The Info List - Clergy

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are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions. The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the terms used for individual clergy are clergyman, clergywoman and churchman. Less common terms are churchwoman, clergyperson and cleric. In Christianity
the specific names and roles of clergy vary by denomination and there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons, elders, priests, bishops, preachers, pastors, ministers and the Pope. In Islam, a religious leader is often known formally or informally as an imam, mufti, mullah or ayatollah. In Jewish tradition, a religious leader is often a rabbi (teacher) or hazzan (cantor).


1 Etymology 2 Buddhism 3 Christianity

3.1 Anglicanism 3.2 Catholicism 3.3 Latter-day Saints 3.4 Orthodoxy 3.5 Protestantism

4 Islam

4.1 Sunni 4.2 Shia 4.3 Sufism 4.4 Ahmadiyya

5 Judaism

5.1 Orthodox Judaism 5.2 Conservative Judaism 5.3 Reconstructionist and Reform Judaism

6 Sikhism 7 Traditional religions 8 Health risks for ministry in the United States 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading

11.1 Clergy
in general 11.2 Female clergy

12 External links

Etymology[edit] The word "Cleric" comes from the ecclesiastical Latin Clericus, for those belonging to the priestly class. In turn, the source of the Latin word is from the Ecclesiastical Greek
Ecclesiastical Greek
Clericus, meaning appertaining to an inheritance, in reference to the fact that the Levitical priests of the Old Testament
Old Testament
had no inheritance except the Lord.[1] "Clergy" is from two Old French
Old French
words, clergié and clergie, which refer to those with learning and derive from Medieval Latin clericatus, from Late Latin
Late Latin
clericus (the same word from which "cleric" is derived).[2] "Clerk", which used to mean one ordained to the ministry, also derives from clericus. In the Middle Ages, reading and writing were almost exclusively the domain of the priestly class, and this is the reason for the close relationship of these words.[3] Within Christianity, especially in Eastern Christianity
and formerly in Western Roman Catholicism, the term cleric refers to any individual who has been ordained, including deacons, priests, and bishops.[4] In Latin Roman Catholicism, the tonsure was a prerequisite for receiving any of the minor orders or major orders before the tonsure, minor orders, and the subdiaconate were abolished following the Second Vatican Council.[5] Now, the clerical state is tied to reception of the diaconate.[6] Minor Orders are still given in the Eastern Catholic Churches, and those who receive those orders are 'minor clerics.'[7] The use of the word "Cleric" is also appropriate for Eastern Orthodox minor clergy who are tonsured in order not to trivialize orders such as those of Reader in the Eastern Church, or for those who are tonsured yet have no minor or major orders. It is in this sense that the word entered the Arabic language, most commonly in Lebanon from the French, as kleriki (or, alternatively, cleriki) meaning "seminarian." This is all in keeping with Eastern Orthodox concepts of clergy, which still include those who have not yet received, or do not plan to receive, the diaconate. A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who have special religious authority or function. The term priest is derived from the Greek presbyter (πρεσβύτερος, presbýteros, elder or senior), but is often used in the sense of sacerdos in particular, i.e., for clergy performing ritual within the sphere of the sacred or numinous communicating with the gods on behalf of the community. Buddhism[edit] See also: Bhikkhu

