CLIMBING is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other
part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done recreationally,
competitively, in trades that rely on it, and in emergency rescue and
military operations. It is done indoors and out, on natural and
* 1 Types
* 2 See also
* 3 References
* 4 External links
Climbing activities include:
Bouldering : Ascending boulders or small outcrops, often with
climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Usually, instead of using a
safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a
human spotter (to direct a falling climber on to the pad. They can
also give beta, or advice)
Buildering : Ascending the exterior skeletons of buildings,
typically without protective equipment.
Climbing along canyons for sport or recreation.
Chalk climbing: Ascending chalk cliffs uses some of the same
techniques as ice climbing.
* Competition climbing : A formal, competitive sport of recent
origins, normally practiced on artificial walls that resemble natural
rock formations. The
International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC
) is the official organization governing competition climbing
worldwide and is recognized by the
GAISF and is a member of
the International World Games Association (
IWGA ). Competition
climbing has three major disciplines: Lead,
Bouldering and Speed.
Ice climbing : Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special
equipment, usually ice axes and crampons . Techniques of protecting
the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective
devices (such as ice screws and snow wedges) adapted to frozen
Indoor climbing :
Top roping , lead climbing , and bouldering
artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym.
Mountaineering : Ascending mountains for sport or recreation. It
often involves rock and/or ice climbing (Alpine climbing).
Pole climbing :
Climbing poles and masts without equipment.
Lumberjack tree-trimming and competitive tree-trunk or pole
climbing for speed using spikes and belts.
Rock climbing : Ascending rock formations, often using climbing
shoes and a chalk bag . Equipment such as ropes, bolts, nuts, hexes
and camming devices are normally employed, either as a safeguard or
for artificial aid.
Rope access : Industrial climbing, usually abseiling , as an
alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures.
Rope climbing :
Climbing a short, thick rope for speed. Not to be
confused with roped climbing, as in rock or ice climbing.
Scrambling which includes easy rock climbing, and is considered
part of hillwalking .
Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent
anchors fixed to the rock, and possibly bolts , for protection , (in
contrast with traditional climbing , where the rock is typically
devoid of fixed anchors and bolts, and where climbers must place
removable protection as they climb).
Top roping : Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope
anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below
Traditional climbing (more casually known as Trad climbing) is a
form of climbing without fixed anchors and bolts. Climbers place
removable protection such as camming devices, nuts, and other passive
and active protection that holds the rope to the rock (via the use of
carabiners and webbing/slings) in the event of a fall and/or when
weighted by a climber.
Free solo climbing :
Climbing without ropes or protection.
Tree climbing : Recreationally ascending trees using ropes and
other protective equipment.
* A tower climber is a professional who climbs broadcasting or
telecommunication towers or masts for maintenance or repair.
Rock, ice and tree climbing all usually use ropes for safety or aid.
Pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be
included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century
and early 19th century.
List of climbers – notable rock and ice climbers
List of climbing topics
Glossary of climbing terms
Glossary of knots common in climbing