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CLEOPATRA VII PHILOPATOR (Greek : Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 – August 12, 30 BC ), known to history simply as CLEOPATRA, was the last active ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion
Caesarion
. After her reign, Egypt
Egypt
became a province of the recently established Roman Empire
Roman Empire
.

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
, a Greek family of Macedonian origin that ruled Egypt
Egypt
after Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
's death during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
. The Ptolemies spoke Greek throughout their dynasty, and refused to speak Egyptian , which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
. By contrast, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
did learn to speak Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of the Egyptian goddess Isis
Isis
.

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes , and later with her brothers Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV , whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As queen, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated Caesarion, her son with Caesar, to co-ruler in name.

After Caesar\'s assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Octavianus (later known as Augustus
Augustus
). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios , and son Ptolemy Philadelphus (her unions with her brothers had produced no children). Antony committed suicide after losing the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
to Octavian's forces, and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
followed suit. According to a popular belief, she killed herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC. She was outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt
Egypt
then became the Roman province of Aegyptus .

Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and many dramatizations of incidents from her life in literature and other media, such as William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra , George Frideric Handel 's opera Giulio Cesare
Giulio Cesare
, George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
's play Caesar and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
, Jules Massenet
Jules Massenet
's opera Cléopâtre , and the films Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1934) and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1963).

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology of the name

* 2 Biography

* 2.1 Accession to the throne

* 2.2 Relations with Rome

* 2.2.1 Assassination of Pompey
Pompey
* 2.2.2 Relationship with Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
* 2.2.3 Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in the Roman Civil War * 2.2.4 Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Mark Antony

* 2.3 Death

* 3 Character and cultural depictions * 4 Ancestry * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links

ETYMOLOGY OF THE NAME

Limestone stela of a high priest of god Ptah. It bears the cartouches of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesarion. From Egypt. Ptolemaic Period. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

The name Cleopatra
Cleopatra
is derived from the Greek name Κλεοπάτρα (Kleopatra) which meant "she who comes from glorious father" or "glory of the father" in the feminine form , derived from κλέος (kleos) "glory" combined with πατήρ (pater) "father" (the masculine form would be written either as Kleopatros (Κλεόπατρος), or Patroklos (Πάτροκλος)).

BIOGRAPHY

ACCESSION TO THE THRONE

Ptolemaic Queen ( Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII?), 50-30 B.C., 71.12, Brooklyn Museum

The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII Auletes , or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III. Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
's general Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter
, son of Arsinoe and Lagus , both of Macedon
Macedon
.

Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
, making Ptolemy XII's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra; Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed (though not proven by historical sources) that Berenice IV poisoned her so that she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she ruled until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC with Roman support, capturing Alexandria
Alexandria
aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius . Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
now became joint regent and deputy to her father at age 14, although her power would have been severely limited.

Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC. His will made 18-year-old Cleopatra and her 10-year-old brother Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult due to economic failures, famine, deficient floods of the Nile
Nile
, and political conflicts. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was married to her young brother, but she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him.

In August 51 BC, relations completely broke down between Cleopatra and Ptolemy. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face alone appeared on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
came into serious conflict with the Gabiniani , powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt
Egypt
to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. The Gabiniani killed the sons of the Roman governor of Syria
Syria
Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus when they came to ask the Gabiniani to assist their father against the Parthians. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
handed the murderers over to Bibulus in chains, whereupon the Gabiniani became bitter enemies of the queen. This conflict was one of the main causes of Cleopatra's fall from power shortly afterward. The sole reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers led by the eunuch Pothinus , in connection with half-Greek general Achillas , and Theodotus of Chios . Circa 48 BC, Cleopatra's younger brother Ptolemy XIII became sole ruler.

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium , but was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister Arsinoë .

RELATIONS WITH ROME

Assassination Of Pompey

While Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was in exile, Pompey
Pompey
became embroiled in the Roman civil war . Pompey
Pompey
fled to Alexandria
Alexandria
from the forces of Caesar, seeking sanctuary after his defeat at the Battle of Pharsalus in late 48 BC. Ptolemy was thirteen years old at that time, and had set up a throne for himself on the harbor. From there, he watched as Pompey
Pompey
was murdered on September 28, 48 BC, by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship from which he had just disembarked. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death to ingratiate himself with Caesar, thus becoming an ally of Rome, to which Egypt
Egypt
was in debt at the time. This act proved a miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. Caesar arrived in Egypt
Egypt
two days later, and Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed head. Caesar was enraged. Pompey
Pompey
was Caesar's political enemy, but he was a Roman consul and the widower of Caesar's only legitimate daughter Julia , who died during childbirth. Caesar seized the Egyptian capital and imposed himself as arbiter between the rival claims of Ptolemy and Cleopatra.

