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Cleveland
Cleveland
(/ˈkliːvlənd/ KLEEV-lənd) is a city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County,[7] the state's second most-populous county.[8][9] Located along Lake Erie, the city proper has a population of 388,072, making Cleveland
Cleveland
the 51st largest city in the United States,[5] and the second-largest city in Ohio
Ohio
after Columbus.[10][11] Greater Cleveland
Greater Cleveland
ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with 2,055,612 people in 2016.[12] The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and ranks 15th in the United States. The city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles (100 kilometers) west of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
state border. It was founded by European Americans in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. It became a manufacturing center due to its location on the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy has diversified sectors that include manufacturing, financial services, healthcare, and biomedical. Cleveland
Cleveland
is also home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Residents of Cleveland
Cleveland
are called "Clevelanders". Cleveland
Cleveland
has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City".[13]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Topography 2.2 Cityscape

2.2.1 Architecture 2.2.2 Neighborhoods 2.2.3 Suburbs

2.3 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 2010 census 3.2 2000 census 3.3 Languages

4 Economy 5 Culture

5.1 Performing arts 5.2 Film and television 5.3 Literature 5.4 Cuisine 5.5 Tourism

6 Sports 7 Parks and gardens 8 Law and government

8.1 Crime

8.1.1 Consent decree with Department of Justice

8.1.1.1 Provisions of the consent decree

8.2 Fire department

9 Education

9.1 Public schools 9.2 Private and Parochial Schools 9.3 Colleges and universities

10 Media

10.1 Print 10.2 Television 10.3 Radio

11 Infrastructure

11.1 Healthcare 11.2 Transportation

11.2.1 Airports 11.2.2 Seaport 11.2.3 Railroads 11.2.4 Transit systems 11.2.5 Inter-city bus lines 11.2.6 Roads 11.2.7 Freeways 11.2.8 Walkability

12 Sister cities
Sister cities
and international relations 13 See also 14 Footnotes 15 References 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Cleveland See also: Timeline of Cleveland
Cleveland
history Cleveland
Cleveland
was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company
Connecticut Land Company
laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city. They named it "Cleaveland" after their leader, General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814.[11] In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes
Great Lakes
trade. The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio
Ohio
and Erie
Erie
Canal. This key link between the Ohio
Ohio
River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie
Erie
Canal
Canal
and Hudson River, and later via the St. Lawrence Seaway. Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links.[14] Cleveland
Cleveland
incorporated as a city in 1836.[11] In 1836, the city, then located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two.[15] Ohio
Ohio
City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland
Cleveland
in 1854.[11]

Bird's-eye view
Bird's-eye view
of Cleveland
Cleveland
in 1877

The city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland
Cleveland
serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller
founded Standard Oil
Standard Oil
in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business.[16] Cleveland
Cleveland
emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center. Its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's,[17] Jordan, Chandler, and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.S.[18] Other manufacturers located in Cleveland
Cleveland
produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker. Because of its significant growth, Cleveland
Cleveland
was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period.[19][20] By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland
Cleveland
became the nation's fifth-largest city.[11] The city counted Progressive Era
Progressive Era
politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders. Its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie
Erie
shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937.[21] The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.[22] Following World War II, Cleveland
Cleveland
continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, and the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s. As a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland
Cleveland
was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland
Cleveland
was the "best location in the nation".[23][24][25] In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population.[26] Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra. The city's population reached its peak of 914,808, and in 1949 Cleveland
Cleveland
was named an All-America City for the first time.[27] By the 1960s, the economy slowed, and residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways.[28]

The Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River
winds through the Flats in a December 1937 aerial view of downtown Cleveland.

In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination. As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights, social and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland
Cleveland
and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots
Hough Riots
erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966. The Glenville Shootout
Glenville Shootout
took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland
Cleveland
became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes
Carl Stokes
(who served from 1968 to 1971). Industrial restructuring, particularly in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous jobs in Cleveland
Cleveland
and the region, and the city suffered economically. In December 1978, Cleveland
Cleveland
became the first major American city since the Great Depression to enter into a financial default on federal loans.[11] By the beginning of the 1980s, several factors, including changes in international free trade policies, inflation and the Savings and Loans Crisis, contributed to the recession that severely affected cities like Cleveland.[29] While unemployment during the period peaked in 1983,[30] Cleveland's rate of 13.8% was higher than the national average due to the closure of several steel production centers.[31][32][33] In the later 20th century, the metropolitan area began a gradual economic recovery under mayors George Voinovich
George Voinovich
and Michael R. White. Redevelopment within the city limits has been strongest in the downtown area near the Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex—consisting of Progressive Field
Progressive Field
and Quicken Loans Arena—and near North Coast Harbor, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, FirstEnergy Stadium, and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Science Center. Cleveland
Cleveland
was hailed in 2007 by local media as the "Comeback City".[34] Economic development of the inner-city neighborhoods and improvement of the school systems have been municipal priorities.[35] In 1999, Cleveland
Cleveland
was identified as an emerging global city.[36] Since the turn of the 21st century, the city has improved infrastructure, developed a more diversified economy, gained a national reputation in medical fields, and invested in the arts. Cleveland
Cleveland
is generally considered to be an example of revitalization of an older industrial city. The city's goals include additional neighborhood revitalization and increased funding for public education.[37] In 2009, Cleveland
Cleveland
was chosen to host the 2014 Gay Games, the fourth city in the United States to host this international event.[38] On July 8, 2014, Cleveland
Cleveland
was chosen to be the host city of the 2016 Republican National Convention.[39] Geography[edit] Topography[edit] According to the United States Census
Census
Bureau, the city has a total area of 82.47 square miles (213.60 km2), of which 77.70 square miles (201.24 km2) is land and 4.77 square miles (12.35 km2) is water.[2] The shore of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. In Cleveland
Cleveland
these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. The land rises quickly from the lake shore. Public Square, less than one mile (1.6 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, 5 miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 791 feet (241 m).[40] Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of Public Square in 1912

Skyline of Cleveland
Cleveland
from Lake Erie
Lake Erie
in 2006, with the Key Tower, the 200 Public Square, and the Terminal Tower
Terminal Tower
at the center

Architecture[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Cleveland
List of tallest buildings in Cleveland
and National Register of Historic Places listings in Cleveland, Ohio

St. Theodosius Orthodox Cathedral

Cleveland's downtown architecture is diverse. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland
Cleveland
Public Library, and Public Auditorium, are clustered around an open mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan. They constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States.[41] The Terminal Tower, dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in North America outside New York City until 1964 and the tallest in the city until 1991.[42] It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower
Key Tower
(currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the 200 Public Square, combine elements of Art Deco
Art Deco
architecture with postmodern designs. Another of Cleveland's architectural treasures is The Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt
Hyatt
Regency Hotel.[43] Cleveland's landmark ecclesiastical architecture includes the historic Old Stone Church in downtown Cleveland
Cleveland
and the onion domed St. Theodosius Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Tremont, along with myriad ethnically inspired Roman Catholic churches.[44] Running east from Public Square through University Circle
University Circle
is Euclid Avenue, which was known for its prestige and elegance as a residential street. In the late 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor
Bayard Taylor
described it as "the most beautiful street in the world".[45] Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such major figures as John D. Rockefeller, Mark Hanna, and John Hay.[46] Neighborhoods[edit]

The west bank of the Flats and the Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River
in downtown Cleveland

Downtown Cleveland
Downtown Cleveland
is centered on Public Square and includes a wide range of districts. It contains the traditional Financial District and Civic Center, as well as the Cleveland
Cleveland
Theater District, which is home to Playhouse Square
Playhouse Square
Center. Mixed-use neighborhoods, such as the Flats and the Warehouse District, are occupied by industrial and office buildings as well as restaurants and bars. The number of downtown housing units, in the form of condominiums, lofts, and apartments, has been on the increase since 2000. Recent developments include the revival of the Flats, the Euclid Corridor Project, and the developments along East 4th Street.[47][48] Cleveland
Cleveland
residents geographically define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east or west side of the Cuyahoga River.[49] The east side includes the neighborhoods of Buckeye-Shaker, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid-Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Payne/Goodrich-Kirtland Park, Hough, Kinsman, Lee Harvard/Seville-Miles, Mount Pleasant, Nottingham, St. Clair-Superior, Union-Miles Park, University, Little Italy, and Woodland Hills. The west side includes the neighborhoods of Brooklyn Centre, Clark-Fulton, Detroit-Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Ohio
Ohio
City, Tremont, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park: Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Puritas-Longmead, and Riverside. Three neighborhoods in the Cuyahoga Valley are sometimes referred to as the south side: Industrial Valley/Duck Island, Slavic Village (North and South Broadway), and Tremont.