14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso in 2007

Buddhist clergy are often collectively referred to as the Sangha, and consist of various orders of male and female monks (originally called bhikshus and bhikshunis respectively). This diversity of monastic orders and styles was originally one community founded by Gautama Buddha during the 5th century BC living under a common set of rules (called the Vinaya). According to scriptural records, these celibate monks and nuns in the time of the Buddha lived an austere life of meditation, living as wandering beggars for nine months out of the year and remaining in retreat during the rainy season (although such a unified condition of Pre-sectarian Buddhism
is questioned by some scholars). However, as Buddhism
spread geographically over time - encountering different cultures, responding to new social, political, and physical environments - this single form of Buddhist monasticism diversified. The interaction between Buddhism
and Tibetan Bon
led to a uniquely Tibetan Buddhism, within which various sects, based upon certain teacher-student lineages arose. Similarly, the interaction between Indian Buddhist monks (particularly of the Southern Madhyamika School) and Chinese Confucian
and Taoist
monks from c200-c900AD produced the distinctive Ch'an
Buddhism. Ch'an, like the Tibetan style, further diversified into various sects based upon the transmission style of certain teachers (one of the most well known being the 'rapid enlightenment' style of Linji Yixuan), as well as in response to particular political developments such as the An Lushan Rebellion and the Buddhist persecutions of Emperor Wuzong. In these ways, manual labour was introduced to a practice where monks originally survived on alms; layers of garments were added where originally a single thin robe sufficed; etc. This adaptation of form and roles of Buddhist monastic practice continued after the transmission to Japan. For example, monks took on administrative functions for the Emperor in particular secular communities (registering births, marriages, deaths), thereby creating Buddhist 'priests'. Again, in response to various historic attempts to suppress Buddhism
(most recently during the Meiji Era), the practice of celibacy was relaxed and Japanese monks allowed to marry. This form was then transmitted to Korea, during later Japanese occupation,[8] where celibate and non-celibate monks today exist in the same sects. (Similar patterns can also be observed in Tibet during various historic periods multiple forms of monasticism have co-existed such as "ngagpa" lamas, and times at which celibacy was relaxed). As these varied styles of Buddhist monasticism are transmitted to Western cultures, still more new forms are being created. In general, the Mahayana
schools of Buddhism
tend to be more culturally adaptive and innovative with forms, while Theravada
schools (the form generally practised in Thailand, Burma, Cambodia
and Sri Lanka) tend to take a much more conservative view of monastic life, and continue to observe precepts that forbid monks from touching women or working in certain secular roles. This broad difference in approach led to a major schism among Buddhist monastics in about the 4th century BCE, creating the Early Buddhist Schools. While female monastic (bhikkhuni) lineages existed in most Buddhist countries at one time, the Theravada
lineages of Southeast Asia died out during the 14th-15th Century AD. As there is some debate about whether the bhikkhuni lineage (in the more expansive Vinaya
forms) was transmitted to Tibet, the status and future of female Buddhist clergy in this tradition is sometimes disputed by strict adherents to the Theravadan style. Some Mahayana
sects, notably in the United States (such as San Francisco Zen
Center) are working to reconstruct the female branches of what they consider a common, interwoven lineage.[9] The diversity of Buddhist traditions makes it difficult to generalize about Buddhist clergy. In the United States, Pure Land
Pure Land
priests of the Japanese diaspora serve a role very similar to Protestant ministers of the Christian tradition. Meanwhile, reclusive Theravada
forest monks in Thailand
live a life devoted to meditation and the practice of austerities in small communities in rural Thailand- a very different life from even their city-dwelling counterparts, who may be involved primarily in teaching, the study of scripture, and the administration of the nationally organized (and government sponsored) Sangha. In the Zen
traditions of China, Korea
and Japan, manual labor is an important part of religious discipline; meanwhile, in the Theravada
tradition, prohibitions against monks working as laborers and farmers continue to be generally observed. Currently in North America, there are both celibate and non-celibate clergy in a variety of Buddhist traditions from around the world. In some cases they are forest dwelling monks of the Theravada
tradition and in other cases they are married clergy of a Japanese Zen
lineage and may work a secular job in addition to their role in the Buddhist community. There is also a growing realization that traditional training in ritual and meditation as well as philosophy may not be sufficient to meet the needs and expectations of American lay people. Some communities have begun exploring the need for training in counseling skills as well. Along these lines, at least two fully accredited Master of Divinity programs are currently available: one at Naropa University in Boulder, CO and one at the University of the West in Rosemead, CA. Christianity[edit] Main article: Minister (Christianity) In general, Christian clergy are ordained; that is, they are set apart for specific ministry in religious rites. Others who have definite roles in worship but who are not ordained (e.g. laypeople acting as acolytes) are generally not considered clergy, even though they may require some sort of official approval to exercise these ministries. Types of clerics are distinguished from offices, even when the latter are commonly or exclusively occupied by clerics. A Roman Catholic cardinal, for instance, is almost without exception a cleric, but a cardinal is not a type of cleric. An archbishop is not a distinct type of cleric, but is simply a bishop who occupies a particular position with special authority. Conversely, a youth minister at a parish may or may not be a cleric. Different churches have different systems of clergy, though churches with similar polity have similar systems. Anglicanism[edit] Main article: Anglican ministry

Maurício Andrade, primate of the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil, gives the crosier to Bishop
Saulo Barros.

In Anglicanism, clergy consist of the orders of deacons, priests (presbyters) and bishops in ascending order of seniority. Canon, archdeacon, archbishop and the like are specific positions within these orders. Bishops are typically overseers, presiding over a diocese composed of many parishes, with an archbishop presiding over a province, which is a group of dioceses. A parish (generally a single church) is looked after by one or more priests, although one priest may be responsible for several parishes. New clergy are ordained deacons. Those seeking to become priests are usually ordained priest after a year. Since the 1960s some Anglican churches have reinstituted the diaconate as a permanent, rather than transitional, order of ministry focused on ministry that bridges the church and the world, especially ministry to those on the margins of society. For the forms of address for Anglican clergy, see Forms of address in the United Kingdom. For a short period of history before the ordination of women as deacons, priests and bishops began within Anglicanism
they could be "deaconesses". Although they were usually considered having a ministry distinct from deacons they often had similar ministerial responsibilities. In Anglican churches all clergy are permitted to marry. In most national churches women may become deacons or priests, but while fifteen out of 38 national churches allow for the consecration of women as bishops, only five have ordained any. Celebration of the Eucharist
is reserved for priests and bishops. National Anglican churches are presided over by one or more primates or metropolitans (archbishops or presiding bishops). The senior archbishop of the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
is the Archbishop
of Canterbury, who acts as leader of the Church of England
Church of England
and 'first among equals' of the primates of all Anglican churches. Being a deacon, priest or bishop is considered a function of the person and not a job. When priests retire they are still priests even if they no longer have any active ministry. However, they only hold the basic rank after retirement. Thus a retired archbishop can only be considered a bishop (though it is possible to refer to ' Bishop
John Smith, the former Archbishop
of York'), a canon or archdeacon is a priest on retirement and does not hold any additional honorifics. Catholicism[edit] See also: Bishop
(Catholic Church), Priesthood (Catholic Church), and Deacon

