Case Western Reserve
University School of Medicine Cleveland Clinic
Lerner College of Medicine
University College of Podiatric Medicine
FAA LID: 6OI8
Hospitals in the United States
Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic hospital in
Cleveland, Ohio, that is owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic
Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921. In
addition to its flagship hospital in Cleveland, the Cleveland Clinic
operates affiliated facilities in Florida, Nevada, Canada, and the
United Arab Emirates.
Cleveland Clinic fire
1.3 Growth of specialization
2 Research and education
6 See also
9 Further reading
Main article: History of Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland Clinic grew out of the surgical practice of Frank J.
Weed (died 1891), at 16 Church Street on the near west side of
Cleveland. The practice was purchased by his two assistants,
Frank E. Bunts and George Washington Crile. In 1892 they brought
Crile's cousin, William E. Lower into the practice. In 1897 they
moved to the Osborn Building on Prospect Avenue in downtown
A four-story outpatient building was constructed, and the Cleveland
Clinic was dedicated at a private ceremony on February 26, 1921. It
opened its doors two days later to the public and registered 42
patients. In April 1921, the
Cleveland Clinic had 60 employees,
including 14 physicians and four nurses.
In 1922 the founders purchased four private homes nearby for
hospitalization, radiation treatment, and administration. A fifth
house was acquired as a residence for patients with diabetes receiving
insulin treatments. To meet rising patient volume, a 184-bed
hospital was built in 1924, located at East 90th Street and Carnegie
Avenue. A power plant, laundry, and ice plant were also
built.[self-published source] A research laboratory was
constructed in 1928.
Cleveland Clinic fire
Cleveland Clinic fire of 1929
Cleveland Clinic's original building, built in 1921
On May 15, 1929, nitrocellulose x-ray films stored in the basement of
the outpatient building ignited. An explosion sent a cloud
of toxic oxides of nitrogen and carbon though the building. One
hundred and twenty-three people lost their lives, including John
Phillips, one of the founders. A dozen investigating agencies
were not able to determine what had caused the fire. The Cleveland
Clinic's own inquiry narrowed the possible causes down to spontaneous
combustion caused by heat; a discarded cigarette or match; and contact
with an extension cord light hung over a stack of films.
Samuel Mather formed a committee of 36 community
leaders to help the
Cleveland Clinic reestablish itself in temporary
quarters across the street. Patient care services resumed
five days later. The 1921 building was completely renovated, and a
new three-story clinic building, with a new main entrance, was added
in 1931. All debts were repaid by 1941.
Growth of specialization
George Washington Crile, one of the founders
Cleveland Clinic built new operating rooms in the early 1970s to
accommodate the growth of cardiac surgery. The Martha Holden
Jennings Education Building opened in 1964, with an auditorium named
for Dr. Bunts. A new hospital building (currently home to Cleveland
Clinic Children’s Hospital) opened in 1966, and a research building
opened in 1974 (demolished in 2007). A pathology and laboratory
medicine building was constructed on Carnegie Avenue in 1980.
Willian S. Kiser, chairman of the board 1977–1989, led the
development of a strategic plan to accommodate growing patient volumes
in the late 1970s. This resulted in a group of buildings known as the
Century Project. Completed in 1985, the Century Project includes a
14-story outpatient building (now known as the Crile Building)
designed by architect Cesar Pelli.
Research and education
Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute conducts biomedical
research in a building that opened in 1999. The Cleveland Clinic
Lerner College of Medicine (CCLCM) of Case Western Reserve University
opened in 2004. It is a 5-year medical school in the Case Western
University School of Medicine with 32 students per class, each
receiving a scholarship for full tuition and fees. While most
MD-granting medical schools in the U.S. are four-year programs, the
fifth year of CCLCM is dedicated to a year of research.
Cleveland Clinic publishes the peer-reviewed Cleveland Clinic
Journal of Medicine monthly, focusing on internal medicine,
endocrinology, and diabetes.