Map of villages and other land annexed to the City of Cleveland

Several inner-city neighborhoods have begun to gentrify in recent years. Areas on both the west side ( Ohio
Ohio
City, Tremont, Detroit-Shoreway, and Edgewater) and the east side (Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy) have been successful in attracting increasing numbers of creative class members, which in turn is spurring new residential development.[50] Furthermore, a live-work zoning overlay for the city's near east side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists.[51]

NASA
NASA
photograph of Cleveland
Cleveland
and its surrounding suburbs

Suburbs[edit] Main article: Greater Cleveland Cleveland's older, inner-ring suburbs include Bedford, Bedford Heights, Brook Park, Brooklyn, Brooklyn Heights, Cleveland
Cleveland
Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, East Cleveland, Euclid, Fairview Park, Garfield Heights, Lakewood, Linndale, Maple Heights, Newburgh Heights, Parma, Parma Heights, Shaker Heights, Solon, South Euclid, University Heights and Warrensville Heights. Many of the suburbs are members of the Northeast Ohio
Ohio
First Suburbs Consortium.[52] Climate[edit] Typical of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
region, Cleveland
Cleveland
exhibits a continental climate with four distinct seasons, which lies in the humid continental (Köppen Dfa)[53] zone. Summers are warm to hot and humid while winters are cold and snowy. The Lake Erie
Lake Erie
shoreline is very close to due east–west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake effect snow that is typical in Cleveland
Cleveland
(especially on the city's East Side) from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
freezes, usually in late January or early February. The lake effect also causes a relative differential in geographical snowfall totals across the city: while Hopkins Airport, on the city's far West Side, has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a season three times since record-keeping for snow began in 1893,[54] seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches (254 cm) are not uncommon as the city ascends into the Heights on the east, where the region known as the 'Snow Belt' begins. Extending from the city's East Side and its suburbs, the Snow Belt reaches up the Lake Erie
Lake Erie
shore as far as Buffalo.[55] The all-time record high in Cleveland
Cleveland
of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988,[56] and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.[57] On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 73.5 °F (23.1 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C), is the coldest. Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1981 to 2010 is 39.1 inches (990 mm).[58] The least precipitation occurs on the western side and directly along the lake, and the most occurs in the eastern suburbs. Parts of Geauga County to the east receive over 44 inches (1,100 mm) of liquid precipitation annually.[59]

Climate data for Cleveland
Cleveland
( Cleveland
Cleveland
Airport), 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1871−present[a]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 73 (23) 77 (25) 83 (28) 88 (31) 92 (33) 104 (40) 103 (39) 102 (39) 101 (38) 90 (32) 82 (28) 77 (25) 104 (40)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 56.9 (13.8) 59.8 (15.4) 73.2 (22.9) 80.7 (27.1) 85.0 (29.4) 91.6 (33.1) 92.7 (33.7) 91.0 (32.8) 87.3 (30.7) 79.4 (26.3) 69.8 (21) 58.5 (14.7) 93.9 (34.4)

Average high °F (°C) 34.4 (1.3) 37.5 (3.1) 46.6 (8.1) 59.1 (15.1) 69.5 (20.8) 78.6 (25.9) 82.6 (28.1) 80.8 (27.1) 73.9 (23.3) 62.3 (16.8) 50.8 (10.4) 38.3 (3.5) 59.6 (15.3)

Average low °F (°C) 21.7 (−5.7) 23.6 (−4.7) 30.2 (−1) 40.4 (4.7) 50.1 (10.1) 59.8 (15.4) 64.3 (17.9) 63.1 (17.3) 56.0 (13.3) 45.4 (7.4) 36.9 (2.7) 26.4 (−3.1) 43.3 (6.3)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 0.0 (−17.8) 3.2 (−16) 11.3 (−11.5) 24.7 (−4.1) 35.0 (1.7) 44.4 (6.9) 50.9 (10.5) 50.0 (10) 40.7 (4.8) 30.9 (−0.6) 21.2 (−6) 6.4 (−14.2) −4.6 (−20.3)

Record low °F (°C) −20 (−29) −17 (−27) −5 (−21) 10 (−12) 25 (−4) 31 (−1) 41 (5) 38 (3) 32 (0) 19 (−7) 0 (−18) −15 (−26) −20 (−29)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.72 (69.1) 2.34 (59.4) 2.93 (74.4) 3.49 (88.6) 3.66 (93) 3.43 (87.1) 3.46 (87.9) 3.51 (89.2) 3.81 (96.8) 3.07 (78) 3.62 (91.9) 3.10 (78.7) 39.14 (994.2)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 18.7 (47.5) 14.9 (37.8) 12.6 (32) 3.3 (8.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.2 (0.5) 4.3 (10.9) 14.1 (35.8) 68.1 (173)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 17.1 13.9 14.2 14.4 13.2 11.1 10.3 9.8 10.0 11.4 13.5 16.0 154.9

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 13.5 10.1 7.5 2.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 3.3 10.0 46.9

Average relative humidity (%) 73.3 73.0 70.4 66.1 67.3 69.0 69.8 73.1 73.7 70.8 71.9 74.1 71.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.0 122.3 167.0 216.0 263.6 294.6 307.2 262.2 219.0 169.5 89.8 67.8 2,280

Percent possible sunshine 34 41 45 54 59 65 67 61 59 49 30 24 51

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[60][61][62][63]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Cleveland

Historical population

Census Pop.

1820 606

1830 1,075

77.4%

1840 6,071

464.7%

1850 17,034

180.6%

1860 43,417

154.9%

1870 92,829

113.8%

1880 160,146

72.5%

1890 261,353

63.2%

1900 381,768

46.1%

1910 560,663

46.9%

1920 796,841

42.1%

1930 900,429

13.0%

1940 878,336

−2.5%

1950 914,808

4.2%

1960 876,050

−4.2%

1970 750,903

−14.3%

1980 573,822

−23.6%

1990 505,616

−11.9%

2000 478,403

−5.4%

2010 396,698

−17.1%

Est. 2016 385,809 [64] −2.7%

[65][66]

Racial composition 2010[67] 1990[26] 1950[26] 1900[26]

White 37.3% 49.5% 83.7% 98.4%

—Non-Hispanic 33.4% 47.8% n/a n/a

Black or African American 53.3% 46.6% 16.2% 1.6%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 10.0% 4.6% n/a n/a

Asian 1.8% 1.0% 0.2% −

Map of racial distribution in Cleveland, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)

2010 census[edit] As of the census[4] of 2010, there were 396,698 people, 167,490 households, and 89,821 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,107.0 inhabitants per square mile (1,971.8/km2). There were 207,536 housing units at an average density of 2,671.0 per square mile (1,031.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 53.3% African American, 37.3% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 4.4% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.0% of the population.[67] There were 167,490 households of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.4% were non-families. 39.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the city was 35.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. 2000 census[edit]

Built as the Second Church of Christ, Scientist, this building on Cleveland's East Side, now known as The True Holiness Temple, a Pentecostal church located on Euclid Avenue, serves a primarily African American
African American
congregation.

As of the census of 2000, there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,166.5 inhabitants per square mile (2,380.9/km2). There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 2,782.4 per square mile (1,074.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 51.0% African American, 41.5% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 3.6% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latinos of any race were 7.3% of the population.[68] Ethnic groups include Germans (15.2%), Irish (10.9%), English (8.7%), Italian (5.6%), Poles (3.2%), and French (3.0%). Out of the total population, 4.5% were foreign born; of which 41.2% were born in Europe, 29.1% Asia, 22.4% Latin American, 5.0% Africa, and 1.9% Northern America.[69] There are also substantial communities of Slovaks, Hungarians, French, Slovenes,[70] Czechs, Ukrainians, Arabs, Dutch, Scottish, Russian, Scotch Irish, Croats, Macedonians, Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Romanians, Lithuanians, and Greeks.[71] The presence of Hungarians within Cleveland
Cleveland
proper was, at one time, so great that the city boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest.[72] The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Between 1920 and 1960, the black population of Cleveland
Cleveland
increased from 35,000 to 251,000.[73] Out of 190,638 households, 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19. The age distribution of the population shows 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was US$25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,291. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[74] Languages[edit] As of 2010[update], 88.4% (337,658) of Cleveland
Cleveland
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.1% (27,262) spoke Spanish, 0.6% (2,200) Arabic, and 0.5% (1,960) Chinese. In addition 0.9% (3,364) spoke a Slavic language (1,279 – Polish, 679 Serbo-Croatian, and 485 Russian). In total, 11.6% (44,148) of Cleveland's population age 5 and older spoke another language other than English.[75] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Greater Cleveland

Downtown Cleveland
Downtown Cleveland
as viewed from Edgewater Park

Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River
and Lake Erie
Lake Erie
has been key to its growth. The Ohio
Ohio
and Erie
Erie
Canal
Canal
coupled with rail links helped establish the city as an important business center. Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as leading industries.[76] The city diversified its economy in addition to its manufacturing sector. Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as Applied Industrial Technologies, Cliffs Natural Resources, Forest City Enterprises, NACCO Industries, Sherwin-Williams Company and KeyCorp. NASA
NASA
maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the US, began in Cleveland.[77] In 2007, Cleveland's commercial real estate market experienced rebound with a record pace of purchases,[78][79] with a housing vacancy of 10%.[80][81]

Downtown Cleveland
Downtown Cleveland
from the Superior Viaduct

The Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland Clinic
is the city's largest private employer with a workforce of over 37,000 as of 2008[update].[82] It carries the distinction as being among America's best hospitals with top ratings published in U.S. News & World Report.[83] Cleveland's healthcare sector also includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, a renowned center for cancer treatment,[84] MetroHealth medical center, and the insurance company Medical Mutual of Ohio. Cleveland
Cleveland
is also noted in the fields of biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland
Cleveland
Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. Cleveland
Cleveland
is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research.[85] Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and incubator on the site of the former Mount Sinai Hospital, creating a research campus to stimulate biotech startup companies that can be spun off from research conducted in the city.[86]

NASA's Glenn Research Center
Glenn Research Center
is adjacent to Cleveland
Cleveland
Hopkins International Airport.