Karl-Josef Rauber, Cardinal Godfried Danneels, Bishop
Roger Vangheluwe and Bishop
Jozef De Kesel

clergy in the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
are either deacons, priests, or bishops belonging to the diaconate, the presbyterate, or the episcopate, respectively. Among bishops, some are metropolitans, archbishops, or patriarchs. The Pope
is the Bishop
of Rome, the supreme and universal hierarch of the Church, and his authorization is now required for the ordination of all Catholic bishops. With rare exceptions, cardinals are bishops, although it was not always so; formerly, some cardinals were people who had received clerical tonsure, but not Holy Orders. Secular clergy are ministers, such as deacons and priests, who do not belong to a religious institute and live in the world at large, rather than a religious institute (saeculum). The Holy See
Holy See
supports the activity of its clergy by the Congregation for the Clergy ([1]), a dicastery of Roman curia. Canon Law indicates (canon 207) that "[b]y divine institution, there are among the Christian faithful in the Church sacred ministers who in law are also called clerics; the other members of the Christian faithful are called lay persons".[10] This distinction of a separate ministry was formed in the early times of Christianity; one early source reflecting this distinction, with the three ranks or orders of bishop, priest and deacon, is the writings of Saint Ignatius of Antioch. Holy Orders
Holy Orders
is one of the Seven Sacraments, enumerated at the Council of Trent, that the Magisterium considers to be of divine institution. In the Roman Catholic Church, only men are permitted to be clerics, although in antiquity women were ordained to the diaconate. In the Latin Church
Latin Church
before 1972, tonsure admitted someone to the clerical state, after which he could receive the four minor orders (ostiary, lectorate, order of exorcists, order of acolytes) and then the major orders of subdiaconate, diaconate, presbyterate, and finally the episcopate, which according to Roman Catholic doctrine is "the fullness of Holy Orders". Since 1972 the minor orders and the subdiaconate have been replaced by lay ministries and clerical tonsure no longer takes place, except in some Traditionalist Catholic
Traditionalist Catholic
groups, and the clerical state is acquired, even in those groups, by Holy Orders.[11] In the Latin Church
Latin Church
the initial level of the three ranks of Holy Orders
Holy Orders
is that of the diaconate. In addition to these three orders of clerics, some Eastern Catholic, or "Uniate", Churches have what are called "minor clerics".[12] Members of institutes of consecrated life and societies of apostolic life are clerics only if they have received Holy Orders. Thus, unordained monks, friars, nuns, and religious brothers and sisters are not part of the clergy. The Code of Canon Law and the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches prescribe that every cleric must be enrolled or "incardinated" in a diocese or its equivalent (an apostolic vicariate, territorial abbey, personal prelature, etc.) or in a religious institute, society of apostolic life or secular institute.[13][14] The need for this requirement arose because of the trouble caused from the earliest years of the Church by unattached or vagrant clergy subject to no ecclesiastical authority and often causing scandal wherever they went.[15] Current canon law prescribes that to be ordained a priest, an education is required of two years of philosophy and four of theology, including study of dogmatic and moral theology, the Holy Scriptures, and canon law have to be studied within a seminary or an ecclesiastical faculty at a university.[16][17] Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
mandates clerical celibacy for all clergy in the predominant Latin Rite, with the exception of deacons who do not intend to become priests. Exceptions are sometimes admitted for ordination to transitional diaconate and priesthood on a case-by-case basis for married clergymen of other churches or communities who become Catholics, but ordination of married men to the episcopacy is excluded (see personal ordinariate). Clerical marriage
Clerical marriage
is not allowed and therefore, if those for whom in some particular Church celibacy is optional (such as permanent deacons in the Latin Church) wish to marry, they must do so before ordination. Eastern Catholic Churches either follow the same rules as the Latin Church
Latin Church
or require celibacy only for bishops. In the High Middle Ages, clergy in Western Europe
Western Europe
had four privileges:[citation needed]

Right of Canon: whoever committed real violence on the person of a cleric committed a sacrilege. This decree was issued in a Lateran Council of 1097 (requested by Pope
Urban II), then renewed in the Lateran Council II (1139) Right of Forum: by this right clergy could be judged by ecclesiastical tribunals only. Emperor Constantine I granted this right for bishops, which was subsequently extended to the rest of the clergy by Imperial Decree Right of Immunity: clergy could not be called for military service or other duties or charges incompatible with their role Right of Competence: a certain part of the income of clergy, necessary for sustenance, could not be sequestered by any action of creditors

Latter-day Saints[edit] Main article: Priesthood (Latter Day Saints) The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
(LDS Church) has no dedicated clergy, and is governed instead by a system of lay priesthood leaders. Locally, unpaid and part-time priesthood holders lead the church; the worldwide church is supervised by full-time general authorities, some of whom receive modest living allowances.[18][19] No formal theological training is required for any position. All leaders in the church are called by revelation and the laying on of hands by one who holds authority. Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
stands at the head of the church and leads the church through revelation given to the President of the Church, the First Presidency, and Twelve Apostles, all of whom are recognized as prophets, seers, and revelators and have lifetime tenure. Below these men in the hierarchy are quorums of seventy, which are assigned geographically over the areas of the church. Locally, the church is divided into stakes; each stake has a president, who is assisted by two counselors and a high council. The stake is made up of several individual congregations, which are called "wards" or "branches." Wards are led by a bishop and his counselors and branches by a president and his counselors. Local leaders serve in their positions until released by their supervising authorities.[20] Generally, all worthy males age 12 and above receive the priesthood. Youth age 12 to 18 are ordained to the Aaronic priesthood as deacons, teachers, or priests, which authorizes them to perform certain ordinances and sacraments. Adult males are ordained to the Melchizedek priesthood, as elders, seventies, high priests, or patriarchs in that priesthood, which is concerned with spiritual leadership of the church. Although the term "clergy" is not typically used in the LDS Church, it would most appropriately apply to local bishops and stake presidents. Merely holding an office in the priesthood does not imply authority over other church members or agency to act on behalf of the entire church. Orthodoxy[edit]