The Top 10 Medical Innovations is an annual list (since 2007) selected
in October each year by a panel of
Cleveland Clinic physicians and
scientists. For consideration on the list, the development must be
considered likely to be available to the public in the upcoming year
and to be expected to have a significant impact on a large part of the
Cleveland Clinic is nationally recognized as one of the top
medical centers in the US and the world, particularly in technological
and management systems and in the treatment of cardiovascular
disease. For high acuity conditions requiring special
expertise or the latest technology, it is ranked as the #2 hospital by
U.S. News & World Report (USNWR), with individual rankings as
Cardiology and heart surgery
Diabetes and endocrinology
Ear, nose and throat
Gastroenterology and GI surgery
Neurology and neurosurgery
Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute
Lerner Research Institute
The U.S. News & World Report ratings stand in contrast to rankings
that feature a safety emphasis. In a
Kaiser Family Foundation review
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) data for hospital
acquired conditions in 2014, the
Cleveland Clinic received a 8.7 score
(1–10 possible, with 10 being the worst), in the bottom 7% of
hospitals. In 2012
Consumer Reports rated the Cleveland Clinic
98th among 105 rated hospitals in the State of Ohio for overall
safety. In 2015 the rating was 60th among 161 hospitals, with a
score of 49 out of 100 possible points. (Nationwide, the top and
bottom scores were 79 and 21.)
Leapfrog Group ranked the
Cleveland Clinic in 2012 as one of 121
hospitals (out of 2,618) with a "barely passing" D rating for safety
(25 hospitals had F scores), which Leapfrog described as among the
"most hazardous environments for patients in need of care." The
different emphases and methodologies of the U.S. News & World
Report and other ranking systems explain why teaching hospitals
collectively score prominently on one system but rarely feature highly
on others. The main Clinic hospital received Leapfrog grades of
"C" in fall and spring of 2013, 2014, and 2015, a "B" in spring of
2016, and an "A" in fall 2016. Other hospital facilities in the
system received Leapfrog grades ranging from A to B in fall 2016.
Between 2010 and 2013, CMS undertook an extensive series of
investigations into the
Cleveland Clinic Foundation, with at least a
dozen inspections and follow-up visits triggered by patient
complaints. An analysis of Medicare inspection data between
2011 and 2014 found that the
Cleveland Clinic Foundation was one of at
least 230 instances in which validated serious incidents—dubbed
"immediate jeopardy" complaints—led CMS to threaten loss of ability
to serve Medicare patients unless the problems were fixed immediately.
Due to numerous serious ongoing safety violations, the Cleveland
Clinic Foundation was on payment termination track for 19 months,
placing at stake $1B in annual Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement.
The citations were reported and analyzed in detail by Modern
Healthcare, which posted some of the safety documents.
Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, Nevada
The Cleveland Clinic's main campus consists of 41 buildings on 160
acres (65 ha) near
University Circle, in Fairfax, Cleveland.
Cleveland Clinic operates 18 family health and ambulatory
surgery centers in surrounding communities, a multispecialty hospital
and family health center in Weston, Florida, and an outpatient clinic
in Toronto, Ontario.
In May, 2010, the
Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health
opened in a unique structure designed by architect
Frank Gehry in Las
An overseas location, the
Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, opened in
In August 2015, the Akron General Health System in Akron, Ohio, joined
Cleveland Clinic system. Akron General includes Akron General
Hospital, Visiting Nurse Service and Affiliates, Hospice of VNS, Lodi
Community Hospital, Edwin Shaw Rehabilitation Institute, and three
health and wellness centers. In May 2017, the Cleveland Clinic
reached an agreement to acquire 150-bed Union Hospital in Dover,
The organization began work renovating an historic building at 33
Grosvenor Place in central London, UK in 2018. Demolition of the
interior of the six-story, 198,000-square-foot building has begun with
a construction completion date of late 2020.
In 2011, the
Cleveland Clinic was second on the Becker's Hospital
Review list of top-grossing hospitals in the United States, with total
patient revenue of $9.14 billion. The hospital posted $243 million
operating income on $8 billion revenue in 2016. Operating income fell
about 50 percent from 2015, which it said was due to shrinking
reimbursements and rising drug costs.
List of hospitals in the United States
Medical centers in the United States
^ This is based on a statistical model that utilizes factors such as
admission numbers and visit volumes, reputational perception by peers,
the availability of special equipment, and the campus
availability of numerous high acuity specialties.
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Coordinates: 41°30′09″N 81°37′16″W / 41.50250°N
81.62111°W / 41.5025