City leaders promoted growth of the technology sector in the first decade of the 21st century. Mayor Jane L. Campbell appointed a "tech czar" to recruit technology companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on the Euclid Avenue area. Cleveland State University
Cleveland State University
hired a technology transfer officer to cultivate technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland
Cleveland
area, and appointed a vice president for economic development. Case Western Reserve University participated in technology initiatives such as the OneCommunity project,[87] a high-speed fiber optic network linking the area's research centers intended to stimulate growth. In mid-2005, Cleveland
Cleveland
was named an Intel
Intel
"Worldwide Digital Community" along with Corpus Christi, Texas, Philadelphia, and Taipei. This added about $12 million for marketing to expand regional technology partnerships, created a city-wide Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
network, and developed a tech economy. In addition to this Intel
Intel
initiative, in January 2006 a New York-based think tank, the Intelligent Community Forum, selected Cleveland
Cleveland
as the sole American city among its seven finalists for the "Intelligent Community of the Year" award. The group announced it nominated the city for its OneCommunity network with potential broadband applications.[88] OneCommunity collaborated with Cisco Systems
Cisco Systems
to deploy a wireless network starting in September 2006.[89]

Culture[edit] Performing arts[edit]

The Cleveland Museum of Art
Cleveland Museum of Art
lies at the edge of Wade Lagoon in University Circle.

Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to Playhouse Square
Playhouse Square
Center, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City's Lincoln Center.[90] Playhouse Square
Playhouse Square
includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio
Ohio
theaters within what is known as the Cleveland Theater District.[91] Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include Cleveland
Cleveland
Play House, Cleveland
Cleveland
State University Department of Theatre and Dance, and Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Theater Festival. The center hosts various Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year.[91] One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was originally used as the broadcast studios of WJW (AM), where disc jockey Alan Freed
Alan Freed
first popularized the term "rock and roll".[92] Cleveland
Cleveland
gained a strong reputation in rock music in the 1960s and 70s as a key breakout market for nationally promoted acts and performers. The city hosted the " World Series
World Series
of Rock" at Cleveland
Cleveland
Municipal Stadium, which were notable high-attendance events. Located between Playhouse Square
Playhouse Square
and University Circle
University Circle
is Karamu House, a well-known African American performing and fine arts center, founded in the 1920s.[93] Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to the Cleveland
Cleveland
Orchestra, widely considered one of the world's finest orchestras, and often referred to as the finest in the United States.[94] It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays at Severance Hall
Severance Hall
in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center
Blossom Music Center
in Cuyahoga Falls during the summer.[95] The city is also home to the Cleveland
Cleveland
Pops Orchestra, the Cleveland
Cleveland
Youth Orchestra, and the Cleveland
Cleveland
Youth Wind Symphony. The city also has a history of polka music being popular both past and present, even having a subgenre called Cleveland-style polka named after the city, and is home to the Polka
Polka
Hall of Fame. This is due in part to the success of Frankie Yankovic
Frankie Yankovic
who was a Cleveland
Cleveland
native and was considered the America's Polka
Polka
King and the square at the intersection of Waterloo Rd. and East 152nd St. in Cleveland (41°34′08″N 81°34′31″W / 41.569°N 81.5752°W / 41.569; -81.5752), not far from where Yankovic grew up, was named in his honor.[96] There are two main art museums in Cleveland. The Cleveland
Cleveland
Museum of Art is a major American art museum,[97] with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporary pieces. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland
Cleveland
showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland
Cleveland
area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions.[98] The Gordon Square Arts District on Detroit
Detroit
Avenue, in the Detroit-Shoreway
Detroit-Shoreway
neighborhood, is the location of the Capitol Theatre and an Off-Off-Broadway playhouse, the Cleveland
Cleveland
Public Theatre. Each spring, the campus of Cleveland State University
Cleveland State University
hosts the Cleveland Thyagaraja Festival, the largest South Indian classical music festival next to Chennai's December Season.[99] Film and television[edit] See also: Category:Films set in Cleveland
Cleveland
and Category:Films shot in Cleveland Cleveland
Cleveland
has served as the setting for several major studio and independent films. Players from the 1948 Cleveland
Cleveland
Indians, winners of the World Series, appear in The Kid from Cleveland
The Kid from Cleveland
(1949). Cleveland Municipal Stadium features prominently in both that film and The Fortune Cookie (1966); written and directed by Billy Wilder, the picture marked Walter Matthau
Walter Matthau
and Jack Lemmon's first on-screen collaboration and features gameday footage of the 1965 Cleveland Browns. Director Jules Dassin's first American film in nearly twenty years, Up Tight!
Up Tight!
(1968) is set in Cleveland
Cleveland
immediately following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Set in 1930s Cleveland, Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
leads a local labor union in F.I.S.T.
F.I.S.T.
(1978). Paul Simon chose Cleveland
Cleveland
as the opening for his only venture into filmmaking, One-Trick Pony (1980); Simon spent six weeks filming concert scenes at the Cleveland
Cleveland
Agora. The boxing-match-turned-riot near the start of Raging Bull
Raging Bull
(1980) takes place at the Cleveland Arena in 1941. Clevelander Jim Jarmusch's critically acclaimed and independently produced Stranger Than Paradise
Stranger Than Paradise
(1984)—a deadpan comedy about two New Yorkers who travel to Florida by way of Cleveland—was a favorite of the Cannes Film Festival, winning the Caméra d'Or. The cult-classic mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap
This Is Spinal Tap
(1984) includes a memorable scene where the parody band gets lost backstage just before performing at a Cleveland
Cleveland
rock concert (origin of the phrase "Hello, Cleveland!"). Howard the Duck
Howard the Duck
(1986), George Lucas' heavily criticized adaptation of the Marvel comic of the same name, begins with the title character crashing into Cleveland
Cleveland
after drifting in outer space. Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
and Joan Jett
Joan Jett
play the sibling leads of a Cleveland
Cleveland
rock group in Light of Day
Light of Day
(1987); directed by Paul Schrader, much of the film was shot in the city. Both Major League (1989) and Major League II
Major League II
(1994) reflected the actual perennial struggles of the Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Kevin Bacon
Kevin Bacon
stars in Telling Lies in America (1997), the semi-autobiographical tale of Clevelander Joe Eszterhas, a former reporter for The Plain Dealer. Cleveland
Cleveland
serves as the setting for fictitious insurance giant Great Benefit in The Rainmaker (1997); in the film, Key Tower
Key Tower
doubles as the firm's main headquarters. A group of Cleveland
Cleveland
teenagers try to scam their way into a Kiss concert in Detroit
Detroit
Rock City (1999), and several key scenes from director Cameron Crowe's Almost Famous
Almost Famous
(2000) are set in Cleveland. Antwone Fisher (2002) recounts the real-life story of the Cleveland
Cleveland
native. Brothers Joe and Anthony Russo—native Clevelanders and Case Western Reserve University alumni—filmed their comedy Welcome to Collinwood
Collinwood
(2002) entirely on location in the city. American Splendor
American Splendor
(2003)—the biographical film of Harvey Pekar, author of the autobiographical comic of the same name—was also filmed on location throughout Cleveland, as was The Oh in Ohio
Ohio
(2006). Much of The Rocker (2008) is set in the city, and Cleveland
Cleveland
native Nathaniel Ayers' life story is told in The Soloist
The Soloist
(2009). Kill the Irishman
Kill the Irishman
(2011) follows the real-life turf war in 1970s Cleveland
Cleveland
between Irish mobster Danny Greene and the Cleveland
Cleveland
crime family. More recently, the teenage comedy Fun Size
Fun Size
(2012) takes place in and around Cleveland
Cleveland
on Halloween night, and the film Draft Day
Draft Day
(2014) followed Kevin Costner as general manager for the Cleveland
Cleveland
Browns.[100][101][102][103][104] Cleveland
Cleveland
has often doubled for other locations in film. The wedding and reception scenes in The Deer Hunter
The Deer Hunter
(1978), while set in the small Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
suburb of Clairton, were actually shot in the Cleveland neighborhood of Tremont; U.S. Steel
U.S. Steel
also permitted the production to film in one of its Cleveland
Cleveland
mills. Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
produced The Escape Artist (1982), much of which was shot in Downtown Cleveland near City Hall and the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, as well as the Flats. A Christmas Story
A Christmas Story
(1983) was set in Indiana, but drew many of its external shots—including the Parker family home, the downtown Christmas parade and Higbee's
Higbee's
department store Santa scenes —from Cleveland. Much of Double Dragon (1994) and Happy Gilmore
Happy Gilmore
(1996) were also shot in Cleveland, and the opening shots of Air Force One (1997) were filmed in and above Severance Hall. A complex chase scene in Spider-Man 3
Spider-Man 3
(2007), though set in New York City, was actually filmed along Cleveland's Euclid Avenue. Downtown's East 9th Street also doubled for New York in the climax of The Avengers (2012); in addition, the production shot on Cleveland's Public Square as a fill-in for Stuttgart, Germany. More recently, Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa (2013), Miss Meadows
Miss Meadows
(2014) and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) each filmed in Cleveland. Future productions in the Cleveland
Cleveland
area are the responsibility of the Greater Cleveland
Greater Cleveland
Film Commission.[100][101][102][105] In television, the city is the setting for the popular network sitcom The Drew Carey
Drew Carey
Show, starring Cleveland
Cleveland
native Drew Carey. Real-life crime series Cops, Crime 360, and The First 48
The First 48
regularly film in Cleveland
Cleveland
and other U.S. cities. Hot in Cleveland, a comedy airing on TV Land, premiered on June 16, 2010.[106][107][108] Literature[edit] The American modernist poet Hart Crane
Hart Crane
was born in nearby Garrettsville, Ohio
Ohio
in 1899. His adolescence was divided between Cleveland
Cleveland
and Akron
Akron
before he moved to New York City in 1916. Aside from factory work during the first world war, he served as reporter to The Plain Dealer
The Plain Dealer
for a short period, before achieving recognition in the Modernist
Modernist
literary scene. A diminutive memorial park is dedicated to Crane along the left bank of the Cuyahoga in Cleveland. In University Circle, a historical marker sits at the location of his Cleveland
Cleveland
childhood house on E. 115 near the Euclid Ave intersection. On Case Western Reserve University
Case Western Reserve University
campus, a statue of him stands behind the Kelvin Smith Library. Langston Hughes, preeminent poet of the Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
and child of an itinerant couple, lived in Cleveland
Cleveland
as a teenager and attended Central High School in Cleveland
Cleveland
in the 1910s. He wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short stories while living in Cleveland.[109] The African-American
African-American
avant garde poet Russell Atkins also lived in Cleveland.[110] Cleveland
Cleveland
was the home of Joe Shuster
Joe Shuster
and Jerry Siegel, who created the comic book character Superman
Superman
in 1932.[111] Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel".[112] D. A. Levy wrote: "Cleveland: The Rectal Eye Visions". Mystery author Richard Montanari's first three novels, Deviant Way, The Violet Hour, and Kiss of Evil are set in Cleveland. Mystery writer, Les Roberts's Milan Jacovich series is also set in Cleveland. Author and Ohio
Ohio
resident, James Renner
James Renner
set his debut novel, The Man from Primrose Lane in present-day Cleveland. Harlan Ellison, noted author of speculative fiction, was born in Cleveland
Cleveland
in 1934; his family subsequently moved to the nearby suburb of Painesville, though Ellison moved back to Cleveland
Cleveland
in 1949. As a youngster, he published a series of short stories appearing in the Cleveland
Cleveland
News; he also performed in a number of productions for the Cleveland
Cleveland
Play House. The Cleveland State University
Cleveland State University
Poetry Center serves as an academic center for poetry. Cleveland
Cleveland
continues to have a thriving literary and poetry community,[113][114] with regular poetry readings at bookstores, coffee shops, and various other venues.[115] Cleveland
Cleveland
is the site of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, established by poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf in 1935, which recognizes books that have made important contributions to understanding of racism and human diversity.[116] Presented by the Cleveland Foundation, it remains the only American book prize focusing on works that address racism and diversity.[117] In an early Gay and Lesbian Studies anthology titled Lavender Culture,[118] a short piece by John Kelsey "The Cleveland
Cleveland
Bar Scene in the Forties" discusses the gay and lesbian culture in Cleveland
Cleveland
and the unique experiences of amateur female impersonators that existed alongside the New York and San Francisco LGBT
LGBT
subcultures.[119] Cuisine[edit]