Part of a series on the

Eastern Orthodox Church

Mosaic of Christ Pantocrator, Hagia Sophia


Structure Theology
(History of theology) Liturgy Church history Holy Mysteries View of salvation View of Mary View of icons


Crucifixion / Resurrection / Ascension of Jesus

Christianity Christian Church Apostolic succession Four Marks of the Church Orthodoxy


Autocephaly Patriarchate Ecumenical Patriarch Episcopal polity Clergy Bishops Priests Deacons Monasticism Degrees of monasticism

Autocephalous jurisdictions

Constantinople Alexandria Antioch Jerusalem Russia Serbia Romania Bulgaria Georgia Cyprus Greece Poland Albania Czech lands and Slovakia North America

Ecumenical Councils

Seven Ecumenical Councils:

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh

Other important councils:

Quinisext Council Constantinople IV Constantinople V Jassy Jerusalem


Church Fathers Pentarchy Byzantine Empire Christianization of Bulgaria Christianization of Kievan Rus' Great Schism Russia Ottoman Empire North America


History of Orthodox Theology

(20th century (Neo-Palamism))

Apophaticism Chrismation Contemplative prayer Essence vs. Energies Hesychasm Holy Trinity Hypostatic union Icons Metousiosis Mystical theology Nicene Creed Nepsis Oikonomia Ousia Palamism Philokalia Phronema Sin Theosis Theotokos

Differences from the Catholic Church Opposition to the Filioque Opposition to papal supremacy

and worship

Divine Liturgy Divine Services

Akathist Apolytikion Artos Ectenia Euchologion Holy Water Iconostasis Jesus Prayer Kontakion Liturgical entrances Liturgical fans Lity Memorial service Memory Eternal Omophorion Orthodox bowing Orthodox marriage Praxis Paraklesis Paschal greeting Paschal Homily Paschal troparion Prayer
rope Prosphora Russian bell ringing Semantron Sign of the cross Sticheron Troparion Vestments Use of incense

Liturgical calendar

Paschal cycle 12 Great Feasts Other feasts:

Feast of Orthodoxy Intercession of the Theotokos

The four fasting periods:

Nativity Fast Great Lent Apostles' Fast Dormition Fast

Major figures

Athanasius of Alexandria Ephrem the Syrian Basil of Caesarea Cyril of Jerusalem Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa John Chrysostom Cyril of Alexandria John Climacus Maximus the Confessor John of Damascus Theodore the Studite Kassiani Cyril and Methodius Photios I of Constantinople Gregory Palamas

Other topics

Architecture Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs Orthodox cross Saint titles Statistics by country

v t e

Orthodox Christian clergy: bishop (right, at altar), priest (left), and two deacons (in gold)

Ethiopian Orthodox
Ethiopian Orthodox
clergy lead a procession in celebration of Saint Michael

The Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
has three ranks of holy orders: bishop, priest, and deacon. These are the same offices identified in the New Testament and found in the Early Church, as testified by the writings of the Holy Fathers. Each of these ranks is ordained through the Sacred Mystery (sacrament) of the laying on of hands (called cheirotonia) by bishops. Priests and deacons are ordained by their own diocesan bishop, while bishops are consecrated through the laying on of hands of at least three other bishops. Within each of these three ranks there are found a number of titles. Bishops may have the title of archbishop, metropolitan, and patriarch, all of which are considered honorifics. Among the Orthodox, all bishops are considered equal, though an individual may have a place of higher or lower honor, and each has his place within the order of precedence. Priests (also called presbyters) may (or may not) have the title of archpriest, protopresbyter (also called "protopriest", or "protopope"), hieromonk (a monk who has been ordained to the priesthood) archimandrite (a senior hieromonk) and hegumen (abbot). Deacons may have the title of hierodeacon (a monk who has been ordained to the deaconate), archdeacon or protodeacon. The lower clergy are not ordained through cheirotonia (laying on of hands) but through a blessing known as cheirothesia (setting-aside). These clerical ranks are subdeacon, reader and altar server (also known as taper-bearer). Some churches have a separate service for the blessing of a cantor. Ordination
of a bishop, priest, deacon or subdeacon must be conferred during the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
(Eucharist)—though in some churches it is permitted to ordain up through deacon during the Liturgy
of the Presanctified Gifts—and no more than a single individual can be ordained to the same rank in any one service. Numerous members of the lower clergy may be ordained at the same service, and their blessing usually takes place during the Little Hours prior to Liturgy, or may take place as a separate service. The blessing of readers and taper-bearers is usually combined into a single service. Subdeacons are ordained during the Little Hours, but the ceremonies surrounding his blessing continue through the Divine Liturgy, specifically during the Great Entrance. Bishops are usually drawn from the ranks of the archimandrites, and are required to be celibate; however, a non-monastic priest may be ordained to the episcopate if he no longer lives with his wife (following Canon XII of the Quinisext Council
Quinisext Council
of Trullo)[21] In contemporary usage such a non-monastic priest is usually tonsured to the monastic state, and then elevated to archimandrite, at some point prior to his consecration to the episcopacy. Although not a formal or canonical prerequisite, at present bishops are often required to have earned a university degree, typically but not necessarily in theology. Usual titles are Your Holiness for a patriarch (with Your All-Holiness reserved for the Ecumenical Patriarch
of Constantinople), Your Beatitude for an archbishop/metropolitan overseeing an autocephalous Church, Your Eminence for an archbishop/metropolitan generally, Master or Your Grace for a bishop and Father for priests, deacons and monks,[22] although there are variations between the various Orthodox Churches. For instance, in Churches associated with the Greek tradition, while the Ecumenical Patriarch
is addressed as "Your All-Holiness," all other Patriarchs (and archbishops/metropolitans who oversee autocephalous Churches) are addressed as "Your Beatitude."[23] Orthodox priests, deacons, and subdeacons must be either married or celibate (preferably monastic) prior to ordination, but may not marry after ordination. Remarriage of clergy following divorce or widowhood is forbidden. Married clergy are considered as best-suited to staff parishes, as a priest with a family is thought better qualified to counsel his flock.[24] It has been common practice in the Russian tradition for unmarried, non-monastic clergy to occupy academic posts. Protestantism[edit]