Relationship With Julius Caesar

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesar (1866). Painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Jean-Léon Gérôme

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
's anger toward Ptolemy and had herself secretly smuggled into his palace to meet with Caesar. Plutarch
Plutarch
gives a vivid description in his Life of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
of how she entered past Ptolemy’s guards rolled up in a carpet that Apollodorus the Sicilian was carrying. She became Caesar’s mistress and gave birth to their son Ptolemy Caesar in 47 BC, nine months after their first meeting. He was nicknamed Caesarion , which means "little Caesar."

At this point, Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. Mithridates raised the siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
, and Caesar defeated Ptolemy's army at the Battle of the Nile
Nile
. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile
Nile
, and Caesar restored Cleopatra
Cleopatra
to her throne with younger brother Ptolemy XIV as her new co-ruler. When Caesar left Egypt, he stationed a Roman occupying army there of three legions under the command of Rufio . Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII and her son Caesarion
Caesarion
at the Temple of Dendera

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52; they became lovers during Caesar’s stay in Egypt
Egypt
between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
claimed that Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir; but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew Octavian instead. During this relationship, it was also rumored that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
introduced Caesar to her astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria , who proposed the idea of leap days and leap years . This was not new; they were proclaimed in 238 BC but the reform never took effect. Caesar made this the basis of his reform of the Roman calendar in 45 BC, and the Egyptian calendar was reformed along these lines in 26 BC.

Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV, and Caesarion
Caesarion
visited Rome in mid-46 BC. The Egyptian queen resided in one of Caesar's country houses, which included the Horti Caesaris just outside Rome. (As a foreign head of state, she was not allowed inside Rome's pomerium .) The relationship between Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and caused a scandal because the Roman dictator was already married to Calpurnia . But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
represented as Isis
Isis
in the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), which was situated at the Forum Julium . Roman orator Cicero
Cicero
said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign queen. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and her entourage were still in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BC, and after his death returned with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died, allegedly poisoned by his older sister, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
made Caesarion her co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets Theos Philopator Philometor (Father-loving and mother-loving God).

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
In The Roman Civil War

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
sided with the Caesarian party in the Roman civil war between the Caesarian faction, led by Mark Antony and Octavian, and the faction including the assassins of Caesar led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus
Gaius Cassius Longinus
, because of her past. Brutus and Cassius left Italy and sailed to the east of the Roman Empire, where they conquered large areas and established military bases. At the beginning of 43 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
formed an alliance with the leader of the Caesarian party in the east, Publius Cornelius Dolabella , who also recognized Caesarion
Caesarion
as her co-ruler. But soon, Dolabella was encircled in Laodicea and committed suicide (July 43 BC).

Cassius wanted to invade Egypt
Egypt
to seize the treasures of that country and punish Cleopatra
Cleopatra
for her support for Dolabella. Egypt
Egypt
seemed an easy target because it did not have strong land forces and there was famine and an epidemic. Cassius also wanted to prevent Cleopatra
Cleopatra
from bringing reinforcements for Antony and Octavian. But he could not execute an invasion of Egypt
Egypt
because Brutus summoned him back to Smyrna
Smyrna
at the end of 43 BC. Cassius tried to blockade Cleopatra’s route to the Caesarians. For this purpose, Lucius Staius Murcus moved with 60 ships and a legion of elite troops into position at Cape Matapan in the south of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
. Nevertheless, Cleopatra sailed with her fleet from Alexandria
Alexandria
to the west along the Libyan coast to join the Caesarian leaders, but she was forced to return to Egypt
Egypt
because her ships were damaged by a violent storm and she became ill. Staius Murcus learned of the queen's misfortune and saw wreckage from her ships on the coast of Greece. He then sailed with his ships into the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
.