The historic West Side Market
West Side Market
is in Cleveland's Ohio
Ohio
City neighborhood.

Cleveland's melting pot of immigrant groups and their various culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as Little Italy, Slavic Village, and Tremont. Local mainstays of Cleveland's cuisine include an abundance of Polish and Central European contributions, such as kielbasa, stuffed cabbage and pierogies.[120] Cleveland
Cleveland
also has plenty of corned beef, with nationally renowned Slyman's, on the near East Side, a perennial winner of various accolades from Esquire Magazine, including being named the best corned beef sandwich in America in 2008.[121] Other famed sandwiches include the Cleveland
Cleveland
original, Polish Boy, a local favorite found at many BBQ and Soul food restaurants.[120][122] With its blue-collar roots well intact, and plenty of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
perch available, the tradition of Friday night fish fries remains alive and thriving in Cleveland, particularly in church-based settings and during the season of Lent.[123] Ohio
Ohio
City is home to a growing brewery district, which includes Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Brewing Company (Ohio's oldest microbrewery); Market Garden Brewery
Market Garden Brewery
next to the historic West Side Market and Platform Beer Company.[124] Cleveland
Cleveland
is noted in the world of celebrity food culture. Famous local figures include chef Michael Symon
Michael Symon
and food writer Michael Ruhlman, both of whom achieved local and national attentions for their contributions in the culinary world. On November 11, 2007, Symon helped gain the spotlight when he was named "The Next Iron Chef" on the Food Network. In 2007, Ruhlman collaborated with Anthony Bourdain, to do an episode of his Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations focusing on Cleveland's restaurant scene.[125] The national food press—including publications Gourmet, Food & Wine, Esquire and Playboy—has heaped praise on several Cleveland spots for awards including 'best new restaurant', 'best steakhouse', 'best farm-to-table programs' and 'great new neighborhood eateries'. In early 2008, the Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
ran a feature article in its 'Travel' section proclaiming Cleveland, America's "hot new dining city".[125] Tourism[edit]

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
on the shores of Lake Erie

Five miles (8.0 km) east of downtown Cleveland
Cleveland
is University Circle, a 550-acre (2.2 km2) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including the Cleveland Botanical Garden, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Severance Hall, the Cleveland
Cleveland
Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and the Western Reserve Historical Society. A 2011 study by Walk Score
Walk Score
ranked Cleveland
Cleveland
17th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[126] Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to the I. M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
on the Lake Erie
Lake Erie
waterfront at North Coast Harbor
North Coast Harbor
downtown. Neighboring attractions include Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine.[127] Cleveland has an attraction for visitors and fans of A Christmas Story: A Christmas Story House and Museum to see props, costumes, rooms, photos and other materials related to the Jean Shepherd film. Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to many festivals throughout the year. Cultural festivals such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in the Little Italy
Italy
neighborhood, the Harvest Festival in the Slavic Village
Slavic Village
neighborhood, and the more recent Cleveland
Cleveland
Asian Festival in the Asia Town neighborhood are popular events. Vendors at the West Side Market
West Side Market
in Ohio
Ohio
City offer many different ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland
Cleveland
hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day
that brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of downtown.[128]

The glass house at the Cleveland Botanical Garden
Cleveland Botanical Garden
recreates a Costa Rican rain forest.

Fashion Week Cleveland, the city's annual fashion event, is the third-largest fashion show of its kind in the United States.[129] In addition to the cultural festivals, Cleveland
Cleveland
hosted the CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest, which featured national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts, but the festival was discontinued in 2007 due to financial and manpower costs to the Rock Hall.[130] The annual Ingenuity Fest, Notacon
Notacon
and TEDxCLE conference focus on the combination of art and technology.[131][132] The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and it drew a record 66,476 people in March 2009.[133] Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square.[134] Cleveland
Cleveland
also has the Jack Cleveland
Cleveland
Casino. Phase I opened on May 14, 2012, on Public Square, in the historic former Higbee's
Higbee's
Building at Tower City Center. Phase II will open along the bend of the Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River
behind Tower City Center. The new Greater Cleveland
Greater Cleveland
Aquarium is on the west bank of the Cuyahoga River near Downtown.[135] Sports[edit]

Cleveland Cavaliers
Cleveland Cavaliers
pregame festivities at Quicken Loans Arena

See also: Sports in Cleveland
Sports in Cleveland
and List of Cleveland
Cleveland
sports teams Cleveland's current major professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
(Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns
Cleveland Browns
(National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers
Cleveland Cavaliers
(National Basketball Association). Local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Quicken Loans Arena
Quicken Loans Arena
and the Wolstein Center. The Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
won the World Series
World Series
in 1920 and 1948. They also won the American League
American League
pennant, making the World Series
World Series
in the 1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016 seasons. Between 1995 and 2001, Progressive Field (then known as Jacobs Field) sold out 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008.[136]

Cleveland Browns
Cleveland Browns
games attract large crowds to FirstEnergy Stadium.