Lutheran pastor confirming the youth of his congregation

in Protestantism
fill a wide variety of roles and functions. In many denominations, such as Methodism, Presbyterianism, and Lutheranism, the roles of clergy are similar to Roman Catholic or Anglican clergy, in that they hold an ordained pastoral or priestly office, administer the sacraments, proclaim the word, lead a local church or parish, and so forth. The Baptist
tradition only recognizes two ordained positions in the church as being the elders (pastors) and deacons as outlined in the third chapter of I Timothy[1Tim 3] in the Bible. The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
ordains two types of presbyters or elders, teaching (pastor) and ruling (leaders of the congregation which form a council with the pastors). Teaching elders are seminary trained and ordained as a presbyter and set aside on behalf of the whole denomination to the ministry of Word and Sacrament. Ordinarily, teaching elders are installed by a presbytery as pastor of a congregation. Ruling elders, after receiving training, may be commissioned by a presbytery to serve as a pastor of a congregation, as well as preach and administer sacraments.[25] The process of being designated as a member of the Protestant clergy, as well as that of being assigned to a particular office, varies with the denomination or faith group. Some Protestant denominations, such as Methodism, Presbyterianism, and Lutheranism, are hierarchical in nature; and ordination and assignment to individual pastorates or other ministries are made by the parent denominations. In other traditions, such as the Baptist
and other Congregational
groups, local churches are free to hire (and often ordain) their own clergy, although the parent denominations typically maintain lists of suitable candidates seeking appointment to local church ministries and encourage local churches to consider these individuals when filling available positions. Some Protestant denominations require that candidates for ordination be "licensed" to the ministry for a period of time (typically one to three years) prior to being ordained. This period typically is spent performing the duties of ministry under the guidance, supervision, and evaluation of a more senior, ordained minister. In some denominations, however, licensure is a permanent, rather than a transitional state for ministers assigned to certain specialized ministries, such as music ministry or youth ministry. Many Protestant denominations reject the idea that the clergy are a separate category of people, but rather stress the priesthood of all believers. Based on this theological approach, most Protestants do not have a sacrament of ordination like the pre-Reformation churches. Protestant ordination, therefore, can be viewed more as a public statement by the ordaining body that an individual possesses the theological knowledge, moral fitness, and practical skills required for service in that faith group's ministry. Some Lutheran churches form an exception to this rule, as the Lutheran Book of Concord
Book of Concord
allows ordination to be received as a sacrament. Some Protestant denominations dislike the word clergy and do not use it of their own leaders. Often they refer to their leaders as pastors or ministers, titles that, if used, sometimes apply to the person only as long as he or she holds a particular office.

Sir George Fleming, 2nd Baronet, British churchman.

Charles Wesley Leffingwell, Episcopal priest

The Reverend Hans G. Ridderstedt (1919-2007), Assistant Vicar at Stockholm Cathedral

Islam[edit] Islam, like Judaism, has no clergy in the sacerdotal sense; there is no institution resembling the Christian priesthood. The title mullah (a Persian variation of the Arabic maula, "master"), commonly translated "cleric" in the West and thought to be analogous to "priest" or "rabbi", is a title of address for any educated or respected figure, not even necessarily (though frequently) religious. The title sheikh ("elder") is used similarly. Most of the religious titles associated with Islam
are scholastic or academic in nature: they recognize the holder's exemplary knowledge of the theory and practice of ad-dín (religion), and do not confer any particular spiritual or sacerdotal authority. The most general such title is `alim (pl. `ulamah), or "scholar". This word describes someone engaged in advanced study of the traditional Islamic sciences (`ulum) at an Islamic university or madrasah jami`ah. A scholar's opinions may be valuable to others because of his/her knowledge in religious matters; but such opinions should not generally be considered binding, infallible, or absolute, as the individual Muslim is directly responsible to God
for his or her own religious beliefs and practice. Sunni[edit]