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
And Mark Antony

Antony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema Denarius
Denarius
, 32 BC. Obverse: Diademed bust of Cleopatra, CLEOPATRAFILIORVM REGVM. Reverse: Bust of M. Antony, ANTONI ARMENIA DEVICTA

Mark Antony was one of the triumvirs who ruled Rome in the power vacuum following Caesar's death. He sent his intimate friend Quintus Dellius to Egypt
Egypt
in 41 BC, summoning Cleopatra
Cleopatra
to Tarsus in order to meet Antony and answer questions about her loyalty. During the Roman civil war, she allegedly had paid much money to Cassius. It seems that, in reality, Antony wanted Cleopatra’s promise to support his intended war against the Parthians
Parthians
. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
arrived in great state, and so charmed Antony that he chose to spend late 41 BC to early 40 BC with her in Alexandria.

To safeguard herself and Caesarion, she had Antony order the death of her sister Arsinoe , who had been banished to the Temple of Artemis
Temple of Artemis
in Roman-controlled Ephesus for her role in leading the Siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
. The execution was carried out in 41 BC on the steps of the temple, and this violation of temple sanctuary scandalised Rome. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
also retrieved her strategos (military governor) of Cyprus Serapion , who had supported Cassius against her wishes.

On 25 December 40 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
gave birth to twins fathered by Antony, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II . Four years later, Antony visited Alexandria
Alexandria
again en route to make war with the Parthians. He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and, from this point on, Alexandria
Alexandria
was his home. He married Cleopatra
Cleopatra
according to the Egyptian rite (a letter quoted in Suetonius
Suetonius
suggests this), although he was married at the time to Octavia Minor , sister of his fellow triumvir Octavian . He and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
had another child, Ptolemy Philadelphus . A tetradrachm of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, Syria
Syria
mint

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesarion
Caesarion
were crowned co-rulers of Egypt
Egypt
and Cyprus
Cyprus
at the Donations of Alexandria
Alexandria
in late 34 BC, following Antony's conquest of Armenia . Alexander Helios was crowned ruler of Armenia, Media , and Parthia
Parthia
; Cleopatra Selene II was crowned ruler of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and Libya
Libya
; and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
, Syria
Syria
, and Cilicia
Cilicia
. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was also given the title of "Queen of Kings" by Antonius. Her enemies in Rome feared that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
"was planning a war of revenge that was to array all the East against Rome, establish herself as empress of the world at Rome, cast justice from Capitolium
Capitolium
, and inaugurate a new universal kingdom." Caesarion
Caesarion
was elevated to having coregency with Cleopatra; he was also proclaimed with many titles, including god, son of god, and king of kings , and was depicted as Horus
Horus
. Egyptians thought that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was a reincarnation of the goddess Isis
Isis
, as she called herself Nea Isis.

Relations between Antony and Octavian had been disintegrating for several years; they finally broke down in 33 BC, and Octavian convinced the Senate to levy war against Egypt. In 31 BC, Antony's forces faced the Romans in a naval action off the coast of Actium . Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was present with a fleet of her own. According to Plutarch, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
took flight with her ships at the height of the battle, and Antony followed her. Following the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
, Octavian invaded Egypt. As he approached Alexandria, Antony's armies deserted to Octavian on August 1, 30 BC. To finance her war against Octavian, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
took gold from the tomb of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, which had been previously robbed.

There are a number of unverifiable stories about Cleopatra. One of the best known is that she playfully bet Antony, at one of the lavish dinners which they shared, that she could spend ten million sestertii on a dinner. He accepted the bet. The next night, she had a conventional, unspectacular meal served; he was ridiculing this, when she ordered the second course — only a cup of strong vinegar. She then removed one of her priceless pearl earrings, dropped it into the vinegar, allowed it to dissolve, and drank the mixture. The earliest report of this story comes from Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
and dates to about 100 years after the banquet described would have happened. The calcium carbonate in pearls does dissolve in vinegar, but slowly unless the pearl is first crushed.