Historically, the Browns have been among the winningest franchises in American football
American football
history winning eight titles during a short period of time—1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964. The Browns have never played in a Super Bowl, getting close five times by making it to the NFL/ AFC Championship Game
AFC Championship Game
in 1968, 1969, 1986, 1987, and 1989. Former owner Art Modell's relocation of the Browns after the 1995 season (to Baltimore
Baltimore
creating the Ravens), caused tremendous heartbreak and resentment among local fans.[137] Cleveland
Cleveland
mayor, Michael R. White, worked with the NFL and Commissioner Paul Tagliabue to bring back the Browns beginning in 1999 season, retaining all team history.[138] In earlier NFL history, the Cleveland Bulldogs won the NFL Championship in 1924, and the Cleveland Rams
Cleveland Rams
won the NFL Championship in 1945 before relocating to Los Angeles. The Cavaliers won the Eastern Conference in 2007, 2015, 2016 and 2017 but were defeated in the NBA Finals by the San Antonio Spurs
San Antonio Spurs
and then by the Golden State Warriors, respectively. The Cavs won the Conference again in 2016 and won their first NBA Championship, finally defeating the Golden State Warriors. Afterwards, an estimated 1.3 million people attended a parade held in the Cavs honor on June 22, 2016. This was the first time the city had planned for a championship parade in 50 years.[139] asketball, the Cleveland Rosenblums
Cleveland Rosenblums
dominated the original American Basketball League winning three of the first five championships (1926, 1929, 1930), and the Cleveland
Cleveland
Pipers, owned by George Steinbrenner, won the American Basketball League championship in 1962. A notable Cleveland
Cleveland
athlete is Jesse Owens, who grew up in the city after moving from Alabama
Alabama
when he was nine. He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics
1936 Summer Olympics
in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals. A statue commemorating his achievement can be found in Downtown Cleveland
Downtown Cleveland
at Fort Washington Park.[140] Cleveland State University
Cleveland State University
alum and area native, Stipe Miocic, won the UFC World Heavyweight Championship at UFC 198 in 2016. Miocic has defended his World Heavyweight Champion title at UFC 203, the first ever UFC World Championship fight held in the city of Cleveland,[141] and again at UFC 211 and UFC 220. The AHL Cleveland Monsters
Cleveland Monsters
won the 2016 Calder Cup, becoming the first Cleveland
Cleveland
pro sports team to do so since the 1964 Cleveland Barons.[142] The city is also host to the Cleveland Gladiators
Cleveland Gladiators
of the Arena Football League, Cleveland Fusion
Cleveland Fusion
of the Women's Football Alliance
Women's Football Alliance
and AFC Cleveland
AFC Cleveland
Royals of the National Premier Soccer League, who won the championship in 2016. Collegiately, NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
Cleveland State Vikings
Cleveland State Vikings
have 16 varsity sports, nationally known for their Cleveland State Vikings
Cleveland State Vikings
men's basketball team. NCAA Division III
NCAA Division III
Case Western Reserve Spartans
Case Western Reserve Spartans
have 19 varsity sports, most known for their Case Western Reserve Spartans football team. The headquarters of the Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference
(MAC) are located in Cleveland. The conference also stages both its men's and women's basketball tournaments at Quicken Loans Arena. Several chess championships have taken place in Cleveland. The second American Chess Congress, a predecessor the current U.S. Championship, was held in 1871, and won by George Henry Mackenzie. The 1921 and 1957 U.S. Open Chess Championship also took place in the city, and were won by Edward Lasker
Edward Lasker
and Bobby Fischer, respectively. The Cleveland
Cleveland
Open is currently held annually. The Cleveland Marathon has been hosted annually since 1978. Parks and gardens[edit] Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to four of the parks in the countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, as well as the: Washington Park, Brookside Park and parts of the Rocky River and Washington Reservations. Known locally as the "Emerald Necklace", the Olmsted-inspired Metroparks encircle Cuyahoga county. Included in the system is the Cleveland
Cleveland
Metroparks Zoo. Located in Big Creek valley, the zoo contains one of the largest collection of primates in North America.[143] In addition to the Metroparks system, the Cleveland
Cleveland
Lakefront State Park district provides public access to Lake Erie.[144] This cooperative between the City of Cleveland
Cleveland
and the State of Ohio
Ohio
contains six parks: Edgewater Park, located on the city's near west side between the Shoreway and the lake; East 55th Street Marina, Euclid Beach Park
Euclid Beach Park
and Gordon Park. The Cleveland Public Parks District
Cleveland Public Parks District
is the municipal body that oversees the city's neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic Rockefeller Park, notable for its late-19th century historical landmark bridges and Cultural Gardens.[145] Law and government[edit] See also: List of mayors of Cleveland, Cleveland
Cleveland
City Council, and List of politicians from Cleveland

Cleveland
Cleveland
City Hall

Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history. While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican Party, Cleveland
Cleveland
commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats.[146] At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland
Cleveland
is split between two congressional districts. Most of the western part of the city is in the 9th District, represented by Marcy Kaptur. Most of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of downtown, is in the 11th District, represented by Marcia Fudge. Both are Democrats. During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush
George W. Bush
carried Ohio
Ohio
by 2.1%, John Kerry
John Kerry
carried Cuyahoga County 66.6%–32.9%,[147] his largest margin in any Ohio
Ohio
county. The city of Cleveland
Cleveland
supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of 83.3%–15.8%.[148] The city of Cleveland
Cleveland
operates on the mayor–council (strong mayor) form of government.[149] The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and the office has been held by Frank G. Jackson
Frank G. Jackson
since 2006. Previous mayors of Cleveland
Cleveland
include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, World War I era War Secretary and founder of BakerHostetler
BakerHostetler
law firm Newton D. Baker, United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
Justice Harold Hitz Burton, Republican Senator George V. Voinovich, two-term Ohio
Ohio
Governor and Senator, former United States Representative Dennis Kucinich
Dennis Kucinich
of Ohio's 10th congressional district, Frank J. Lausche, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American
African American
mayor of a major American city.[150] The state of Ohio
Ohio
lost two Congressional seats as a result of the 2010 Census, which affects Cleveland's districts in the northeast part of the state.[151] Crime[edit] See also: Cleveland
Cleveland
Division of Police Between about 1935 to 1938, the Cleveland Torso Murderer
Cleveland Torso Murderer
killed and dismembered at least a dozen and perhaps twenty people in the area. No arrest was ever made. From 2002 to 2014, Ariel Castro held three women as sex slaves in his home in Cleveland. Police became aware of the crime when one of the women escaped. Castro was sentenced to one thousand years in jail, but committed suicide. Based on the Morgan Quitno Press 2008 national crime rankings, Cleveland
Cleveland
ranked as the 7th most dangerous city in the nation among US cities with a population of 100,000 to 500,000 and the 11th most dangerous overall.[152] Violent crime from 2005 to 2006 was mostly unchanged nationwide, but increased more than 10% in Cleveland. The murder rate dropped 30% in Cleveland, but was still far above the national average. Property crime from 2005 to 2006 was virtually unchanged across the country and in Cleveland, with larceny-theft down by 7% but burglaries up almost 14%.[153] In September 2009, the local police arrested Anthony Sowell, who was known in press reports as the Cleveland
Cleveland
Strangler. He was convicted of eleven murders as well as other crimes and sentenced to death. In October 2010, Cleveland
Cleveland
had two neighborhoods appear on ABC News's list of 'America's 25 Most Dangerous Neighborhoods': both in sections just blocks apart in the city's Central neighborhood on the East Side. Ranked 21st was in the vicinity of Quincy Avenue and E. 40th Streets, while an area near E. 55th and Scovill Avenue ranked 2nd in the nation, just behind a section of the Englewood neighborhood in Chicago, which ranked 1st.[154][155] A study in 1971–72 found that although Cleveland's crime rate was significantly lower than other large urban areas, most Cleveland residents feared crime.[156] In the 1980s, gang activity was on the rise, associated with crack cocaine. A task force was formed and was partially successful at reducing gang activity by a combination of removing gang-related graffiti and educating news sources to not name gangs in news reporting.[157] The distribution of crime in Cleveland
Cleveland
is highly heterogeneous. Relatively few crimes take place in downtown Cleveland's business district, but the perception of crime in the downtown has been pointed to by the Greater Cleveland
Greater Cleveland
Growth Association[158] as damaging to the city's economy.[159] More affluent areas of Cleveland
Cleveland
and its suburbs have lower rates of violent crime than areas of lower socioeconomic status. Statistically speaking, higher incidences of violent crimes have been noted in some parts of Cleveland
Cleveland
with higher populations of African Americans.[160] A study of the relationship between employment access and crime in Cleveland
Cleveland
found a strong inverse relationship, with the highest crime rates in areas of the city that had the lowest access to jobs. Furthermore, this relationship was found to be strongest with respect to economic crimes.[161] A study of public housing in Cleveland
Cleveland
found that criminals tend to live in areas of higher affluence and move into areas of lower affluence to commit crimes.[162] In 2012, Cleveland's crime rate were 84 murders, 3,252 robberies, and 9,740 burglaries.[163] In 2014, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) published a report that investigated the use of force by the Cleveland
Cleveland
Police Department from 2010–2013. The Justice Department found a pattern of excessive force including the use of firearms, tasers, fists, and chemical spray that unnecessarily escalated nonviolent situations, including against the mentally ill and people who were already restrained. As a result of the Justice Department report, the city of Cleveland
Cleveland
has agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force.[164] On May 26, 2015, the City of Cleveland
Cleveland
and the DOJ released a 105-page agreement addressing concerns about Cleveland Division of Police
Cleveland Division of Police
(CDP) use-of-force policies and practices. Consent decree with Department of Justice[edit] The agreement follows a two-year Department of Justice investigation, prompted by a request from Cleveland
Cleveland
Mayor Frank Jackson,[165] to determine whether the CDP engaged in a pattern or practice of the use of excessive force in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution and the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994), 42 U.S.C § 14141 (Section 14141"). Under Section 14141, the Department of Justice is granted authority to seek declaratory or equitable relief to remedy a pattern or practice of conduct by law enforcement officers that deprives individuals of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution or federal law. U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder
Eric Holder
and U.S. Attorney Steven Dettelbach announced the findings of the DOJ investigation in Cleveland
Cleveland
on December 4, 2014.[166] After reviewing nearly 600 use-of-force incidents from 2010 to 2013 and conducting thousands of interviews, the investigators found systemic patterns insufficient accountability mechanisms, inadequate training, ineffective policies, and inadequate community engagement.[166][167] At the same time as the announcement of the investigation findings, the City of Cleveland
Cleveland
and the Department of Justice issued a Joint Statement of Principles agreeing to begin negotiations with the intention of reaching a court-enforceable settlement agreement. The details of the settlement agreement, or consent decree, were released on May 26, 2015. The agreement mandates sweeping changes in training for recruits and seasoned officers, developing programs to identify and support troubled officers, updating technology and data management practices, and an independent monitor to ensure that the goals of the decree are met. The agreement is not an admission or evidence of liability, nor is it an admission by the city, CDP, or its officers and employees that they have engaged in unconstitutional, illegal, or otherwise improper activities or conduct. Pending approval from a federal judge,[168] the consent decree will be implemented and the agreement is binding. Provisions of the consent decree[edit] The Cleveland
Cleveland
Consent Decree is divided into 15 divisions, with 462 enumerated items.[169] At least some of the provisions have been identified as unique to Cleveland:

a civilian inspector general who will review the work of the police officers. This position will be appointed by the Mayor but report to the Police Chief. It is intended to provide an additional layer of accountability and scrutiny.[170] an equipment inventory that must result in a study by the police that shows what is needed.[171]

On June 12, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. approved and signed the consent decree.[172] The signing of the agreement starts the clock for numerous deadlines that must be met in an effort to improve the department's handling of use-of-force incidents.[173] Fire department[edit]

Cleveland Division of Fire (CFD)

Agency overview

Established April 9, 1863

Employees 760

Staffing Career

Fire chief Angelo Calvillo

EMS level First Responder BLS

Facilities and equipment

Battalions 5

Stations 22

Engines 22

Trucks 11

Rescues 2

HAZMAT 1

Fireboats 1(closed)

Cleveland
Cleveland
is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland
Cleveland
Division of Fire.[174] The fire department operates out of 22 active fire stations, located throughout the city in five battalions. Each Battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty Assistant Chief.[174][175] The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials ("haz-mat") unit, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Patrick Kelly.[176] Cleveland
Cleveland
EMS is operated by the city as its own department; however, a merger between the fire and EMS departments is in progress. Cleveland
Cleveland
EMS units are now based out of most of the city's fire stations as of 2013[update]. City officials are currently negotiating with Cleveland
Cleveland
Fire and EMS to form a new union contract that will merge the two systems entirely. No set projection for a full merger has been established. Neither the Fire nor EMS unions have been able to come to an agreement with city officials on fair terms of merger as of yet.[177] Education[edit] Public schools[edit] The Cleveland Metropolitan School District
Cleveland Metropolitan School District
is the largest K–12 district in the state of Ohio, with 127 schools and an enrollment of 55,567 students during the 2006–2007 academic year.[178] It is the only district in Ohio
Ohio
that is under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board.[179] Approximately 1 square mile (2.6 km2) of Cleveland, adjacent the Shaker Square
Shaker Square
neighborhood, is part of the Shaker Heights City School District. The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland
Cleveland
residents to pay the same school taxes as the Shaker residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections.[180] Private and Parochial Schools[edit]

Benedictine High School Birchwood School Cleveland
Cleveland
Central Catholic High School Eleanor Gerson School Montessori High School at University Circle St. Ignatius High School St. Joseph Academy Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School Urban Community School Saint Martin de Porres The Bridge Avenue School[181]

Adelbert Hall
Adelbert Hall
on the campus of Case Western Reserve University

Colleges and universities[edit] Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution located in University Circle. A private university with several prominent graduate programs, CWRU was ranked 37th in the nation in 2012 by U.S. News & World Report.[182] University Circle
University Circle
also contains Cleveland
Cleveland
Institute of Art and the Cleveland
Cleveland
Institute of Music. Cleveland
Cleveland
State University (CSU), based in Downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution. Ohio
Ohio
Technical College is also based in Cleveland.[183]

The diverse collection of fixed and movable bridges that cross the Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River
can be seen in the Flats.

Media[edit] Main article: Media in Cleveland Print[edit] Cleveland's primary daily newspaper is The Plain Dealer. Defunct major newspapers include the Cleveland
Cleveland
Press, an afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, 1982; and the Cleveland
Cleveland
News, which ceased publication in 1960. Additional newspaper coverage includes: the News-Herald which serves the smaller suburbs in the east side, the Thursdays-only Sun Post-Herald, which serves a few neighborhoods on the city's west side; and the Call and Post, a weekly newspaper that primarily serves the city's African-American
African-American
community. The city is also served by Cleveland
Cleveland
Magazine, a regional culture magazine published monthly; Crain's Cleveland
Cleveland
Business, a weekly business newspaper; Cleveland
Cleveland
Jewish News, a weekly Jewish newspaper; and Cleveland
Cleveland
Scene, a free alternative weekly paper which absorbed its competitor, the Cleveland
Cleveland
Free Times, in 2008. In addition, nationally distributed rock magazine Alternative Press was founded in Cleveland
Cleveland
in 1985, and the publication's headquarters remain in the city.[184][185][186] Television[edit] Combined with nearby Akron
Akron
and Canton, Cleveland
Cleveland
is ranked as the 19th-largest television market by Nielsen Media Research
Nielsen Media Research
(as of 2013[update]–14).[187] The market is served by 10 stations affiliated with major American networks, including: WEWS-TV
WEWS-TV
(ABC), WJW (Fox), WKYC
WKYC
(NBC), WOIO
WOIO
(CBS), WVIZ (PBS), WBNX-TV
WBNX-TV
(The CW), WUAB (MyNetworkTV), WVPX-TV (Ion), WQHS-DT
WQHS-DT
(Univision), and WDLI-TV (TBN). The Mike Douglas Show, a nationally syndicated daytime talk show, began in Cleveland
Cleveland
in 1961 on KYW-TV (now WKYC), while The Morning Exchange on WEWS-TV
WEWS-TV
served as the model for Good Morning America. Tim Conway and Ernie Anderson
Ernie Anderson
first established themselves in Cleveland while working together at KYW-TV and later WJW-TV (now WJW). Anderson both created and performed as the immensely popular Cleveland
Cleveland
horror host Ghoulardi
Ghoulardi
on WJW-TV's Shock Theater, and was later succeeded by the long-running late night duo Big Chuck and Lil' John.[188][189][190][191] Radio[edit] Cleveland
Cleveland
is directly served by 31 AM and FM radio stations, 22 of which are licensed to the city. Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest rated stations in the market: WAKS (contemporary hit radio), WDOK (adult contemporary), WENZ
WENZ
(mainstream urban), WHLK (adult hits), WGAR-FM
WGAR-FM
(country), WMJI
WMJI
(classic hits), WMMS
WMMS
(active rock/hot talk; Indians and Cavaliers FM flagship), WNCX (classic rock; Browns co-flagship), WQAL
WQAL
(hot adult contemporary), and WZAK
WZAK
(urban adult contemporary). WCPN public radio functions as the local NPR
NPR
affiliate, and sister station WCLV airs a classical music format. College radio stations include WBWC
WBWC
(Baldwin Wallace University), WCSB ( Cleveland
Cleveland
State University), WJCU (John Carroll University), and WRUW-FM
WRUW-FM
(Case Western Reserve University). News/talk station WTAM
WTAM
serves as the AM flagship for both the Cleveland Cavaliers
Cleveland Cavaliers
and Cleveland
Cleveland
Indians. WKNR
WKNR
and WWGK
WWGK
cover sports via ESPN Radio, while WKRK-FM
WKRK-FM
covers sports via CBS
CBS
Sports Radio (WKNR and WKRK-FM
WKRK-FM
are also co-flagship stations for the Cleveland
Cleveland
Browns). As WJW (AM), WKNR
WKNR
was once the home of Alan Freed
Alan Freed
− the Cleveland
Cleveland
disc jockey credited with first using and popularizing the term "rock and roll" to describe the music genre. News/talk station WHK was one of the first radio stations to broadcast in the United States and the first in Ohio; its former sister station, rock station WMMS, dominated Cleveland
Cleveland
radio in the 1970s and 1980s and was at that time one of the highest rated radio stations in the country. In 1972, WMMS
WMMS
program director Billy Bass coined the phrase "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World" to describe Cleveland. In 1987, Playboy
Playboy
named WMMS
WMMS
DJ Kid Leo
Kid Leo
(Lawrence Travagliante) "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country".[192][193][194][195][196][197] Infrastructure[edit] Healthcare[edit] Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to several major hospital systems, two of which are in University Circle. Most notable is the world renowned Cleveland Clinic, which is supplemented by University Hospitals and its Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital. Additionally MetroHealth System, which operates the level one trauma center for northeast Ohio, has various locations throughout greater Cleveland. Cleveland's Global Center for Health Innovation opened with 235,000 square feet (21,800 m2) of display space for healthcare companies across the world. Transportation[edit] Airports[edit] Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
is the city's major airport and an international airport that formerly served as a main hub for United Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. Originally known as Cleveland
Cleveland
Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Cleveland
Cleveland
Hopkins is a significant regional air freight hub hosting FedEx Express, UPS Airlines, United States Postal Service, and major commercial freight carriers. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland
Cleveland
is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport.[198] Seaport[edit]