A Sunni cleric (mufti) delivering a sermon on the kursi

The nearest analogue among Sunni Muslims to the parish priest or pastor, or to the "pulpit rabbi" of a synagogue, is called the imam khatib. This compound title is merely a common combination of two elementary offices: leader (imam) of the congregational prayer, which in most mosques is performed at the times of all daily prayers; and preacher (khatib) of the sermon or khutba of the obligatory congregational prayer at midday every Friday. Although either duty can be performed by anyone who is regarded as qualified by the congregation, at most well-established mosques imam khatib is a permanent part-time or full-time position. He may be elected by the local community, or appointed by an outside authority – e. g., the national government, or the waqf which sustains the mosque. There is no ordination as such; the only requirement for appointment as an imam khatib is recognition as someone of sufficient learning and virtue to perform both duties on a regular basis, and to instruct the congregation in the basics of Islam. The title hafiz (lit. "preserver") is awarded to one who has memorized the entire Qur'an, often by attending a special course for the purpose; the imam khatib of a mosque is frequently (though not always) a hafiz. There are several specialist offices pertaining to the study and administration of Islamic law or shari`ah. A scholar with a specialty in fiqh or jurisprudence is known as a faqih. A qadi is a judge in an Islamic court. A mufti is a scholar who has completed an advanced course of study which qualifies him to issue judicial opinions or fatawah. Shia[edit]

Iranian Shi'a cleric and author Sheikh
Ali Akbar Nahavandi.

In modern Shi`ah Islam, scholars play a more prominent role in the daily lives of Muslims than in Sunni Islam; and there is a hierarchy of higher titles of scholastic authority, such as Ayatollah. Since around the mid-19th century, a more complex title has been used in Twelver
Shi`ism, namely marja' at-taqlid. Marja'‌ (pl. maraji'‌) means "source", and taqlid refers to religious emulation or imitation. Lay Shi`ah must identify a specific marja'‌ whom they emulate, according to his legal opinions (fatawah) or other writings. On several occasions, the Marja'iyyat (community of all maraji'‌) has been limited to a single individual, in which case his rulings have been applicable to all those living in the Twelver
Shi'ah world. Of broader importance has been the role of the mujtahid, a cleric of superior knowledge who has the authority to perform ijtihad (independent judgment). Mujtahids are few in number, but it is from their ranks that the maraji' at-taqlid are drawn. Sufism[edit]

Indian Sufi cleric Pir-o-Murshid Ali Khan.

The spiritual guidance function known in many Christian denominations as "pastoral care" is fulfilled for many Muslims by a murshid ("guide"), a master of the spiritual sciences and disciplines known as tasawuf or Sufism. Sufi guides are commonly styled Shaikh in both speaking and writing; in North Africa they are sometimes called marabouts. They are traditionally appointed by their predecessors, in an unbroken teaching lineage reaching back to Muhammad. (The lineal succession of guides bears a superficial similarity to Christian ordination and apostolic succession, or to Buddhist dharma transmission; but a Sufi guide is regarded primarily as a specialized teacher and Islam
denies the existence of an earthly hierarchy among believers.) Muslims who wish to learn Sufism
dedicate themselves to a murshid‌'s guidance by taking an oath called a bai'ah. The aspirant is then known as a murid ("disciple" or "follower"). A murid who takes on special disciplines under the guide's instruction, ranging from an intensive spiritual retreat to voluntary poverty and homelessness, is sometimes known as a dervish. During the Islamic Golden Age, it was common for scholars to attain recognized mastery of both the "exterior sciences" (`ulum az-zahir) of the madrasahs as well as the "interior sciences" (`ulum al-batin) of Sufism. Al-Ghazali
and Rumi
are two notable examples. Ahmadiyya[edit] The highest office an Ahmadi can hold is that of Khalifatu l-Masih. Such a person may appoint amirs who manage regional areas.[26] The consultative body for Ahmadiyya
is called the Majlis-i-Shura, which ranks second in importance to the Khalifatu l-Masih.[27] However, the Ahmadiyya
community is declared as non-Muslims by many mainstream Muslims and they reject the messianic claims of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Judaism[edit]

Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry

does not have clergy as such, although according to the Torah there is a tribe of priests known as the Kohanim who were leaders of the religion up to the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70AD when most Sadducees were wiped out; each member of the tribe, a Kohen had priestly duties, many of which centered around the sacrificial duties, atonement and blessings of the Israelite nation. Today, Jewish Kohanim know their status by family tradition, and still offer the priestly blessing during certain services in the synagogue and perform the Pidyon Ha-ben (redemption of the first-born son) ceremony. Since the time of the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, the religious leaders of Judaism
have often been rabbis, who are technically scholars in Jewish law empowered to act as judges in a rabbinical court. All types of Judaism
except Orthodox Judaism
allow women as well as men to be ordained as rabbis and cantors.[28][29] The leadership of a Jewish congregation is, in fact, in the hands of the laity: the president of a synagogue is its actual leader and any adult male Jew (or adult Jew in non-traditional congregations) can lead prayer services. The rabbi is not an occupation found in the Torah (Five books of Moses); the first time this word is mentioned is in the Mishnah. The modern form of the rabbi developed in the Talmudic era. Rabbis are given authority to make interpretations of Jewish law and custom. Traditionally, a man obtains one of three levels of Semicha (rabbinic ordination) after the completion of an arduous learning program in Torah, Tanakh
(Hebrew Bible), Mishnah
and Talmud, Midrash, Jewish ethics and lore, the codes of Jewish law and responsa, theology and philosophy.