DEATH

Main article: Death of Cleopatra The Death of Cleopatra by Guido Cagnacci
Guido Cagnacci
, 1658

The ancient sources, particularly the Roman ones, are in general agreement that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
killed herself by inducing an asp (Egyptian cobra ) to bite her. The oldest source is Strabo
Strabo
, who was alive at the time of the event and might even have been in Alexandria. He says that there are two stories — that she applied a toxic ointment or that she was bitten by an asp on her breast — but he said in his writings that he was not sure if Cleopatra
Cleopatra
poisoned herself or was murdered. Several Roman poets writing within ten years of the event mention bites by two asps, as does Florus , a historian, some 150 years later. Velleius , sixty years after the event, also refers to an asp. Other authors have questioned these historical accounts, stating that it is possible that Augustus
Augustus
had her killed. In 2010, German historian Christoph Schaefer challenged all other theories, declaring that the queen had actually been poisoned and died from drinking a mixture of poisons. After studying historical texts and consulting with toxicologists, the historian concluded that the asp could not have caused the quick and pain-free death claimed by most sources, since the asp venom paralyses parts of the body, starting with the eyes, before causing death. Living when and where she did, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
would have known of the violent and painful effects of an asp's venomous bite, so it is unlikely that it was the cause of her death. Also, the asp's bite is not always fatal. Schaefer and his toxicologist Dietrich Mebs have theorized that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
used a mixture of hemlock , wolfsbane , and opium . The Death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
by Reginald Arthur, 1892

Plutarch
Plutarch
, writing about 130 years after the event, reports that Octavian succeeded in capturing Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in her mausoleum after the death of Antony. He ordered his freedman Epaphroditus to guard her to prevent her from committing suicide, because he allegedly wanted to present her in his triumph . But Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was able to deceive Epaphroditus and kill herself nevertheless. Plutarch
Plutarch
states that she was found dead, her handmaiden Iras dying at her feet, and handmaiden Charmion adjusting her crown before she herself fell. He then goes on to state that an asp was concealed in a basket of figs that was brought to her by a rustic and, finding it after eating a few figs, she held out her arm for it to bite. Other stories state that it was hidden in a vase and that she poked it with a spindle until it got angry enough to bite her on the arm. Finally, he indicates that, in Octavian's triumphal march back in Rome, an effigy of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was part of the parade that had an asp clinging to it.

Suetonius
Suetonius
, writing about the same time as Plutarch, also says Cleopatra
Cleopatra
died from an asp bite.

Classical sources say that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was bitten on the arm, but she is more usually depicted in medieval and Renaissance iconography with asps at her breast, a tradition followed by Shakespeare. The Death of Cleopatra by Juan Luna
Juan Luna
, 1881. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
is depicted taking her own life with the bite of a venomous serpent. Adam Lenckhardt (Ivory). The Walters Art Museum.

Plutarch
Plutarch
tells us of the death of Antony. When his armies deserted him and joined with Octavian, he cried out that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
had betrayed him. She locked herself in her monument with only her two handmaidens, fearing his wrath, and sent messengers to tell Antony that she was dead. Believing them, Antony stabbed himself in the stomach with his sword, and lay on his couch to die. Instead, the blood flow stopped, and he begged any and all to finish him off. Another messenger came from Cleopatra
Cleopatra
with instructions to bring him to her, and he consented, rejoicing that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was still alive. She would not open the door, but tossed ropes out of a window. After Antony was securely trussed up, she and her handmaidens hauled him up into the monument. This nearly finished him off. After dragging him in through the window, they laid him on a couch. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
tore off her clothes and covered him with them. She raved and cried, beat her breasts, and engaged in self-mutilation. Antony told her to calm down, asked for a glass of wine, and died upon finishing it.

The site of their mausoleum is uncertain, though the Egyptian Antiquities Service believes that it is in or near the temple of Taposiris Magna , southwest of Alexandria
Alexandria
.

Caesarion
Caesarion
, Cleopatra's son by Caesar, was proclaimed pharaoh by the Egyptians after Alexandria
Alexandria
fell to Octavian. Caesarion
Caesarion
was captured and killed, his fate reportedly sealed when one of Octavian's advisers paraphrased Homer: "It is bad to have too many Caesars." This ended the Hellenistic line of Egyptian pharaohs and, in fact, the line of all Egyptian pharaohs. The three children of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Antony were spared and taken back to Rome, where they were taken care of by Antony's wife Octavia Minor . The daughter Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene was married through arrangements of Octavian to Juba II of Mauretania .