1992 aerial view of the Cleveland
Cleveland
harbor, with the mouth of the Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River
in the foreground (view towards the east)

Cleveland
Cleveland
as viewed from Edgewater Park on 4 July 2010

Main article: Port of Cleveland The Port of Cleveland, located at the Cuyahoga River's mouth, is a major bulk freight terminal on Lake Erie, receiving much of the raw materials used by the region's manufacturing industries.[199] Railroads[edit] See also: Cleveland
Cleveland
Railroad History Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited
Lake Shore Limited
routes, which stop at Cleveland
Cleveland
Lakefront Station. Cleveland
Cleveland
has also been identified as a hub for the proposed Ohio
Ohio
Hub project, which would bring high-speed rail to Ohio.[200] Cleveland
Cleveland
hosts several inter-modal freight railroad terminals.[201][202] There have been several proposals for commuter rail in Cleveland, including an ongoing (as of January 2011[203]) study into a Sandusky– Cleveland
Cleveland
line.[204] Transit systems[edit]

An RTA train arrives at the Shaker Square
Shaker Square
station

Cleveland
Cleveland
has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland
Greater Cleveland
Regional Transit Authority (RTA). The rail portion is officially called the RTA Rapid Transit, but local residents refer to it as The Rapid. It consists of four light rail lines, known as the Blue, Green, and Waterfront lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. In 2008, RTA completed the HealthLine, a bus rapid transit line, for which naming rights were purchased by the Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland Clinic
and University Hospitals. It runs along Euclid Avenue from downtown through University Circle, ending at the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland.[205] In 2007, the American Public Transportation Association named Cleveland's mass transit system the best in North America.[206] Cleveland
Cleveland
is the only metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere with its rail rapid transit system having only one center-city area rapid transit station (Tower City-Public Square). During construction of the Red Line rapid transit line in the 1950s the citizens of Cleveland
Cleveland
voted to build the Downtown Distributor Subway which would have provided a number of Center City stations. The plan was quashed by highway promoting County Engineer Albert S. Porter and the full development and growth of center city Cleveland
Cleveland
has since been significantly impeded due to the resulting inaccessibility. Inter-city bus lines[edit] National intercity bus service is provided at a Greyhound station, located just behind the Playhouse Square
Playhouse Square
theater district. Megabus provides service to Cleveland
Cleveland
and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown.[207] Akron
Akron
Metro, Brunswick Transit Alternative, Laketran, Lorain County Transit, and Medina County Transit provide connecting bus service to the Greater Cleveland
Cleveland
Regional Transit Authority. Geauga County Transit and Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority
Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority
(PARTA) also offer connecting bus service in their neighboring areas.[208] Roads[edit] Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north–south, and named avenues, which run roughly east–west. The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which bisects Public Square.[209] The numbered street system extends beyond the city limits into some suburbs on both the west and east sides. The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River
and west of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on street signage. The two downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Superior Avenue becomes Detroit
Detroit
Avenue on the west side, and Carnegie Avenue becomes Lorain Avenue. The bridges that make these connections are often called the Detroit–Superior Bridge
Detroit–Superior Bridge
and the Lorain–Carnegie Bridge. Freeways[edit] Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland
Cleveland
directly. Interstate 71
Interstate 71
begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland
Cleveland
to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland
Cleveland
with Columbus and Cincinnati. Interstate 77
Interstate 77
begins in downtown Cleveland
Cleveland
and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. Interstate 90
Interstate 90
connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east–west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern split with Ohio
Ohio
State Route 2. Cleveland
Cleveland
is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland
Cleveland
briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown.[210] Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries State Route 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway (State Route 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (State Route 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland
Cleveland
and Brook Park.[211] Walkability[edit] In 2011, Walk Score
Walk Score
ranked Cleveland
Cleveland
the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States.[212] As of 2014[update], Walk Score
Walk Score
increased Cleveland's rank to being the sixteenth most walkable US city, with a Walk Score
Walk Score
of 57, a Transit Score of 47, and a Bike Score of 51. Cleveland's most walkable and transient areas can be found in the Downtown, Ohio
Ohio
City, Detroit-Shoreway, University Circle, and Buckeye-Shaker
Buckeye-Shaker
Square neighborhoods.[213] Sister cities
Sister cities
and international relations[edit] Cleveland
Cleveland
is home to the Consulate General of the Republic of Slovenia.[214] As of 2015[update], Cleveland
Cleveland
has twenty-two sister cities:[215][216]

Alexandria, Egypt Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Bangalore, India Brașov, Romania
Romania
since 1991 Bratislava, Slovakia[217] Cleveland, England, United Kingdom Conakry, Guinea Fier, Albania
Albania
since 2006 Gdańsk, Poland
Poland
since 1990[218] Heidenheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany[219] Holon, Israel Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria Klaipėda, Lithuania
Lithuania
since 1992 Lima, Peru Ljubljana, Slovenia[220] Miskolc, Hungary Rouen, Normandy, France
France
since 2008[221] Segundo Montes, El Salvador
El Salvador
since 1991 Taipei, Taiwan Vicenza, Veneto, Italy[222] Volgograd, Russia
Russia
since 1990 West Mayo, Connacht, Ireland since 2003

In addition, Northeast Ohio's Jewish community has an unofficial supportive relationship with the State of Israel.[223] See also[edit]

Geography portal North America portal United States portal Ohio
Ohio
portal Cleveland, Ohio
Ohio
portal

Cleveland
Cleveland
Stance Hot in Cleveland List of people from Cleveland List of references to Cleveland
Cleveland
in popular culture Sustainable Cleveland

Footnotes[edit]

^ Official records for Cleveland
Cleveland
kept at downtown from January 1871 to May 1941, and at Hopkins Airport since June 1941. For more information, see Threadex