Regina Jonas, the world's first female rabbi, ordained in 1935, killed in the Holocaust
in 1944.[30]

Since the early medieval era an additional communal role, the Hazzan (cantor) has existed as well. Cantors have sometimes been the only functionaries of a synagogue, empowered to undertake religio-civil functions like witnessing marriages. Cantors do provide leadership of actual services, primarily because of their training and expertise in the music and prayer rituals pertaining to them, rather than because of any spiritual or "sacramental" distinction between them and the laity. Cantors as much as rabbis have been recognized by civil authorities in the United States as clergy for legal purposes, mostly for awarding education degrees and their ability to perform weddings, and certify births and deaths. Additionally, Jewish authorities license mohels, people specially trained by experts in Jewish law and usually also by medical professionals to perform the ritual of circumcision.[31] Traditional Orthodox Judaism
does not license women as mohels, but other types of Judaism
do. They are appropriately called mohelot (pl. of mohelet, f. of mohel) [2]. As the Jewish News Weekly of Northern California states, "...there is no halachic prescription against female mohels, [but] none exist in the Orthodox world, where the preference is that the task be undertaken by a Jewish man.".[31] In many places, mohels are also licensed by civil authorities, as circumcision is technically a surgical procedure. Kohanim, who must avoid contact with dead human body parts (such as the removed foreskin) for ritual purity, cannot act as mohels,[citation needed] but some mohels are also either rabbis or cantors. Another licensed cleric in Judaism
is the shochet, who are trained and licensed by religious authorities for kosher slaughter according to ritual law. A Kohen
may be a shochet. Most shochetim are ordained rabbis.[32] Orthodox Judaism[edit] In contemporary Orthodox Judaism, women are forbidden from becoming rabbis or cantors in the Orthodox world primarily because this would affect many aspects of communal observances and practices .[citation needed] Most Orthodox rabbinical seminaries or yeshivas also require dedication of many years to education, but few require a formal degree from a civil education institutions that often define Christian clergy. Training is often focused on Jewish law, and some Orthodox Yeshivas forbid secular education. In Hasidic Judaism, generally understood as a branch of Orthodox Judaism, there are dynastic spiritual leaders known as Rebbes, often translated in English as "Grand Rabbi". The office of Rebbe
is generally a hereditary one, may also be passed from Rebbe
to student, or recognized by a congregation conferring a sort of coronation to their new Rebbe. Although one does not need to be an ordained Rabbi
to be a Rebbe, most Rebbes today are ordained Rabbis. Since one does not need to be an ordained Rabbi
to be a Rebbe, at some points in history there were female Rebbes as well, particularly the Maiden of Ludmir. Conservative Judaism[edit] In Conservative Judaism, both men and women are ordained as rabbis and cantors. Conservative Judaism
differs with Orthodoxy
in that it sees Jewish Law as binding but also as subject to many interpretations, including more liberal interpretations. Academic requirements for becoming a rabbi are rigorous. First earn a bachelor's degree before entering rabbinical school. Studies are mandated in pastoral care and psychology, the historical development of Judaism
and most importantly the academic study of Bible, Talmud
and Rabbinic Literature, Philosophy
and Theology, Liturgy, Jewish History, and Hebrew Literature of all periods. Reconstructionist and Reform Judaism[edit] Reconstructionist Judaism
and Reform Judaism
do not maintain the traditional requirements for study as rooted in Jewish Law and traditionalist text. Both men and women may be rabbis or cantors. The rabbinical seminaries of these movements hold that one must first earn a bachelor's degree before entering the rabbinate. In addition studies are mandated in pastoral care and psychology, the historical development of Judaism; and academic biblical criticism. Emphasis is placed not on Jewish law, but rather on sociology, modern Jewish philosophy, Theology
and Pastoral Care. Sikhism[edit] Sikh
clergy consists of five Jathedars, one each from five takhts or sacred seats. The Jathedars are appointed by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC), an elected body of the Sikhs sometimes called the "Parliament of Sikhs." The highest seat of the Sikh religion is called Akal Takht
Akal Takht
and the Jathedar
of Akal Takht
Akal Takht
makes all the important decisions after consultations with the Jathedars of the other four takhts and the SGPC. Traditional religions[edit] See also: Imperial cult Historically traditional (or pagan) religions typically combine religious authority and political power. What this means is that the sacred king or queen is therefore seen to combine both kingship and priesthood within his or her person, even though he or she is often aided by an actual high priest or priestess (see, for example, the Maya priesthood). When the functions of political ruler and religious leader are combined in this way, deification could be seen to be the next logical stage of his or her social advancement within his or her native environment, as is found in the case of the Egyptian Pharaohs. The Vedic priesthood of India is an early instance of a structured body of clergy organized as a separate and hereditary caste, one that occupied the highest social rung of its nation. A modern example of this phenomenon the priestly monarchs of the Yoruba holy city of Ile-Ife
in Nigeria, whose reigning Onis have performed ritual ceremonies for centuries for the sustenance of the entire planet and its people. Health risks for ministry in the United States[edit] In recent years, studies have suggested that American clergy in certain Protestant, Evangelical and Jewish traditions are more at risk than the general population of obesity, hypertension and depression. Their life expectancies have fallen in recent years and in the last decade their use of antidepressants has risen.[citation needed] Several religious bodies in the United States (Methodist, Episcopal, Baptist
and Lutheran) have implemented measures to address the issue, through wellness campaigns, for example - but also by simply ensuring that clergy take more time off. It is unclear whether similar symptoms affect American Muslim clerics, although an anecdotal comment by one American imam suggested that leaders of mosques may also share these problems.[33] One exception to the findings of these studies is the case of American Catholic priests, who are required by canon law to take a spiritual retreat each year, and four weeks of vacation. Sociological studies at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
have confirmed this exception; the studies also took the results of several earlier studies into consideration and included Roman Catholic priests nationwide.[34] It remains unclear whether American clergy in other religious traditions experience the same symptoms, or whether clergy outside the United States are similarly affected. See also[edit]

