic strains of Clostridium
Clostridium
may help in the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Research shows that Clostridium
Clostridium
can selectively target cancer cells. Some strains can enter and replicate within solid tumors. Clostridium
Clostridium
could, therefore, be used to deliver therapeutic proteins to tumours. This use of Clostridium
Clostridium
has been demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models.[22] Mixtures of Clostridium
Clostridium
species, such as Clostridium
Clostridium
beijerinckii, Clostridium
Clostridium
butyricum, and species from other genera have been shown to produce biohydrogen from yeast waste.[23]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Parte, A.C. "Clostridium". www.bacterio.net.  ^ a b c d e Anne Maczulak (2011), "Clostridium", Encyclopedia of Microbiology, Facts on File, pp. 168–173, ISBN 978-0-8160-7364-1  ^ Hoffman, Barbara (2012). Williams gynecology (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 65. ISBN 0071716726.  ^ Senok, Abiola C; Verstraelen, Hans; Temmerman, Marleen; Botta, Giuseppe A; Senok, Abiola C (2009). "Probiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD006289. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006289.pub2. PMID 19821358.  ^ UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations (October 10, 2011). "Identification of Clostridium
Clostridium
Species". Standards Unit, Health Protection Agency. p. 7. 8. Retrieved November 3, 2013.  ^ Baron, S.; et al., eds. (1996). Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ. of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Meites E, Zane S, Gould C (2010). "Fatal Clostridium
Clostridium
sordellii infections after medical abortions". New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (14): 1382–3. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1001014. PMID 20879895.  ^ a b c Gerard J. Tortora; Berdell R. Funke; Christine L. Case (2010), Microbiology: An Introduction (10th ed.), Benjamin Cummings, pp. 87, 134, 433, ISBN 978-0-321-55007-1  ^ Anne Maczulak (2011), "stain", Encyclopedia of Microbiology, Facts on File, pp. 726–729, ISBN 978-0-8160-7364-1  ^ Hermann Willems; Cornelie Jäger; Gerald Reiner (2007), "Polymerase Chain Reaction", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1–27, doi:10.1002/14356007.c21_c01.pub2  ^ Jerrold B. Leikin; Frank P. Paloucek, eds. (2008), "Clostridium perfringens Poisoning", Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th ed.), Informa, pp. 892–893, ISBN 978-1-4200-4479-9  ^ Paul Actor; Alfred W. Chow; Frank J. Dutko; Mark A. McKinlay (2007), "Chemotherapeutics", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1–61, doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_173  ^ Richard A. Harvey, ed. (2012), Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (5th ed.), Lippincott, pp. 389–404, ISBN 978-1-4511-1314-3  ^ Pavel Jelen (2007), "Foods, 2. Food Technology", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1–38, doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_523  ^ Guido Burkhalter; Christian Steffen; Zdenko Puhan (2007), "Cheese, Processed Cheese, and Whey", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1–11, doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_163  ^ Karl-Otto Honikel (2007), "Meat and Meat Products", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1–17, doi:10.1002/14356007.e16_e02.pub2  ^ Ulf-Rainer Samel; Walter Kohler; Armin Otto Gamer; Ullrich Keuser (2007), "Propionic Acid and Derivatives", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1–18, doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_223  ^ Ralf Zink; Andrea Pfeifer (2007), "Health Value Added Foods", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1–12, doi:10.1002/14356007.d12_d01  ^ Velickovic M, Benabou R, Brin MF. Cervical dystonia pathophysiology and treatment options" Drugs 2001;61:1921–1943. ^ Gerard M. Doherty, ed. (2005), "Inflammation, Infection, & Antimicrobial Therapy", Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-159087-7  ^ "Providing for a Sustainable Energy Future". Bioengineering Resources, inc. Retrieved 21 May 2007.  ^ Mengesha; et al. (2009). " Clostridia
Clostridia
in Anti-tumor Therapy". Clostridia: Molecular Biology in the Post-genomic Era. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-38-7.  ^ Chou, Chia-Hung; Chang-Lung Han; Jui-Jen Chang; Jiunn-Jyi Lay (October 2011). "Co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii L9, Clostridium butyricum
Clostridium butyricum
M1 and Bacillus
Bacillus
thermoamylovorans B5 for converting yeast waste into hydrogen". International Journal of Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Energy. 36 (21): 13972–13983. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.03.067. 

External links[edit]

Clostridium
Clostridium
genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology UK Clostridium
Clostridium
difficile Support Group Pathema- Clostridium
Clostridium
Resource Water analysis: Clostridium
Clostridium
video

v t e

Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

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Firmicutes
Firmicutes
(low-G+C) Infectious diseases Bacterial diseases: G+

primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109

Bacilli

Lactobacillales (Cat-)

Streptococcus

α

optochin susceptible

S. pneumoniae

Pneumococcal infection

optochin resistant

Viridans streptococci: S. mitis S. mutans S. oralis S. sanguinis S. sobrinus milleri group

β

A

bacitracin susceptible: S. pyogenes

Group A streptococcal infection Streptococcal pharyngitis Scarlet fever Erysipelas Rheumatic fever

B

bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae

Group B streptococcal infection

ungrouped

Streptococcus
Streptococcus
iniae

Cutaneous Streptococcus
Streptococcus
iniae infection

γ

D BEA+: Streptococcus
Streptococcus
bovis

Enterococcus

BEA+: Enterococcus
Enterococcus
faecalis

Urinary tract infection

Enterococcus
Enterococcus
faecium

Bacillales (Cat+)

Staphylococcus

Cg+

S. aureus

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome MRSA

Cg-

novobiocin susceptible

S. epidermidis

novobiocin resistant

S. saprophyticus

Bacillus

Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis

Anthrax

Bacillus
Bacillus
cereus

Food poisoning

Listeria

Listeria
Listeria
monocytogenes

Listeriosis

Clostridia

Clostridium
Clostridium
(spore-forming)

motile:

Clostridium
Clostridium
difficile

Pseudomembranous colitis

Clostridium
Clostridium
botulinum

Botulism

Clostridium
Clostridium
tetani

Tetanus

nonmotile:

Clostridium
Clostridium
perfringens

Gas gangrene Clostridial necrotizing enteritis

Peptostreptococcus
Peptostreptococcus
(non-spore forming)

Peptostreptococcus
Peptostreptococcus
magnus

Mollicutes

Mycoplasmataceae

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Ureaplasma infection

Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Mycoplasma pneumonia

Anaeroplasmatales

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Erysipeloid

Biology portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q327663 EoL: 83389 EPPO: 1CLTRG GBIF: 3226206 ITIS: 555645 NCBI:

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