References[edit] Notes

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Ohio
hot to invest in Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
technology", The Plain Dealer. October 5, 2006. ^ "PSC Volunteer". Playhouse Square
Playhouse Square
Center. Archived from the original on July 24, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2006.  ^ a b "Playhouse Square: The Theater District". Playhouse Square Center. Archived from the original on September 24, 2003. Retrieved May 14, 2007.  ^ Alan Freed. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved on July 3, 2007 ^ Mansfield, Herbert. Theater. Encyclopedia of Cleveland
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Cleveland
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Orchestra. Retrieved on July 22, 2007. ^ "CLEVELAND SQUARE NAMED FOR POLKA KING". Retrieved 21 July 2014.  ^ Cleveland
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History. June 14, 1997. Retrieved on July 22, 2007. ^ Who We Are Archived September 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland. Retrieved on August 16, 2007. ^ http://www.aradhana.org/ ^ a b "Movies Filmed in Cleveland". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 1997. Retrieved July 7, 2010.  ^ a b Kass, Arielle; Singler, Dan (April 12, 2010). "The most memorable movies and TV shows set or filmed in Northeast Ohio
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moved his Cleveland Browns
Cleveland Browns
team to Baltimore: How The Plain Dealer
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fight as main event, set for Sept. 10 at Quicken Loans Arena
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Monsters win Calder Cup title with 1-0 OT victory over Hershey (photos)". Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 26, 2016.  ^ " Cleveland Metroparks
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Zoo – Virtual Tour". Clemetzoo.com. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2009.  ^ T Walker. "Comments and Reviews". Stateparks.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.  ^ "Welcome to the History of the Cleveland
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Greater Cleveland
Partnership ^ National Criminal Justice Reference Service R.J. Zion, "Reducing Crime and Fear of Crime in Downtown Cleveland", Victimology, Vol. 3, No. 3/4, Special
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Issue pp. 341–344, (1978) ^ John Wiley & Sons, Inc "Racial Differences in Exposure to Crime: The City and Suburbs of Cleveland
Cleveland
in 1990", Criminology, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 251–276, (Mar. 2006) ^ John Wiley & Sons, Inc Fahui Wang; W. William Minor, "Where the Jobs Are: Employment Access and Crime Patterns in Cleveland", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 435–450, (November 2004) ^ [1] Tetsuro Motoyama et al., "Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Crime in Cleveland, Ohio
Ohio
and Spatial Dynamics of Crime (A Methodogical Review)", Link Between Crime and the Built Environment, Vol. 2, pp. C159–C175 (1980) ^ "FBI — Table 8 – Ohio". FBI.  ^ Oppel Jr., Richard A. (December 4, 2014). Cleveland
Cleveland
Police Cited for Abuse by Justice Department. Retrieved December 15, 2014. ^ "DOJ consent decree: How long does the Cleveland
Cleveland
police department have to implement changes?". cleveland.com.  ^ a b "Justice Department wants sweeping changes in Cleveland
Cleveland
Police Department; report finds "systemic deficiencies"". cleveland.com.  ^ "Forcing Change: A decade of civil rights lawsuits against Cleveland police preceded U.S. Justice Department investigation". cleveland.com.  ^ " Cleveland
Cleveland
consent decree provides blueprint for long-elusive police reforms: The Big Story". cleveland.com.  ^ "CLE Consent Decree".  ^ " Cleveland
Cleveland
will create Police Inspector General as part of Justice Department reform". Retrieved 2015-06-06.  ^ "Some changes outlined in consent decree unique to Cleveland, Justice Department says". Retrieved 2015-06-06.  ^ "Federal judge approves Cleveland
Cleveland
consent decree, calls it a 'good, sound agreement'". Retrieved 2015-06-13.  ^ "DOJ consent decree: How long does the Cleveland
Cleveland
police department have to implement changes?". Retrieved 2015-06-13.  ^ a b "Division of Fire". City of Cleveland. Retrieved October 20, 2012.  ^ " Cleveland
Cleveland
Fire Stations". City of Cleveland. Retrieved October 20, 2012.  ^ Blackwell, Brandon (December 3, 2013). "Patrick Kelly sworn in as Cleveland's fire chief, pledges to restore confidence". Plain Dealer. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ Niedermier, Kevin. " Cleveland
Cleveland
firefighters voting on work rules for merger with EMS". WKSU News. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ "Master Plan Update 2". Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-25. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) (MS Word doc). Cleveland
Cleveland
Metropolitan School District Bond Accountability Commission. May 21, 2007. Retrieved on July 25, 2007. ^ "Reform History". Catalyst Cleveland. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007.  ^ "Shaker Heights City School District." The Plain Dealer. Sunday April 25, 2010. Retrieved on November 21, 2011. "All of the city of Shaker Heights plus about 1 square mile of Cleveland
Cleveland
around Shaker Square. H. The Cleveland
Cleveland
portion has been part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s. Its residents pay the same school taxes as Shaker Heights residents and are entitled to use the schools and to vote in school elections." ^ "The Bridge Avenue School". Retrieved January 1, 2011.  ^ " Case Western Reserve University
Case Western Reserve University
– Best College". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. September 10, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2012.  ^ Ohio
Ohio
Technical College Archived February 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. – Automotive Training, Auto Body Training, Motorcycle Training, Diesel Training ^ "The new Sun News, Cleveland, Ohio, Home Page". Sunnews.com. August 1, 2009. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2012.  ^ David Dirck Van Tassel (1987). The Encyclopedia of Cleveland history. Indiana
Indiana
University Press. 

Betsy Sheldon (2001). The Jewish travel guide. Hunter Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9781556508790. 

^ "The Summer Set: AP Tour 2010 Dates + Pre-sale Tickets (On Sale Today)". AltSounds.com News. Altsounds Ltd. January 4, 2010. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2010. Cleveland-based youth-culture magazine Alternative Press... 

"Warped Rumor: Will Cleveland
Cleveland
Date Have Paramore?". CleveScene.com: C-Notes. Cleveland
Cleveland
Scene. July 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2010. Cleveland-based rock mag Alternative Press...  Rome, Alana (April 19, 2007). "Cute Is What We Aim For, Circa Survive, As Tall As Lions, Envy On The Coast". Redefine Magazine: Live Show Reviews. Redefine Media LLC. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 

^ "Cleveland/ Akron
Akron
TV market ranking" (PDF). Nielsen Media Research. Retrieved May 2, 2014.  ^ "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Nielsen Company. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.  ^ Holley, Joe (August 12, 2006). "Entertainer Mike Douglas, 81; Hosted Daytime TV Talk
Talk
Show". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 14, 2011.  ^ "Good Morning America: Free TV Show Tickets in New York City". NYtix.com. New York TV Show Tickets Inc. 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011.  ^ Feran, Tom; Heldenfels, R.D. (1997). Ghoulardi: Inside Cleveland TV's Wildest Ride. Cleveland, Ohio: Gray & Co.  ^ "Rock 'n' Roll". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland
Cleveland
History. Case Western Reserve University. 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  ^ Cleveland
Cleveland
OH, RadioStationWorld. Retrieved on August 2, 2007. ^ "On the Air". Cleveland Browns
Cleveland Browns
official website. Cleveland
Cleveland
Browns. 2010. Archived from the original on August 4, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010. 

"Cavaliers Radio Network". Cleveland Cavaliers
Cleveland Cavaliers
official website. NBA Media Ventures, LLC. 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  "Indians Radio Affiliates". Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
official website. MLB Advanced Media, LP. 2001–2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  Washington, Julie (August 25, 2007). " WTAM
WTAM
still No. 1 on the airwaves". The Plain Dealer. The Plain Dealer
The Plain Dealer
Publishing Co. p. E1 – Arts & Life.  "Ratings: #29 Cleveland". Radio-Online.com. Radio Online. 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010. 

^ "Classical Pick: Radio Days". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 14, 2011.  ^ Yarborough, Chuck (September 2, 2011). "WKRK FM/92.3 The Fan replaces rock with sports talk". Cleveland.com. Cleveland
Cleveland
Live, Inc. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2011. 

Grossi, Tony (March 28, 2013). "ESPN 850 WKNR
WKNR
is the new radio home of the Cleveland
Cleveland
Browns". ESPNCleveland.com. ESPN Internet Ventures and Good Karma Broadcasting, Inc. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.  Press Release (March 28, 2013). "Browns Enter Into Groundbreaking Radio Partnership With ESPN 850 WKNR
WKNR
And CBS
CBS
Radio's 92.3 The Fan And 98.5 WNCX". Cleveland.CBSLocal.com. CBS
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Local Media, a division of CBS Radio Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2013.  "Freed, Alan". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland
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Times. p. 64 – Calendar.  Adams, Deanna R. (2002). Rock 'n' Roll and the Cleveland
Cleveland
Connection. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 333. 

^ Tinsley, Jesse. "Burke to host air service again; Startup offers no-hassle hop to Detroit, more", The Plain Dealer. July 18, 2006. ^ "Port of Cleveland". Port of Cleveland.  ^ The Ohio
Ohio
Hub. Ohio
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CSX
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General references

The Encyclopedia Of Cleveland
Cleveland
History (2002). Case Western Reserve University. Cleveland
Cleveland
Cartography Cleveland
Cleveland
Memory Project

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Find more aboutClevelandat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

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Andrew Ginther
Andrew Ginther
(D) (Columbus) Frank G. Jackson
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(D) (Cleveland) John Cranley (D) (Cincinnati) Wade Kapszukiewicz
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Dan Horrigan
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