Holy orders Ordination


^ Douglas Harper. "cleric". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ Douglas Harper. "clergy". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ Douglas Harper. "clerk". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ Cleric - Catholic Encyclopedia ^ Paul VI, Apostolic letter motu proprio Ministeria quaedam nos. 2–4, 64 AAS 529 (1972). ^ Ministeria quaedam no. 1; CIC Canon 266 § 1. ^ CCEO Canon 327; George Nedungatt, Clerics, in A Guide to the Eastern Code 255, 260 (2002). ^ Korean Buddhism# Buddhism
during Japanese colonial rule ^ http://www.sfzc.org/sp_download/liturgy/35_Names_of_Women_Ancestors.pdf ^ "Code of Canon Law, Canon 207". Retrieved 25 November 2011.  ^ Ministeria quaedam, I ^ Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 327 ^ Code of Canon Law, canons 265-266 ^ Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 357-358 ^ John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, Thomas J. Green, New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law (Paulist Press 2002 ISBN 9780809140664), p. 329 ^ Code of Canon Law, canons 232-264 ^ Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canons 342-356 ^ Gordon B. Hinckley, "Questions and Answers," Ensign (November 1985), 49 ^ "General Authorities," Encyclopedia of Mormonism, p. 539 ^ The Church of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints, "Why Don't Mormons Have Paid Clergy?", mormon.org. ^ Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers CCEL.org ^ Clergy
Etiquette Orthodoxinfo.com ^ Etiquette and Protocol ^ Ken Parry, David Melling, Dimitri Brady, Sidney Griffith & John Healey (eds.), 1999, The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity, Oxford, pp116-7 ^ Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Book of Order: 2009-2011 (Louisville: Office of the General Assembly), Form of Government, Chapter 6 and 14. See also " Theology
and Worship" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-03-07.  ^ The Muslim Resurgence in Ghana Since 1950: Nathan Samwini - 2003 p151 ^ Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Jamaʻat: History, Belief, Practice, p.93, Simon Ross Valentine, 2008. ^ "Orthodox Women To Be Trained As Clergy, If Not Yet as Rabbis –". Forward.com. Retrieved 3 September 2013.  ^ "The Cantor". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 3 September 2013.  ^ "Jonas Regina".  ^ a b "Making the cut j. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California". Jweekly.com. 3 March 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2013.  ^ Grandin, Temple (1980). "Problems With Kosher
Slaughter". International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems. 1 (6): 375–390 – via The Humane Society of the United States.  ^ Taking a Break From the Lord’s Work — The New York Times ^ See A. M. Greeley, Priests: A Calling in Crisis (University of Chicago Press, 2004).

Further reading[edit] Clergy
in general[edit]

Aston, Nigel. Religion
and revolution in France, 1780-1804 (CUA Press, 2000) Bremer, Francis J. Shaping New Englands: Puritan Clergymen in Seventeenth-Century England and New England (Twayne, 1994) Dutt, Sukumar. Buddhist monks and monasteries of India (London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1962) Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. Crown and clergy in colonial Mexico, 1759-1821: The crisis of ecclesiastical privilege (Burns & Oates, 1968) Ferguson, Everett. The Early Church
Early Church
at Work and Worship: Volume 1: Ministry, Ordination, Covenant, and Canon (Casemate Publishers, 2014) Freeze, Gregory L. The Parish
in Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, Counter-Reform (Princeton University Press, 1983) Haig, Alan. The Victorian Clergy
(Routledge, 1984), in England Holifield, E. Brooks. God's ambassadors: a history of the Christian clergy in America (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2007), a standard scholarly history Lewis, Bonnie Sue. Creating Christian Indians: Native Clergy
in the Presbyterian Church (University of Oklahoma Press, 2003) Marshall, Peter. The Catholic Priesthood and the English Reformation (Clarendon Press, 1994) Osborne, Kenan B. Priesthood: A history of ordained ministry in the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
(Paulist Press, 1989), a standard scholarly history Parry, Ken, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity
(John Wiley & Sons, 2010) Sanneh, Lamin. "The origins of clericalism in West African Islam." The Journal of African History 17.01 (1976): 49-72. Schwarzfuchs, Simon. A concise history of the rabbinate (Blackwell, 1993), a standard scholarly history Zucker, David J. American rabbis: Facts and fiction (Jason Aronson, 1998)

Female clergy[edit]

Amico, Eleanor B., ed. Reader's Guide to Women's Studies ( Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998), pp 131–33; historiography Collier-Thomas, Bettye. Daughters of Thunder: Black Women Preachers and Their Sermons (1997). Flowers, Elizabeth H. Into the Pulpit: Southern Baptist
Women and Power Since World War II (Univ of North Carolina Press, 2012) Maloney, Linda M. "Women in Ministry in the Early Church." New Theology
Review 16.2 (2013). online Ruether, Rosemary Radford. "Should Women Want Women Priests or Women-Church?." Feminist Theology
20.1 (2011): 63-72. Tucker, Ruth A. and Walter L. Liefeld. Daughters of the Church: Women and Ministry from New Testament
New Testament
Times to the Present (1987), historical survey of female Christian clergy

External links[edit]

Look up clergy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Clergy

 Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Priesthood". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  "Church Administration" - The Church of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
of Latter Day Saints. Wlsessays.net, Scholarly articles on Christian Clergy
from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library University of the West, Buddhist M.Div. Naropa University, Buddhist M.Div.

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