CHARACTER AND CULTURAL DEPICTIONS

Statue of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
as Egyptian goddess ; Basalt, second half of the 1st century BC. Hermitage, Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners by Alexandre Cabanel
Alexandre Cabanel
(1887). Main article: Cultural depictions of Cleopatra

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was regarded as a great beauty, even in the ancient world. In his Life of Antony, Plutarch
Plutarch
remarks that "judging by the proofs which she had had before this of the effect of her beauty upon Caius Caesar and Gnaeus the son of Pompey, she had hopes that she would more easily bring Antony to her feet. For Caesar and Pompey
Pompey
had known her when she was still a girl and inexperienced in affairs, but she was going to visit Antony at the very time when women have the most brilliant beauty." Later in the work, however, Plutarch
Plutarch
indicates that "her beauty, as we are told, was in itself neither altogether incomparable, nor such as to strike those who saw her." Rather, what ultimately made Cleopatra
Cleopatra
attractive were her wit, charm and "sweetness in the tones of her voice."

Cassius Dio also spoke of Cleopatra's allure: "For she was a woman of surpassing beauty, and at that time, when she was in the prime of her youth, she was most striking; she also possessed a most charming voice and knowledge of how to make herself agreeable to everyone. Being brilliant to look upon and to listen to, with the power to subjugate everyone, even a love-sated man already past his prime, she thought that it would be in keeping with her role to meet Caesar, and she reposed in her beauty all her claims to the throne."

These accounts influenced later cultural depictions of Cleopatra, which typically present her using her charms to influence the most powerful men in the Western world.

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was also renowned for her intellect. Plutarch
Plutarch
writes that she could speak at least nine languages and rarely had need of an interpreter.

ANCESTRY

The high degree of inbreeding amongst the Ptolemies is also illustrated by Cleopatra's immediate ancestry, of which a reconstruction is shown below. Through three uncle–niece marriages and three sister–brother marriages, her family tree collapses to a single couple at four, five or six generations back (counting through different lines).

It has often been said that "there was not one drop of Egyptian blood in the Ptolemaic line", and that the Romans, in all their anti- Cleopatra
Cleopatra
propaganda, made no mention of any illegitimacy against her. ANCESTORS OF CLEOPATRA VII OF EGYPT

16. Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes

8. Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon

17. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I of Egypt
Egypt

4. Ptolemy IX Lathyros

18. Ptolemy VI Philometor (brother of no. 8)

9. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III of Egypt
Egypt

19. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II of Egypt
Egypt
(sister of no. 8)

2. Ptolemy XII Auletes

20. Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
(= 16)

10. Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
(= 8)

21. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I of Egypt
Egypt
(= 17)

5. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
IV of Egypt
Egypt

22. Ptolemy VI Philometor (= 18)

11. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III of Egypt
Egypt
(= 9)

23. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II of Egypt
Egypt
(= 19)

1. CLEOPATRA VII

24. Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
(= 16)

12. Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
(= 8)

25. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I of Egypt
Egypt
(= 17)

6. Ptolemy X Alexander I

26. Ptolemy VI Philometor (= 18)

13. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III of Egypt
Egypt
(= 9)

27. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II of Egypt
Egypt
(= 19)

3. Cleopatra V Tryphaena

28. Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
(= 8)

14. Ptolemy IX Lathyros (= 4)

29. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III of Egypt
Egypt
(= 9)

7. Berenice III

30. Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
(= 8)

15. Cleopatra Selene I

31. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III of Egypt
Egypt
(= 9)

Several persons appear multiple times in Cleopatra's ancestry. For instance, her mother was her father's niece and thus not only her mother but also her cousin. This family tree attempts to present those relationships in a more easily-understood format.

Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I

Ptolemy VI Philometor

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II

Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III

Cleopatra Selene I

Ptolemy IX Lathyros

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
IV

Ptolemy X Alexander I

Berenice III

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V

Ptolemy XII Auletes

CLEOPATRA VII

SEE ALSO

* List of female rulers and title holders * Zenobia
Zenobia

NOTES

* ^ Walker, p. 129. * ^ T.C. Skeat, "The Last Days of Cleopatra: A Chronological Problem", The Journal of Roman Studies, 43 (1953), pp. 98–100 . * ^ *Western civilisation:ideas, Politics, and society by Marvin Perry, Margaret C Jacob, Myrna Chase, James R Jacob page 132: ” Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(69- 30 BC), the Greek queen of Egypt, belonged to the Ptolemaic family, the Macedonian Greeks
Greeks
who ruled Egypt
Egypt
during the Hellenistic Age”. *The Civilization of Rome by Donald R. Dudley, Page 57: ”In Egypt
Egypt
the Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies was the successor to the native Pharaohs, exploiting through a highly organized bureaucracy the great natural resources of the Nile Valley”. *The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII was born to Ptolemy XII Auletes (80–57 BC, ruled 55–51 BC) and Cleopatra, both parents being Macedonian Greeks." *Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt
Egypt
by Kathryn Bard, page 488 “Ptolemaic kings were still crowned at Memphis and the city was popularly regarded as the Egyptian rival to Alexandria, founded by the Macedonian Greeks”; Page 687: "During the Ptolemaic period, when Egypt
Egypt
was governed by rulers of Greek descent…” *Cleopatra: A Sourcebook (Oklahoma Series in Classical Culture) by Prudence J. Jones (Author) page14: “They were members of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
of Macedonian Greeks, who ruled Egypt
Egypt
after the death of its conqueror, Alexander the Great.” *Women in Hellenistic Egypt
Egypt
by Sarah B. Pomeroy, page 16 “while Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
was a monarchy with a Greek ruling class." * ^ Cleopatra: the life of an Egyptian queen By Gary Jeffrey, Anita Ganeri page 6 :” Throughout their dynasty, the Ptolemies held onto their Greek culture and continued to speak Greek as their main language.”. * ^ "Radio 4 Programmes - A History of the World in 100 Objects, Empire Builders (300 BC - 1 AD), Rosetta Stone". BBC. Retrieved 2010-06-07. * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
, Antony 27 * ^ "Who Was Cleopatra? (page 2)". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2008-01-22. * ^ "Cleopatra: Meaning & History". Behind the Name.com. Retrieved 4 April 2014. * ^ "Kleopatros: Meaning & History". Behind the Name.com. Retrieved 4 April 2014. * ^ German historian Werner Huß (Die Herkunft der Kleopatra Philopator (The descent of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Philopator), Aegyptus 70, 1990, pp. 191–203) assumes instead that Cleopatra's mother was a high-born Egyptian woman, who possibly had become the second wife of Ptolemy XII after he had repudiated Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V. * ^ Valerius Maximus
Valerius Maximus
4.1.15 * ^ Anderson, Jaynie (2003). Tiepolo\'s Cleopatra. Macmillan Education AU. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-876832-44-5 . Retrieved 10 February 2012. * ^ Peter Green (1990), Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 661–664, ISBN 0-520-05611-6 * ^ Parallel Lives
Parallel Lives
- The Life of Julius Caesar, 49 * ^ So dramatic is the report of Plutarch
Plutarch
(Caesar 49.1–3) that it is doubted by some scholars. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
had to be smuggled in secretly because Ptolemy XIII had blocked all entries to Alexandria, making it impossible for his half-sister to come into the city. * ^ De Bello Alexandrino 28–32 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 42.43 * ^ De Bello Alexandrino 33 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 42.44 * ^ Suetonius, Caesar 35.1 * ^ Suetonius, Caesar 76.3 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 43.27.3 * ^ A B Cicero, Letters to Atticus 15.15.2 * ^ Appian, Civil Wars 2.102.424 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 51.22.3 * ^ Cicero
Cicero
(Letters to Atticus 14.8.1, written on 16 April 44 BC) says that he was very glad that the Queen fled. * ^ Josephus
Josephus
, Antiquities of the Jews 15.89 * ^ Porphyry , Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (FGrH) 260 F 2, 16-17 * ^ stele BM 377 (15 February 42 BC) and others * ^ Appian, Civil Wars 4.61.262–263 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 47.30.4 and 47.31.5 * ^ Appian, Civil Wars 4.63; 4.74; 4.82; 5.8 * ^ Plutarch, Life of Antony 25-29; Appian, Civil Wars 5.8-11; Cassius Dio, Roman History 48.24 * ^ BBC
BBC
documentary, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
portrait of a killer * ^ Appian, Civil Wars 5.9.35 * ^ Syme, p. 270. * ^ Syme, p. 274. * ^ Stanley Mayer Burstein (30 December 2007), The Reign of Cleopatra, University of Oklahoma Press, p. 20, ISBN 978-0-8061-3871-8 , retrieved 31 March 2011 * ^ Plutarch, Life of Antony 54.9 * ^ 'Actium', The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature, third edition, edited by M. C. Howatson. Oxford University, 2011. * ^ "Alexander the Great, King of Macedon". Archaeology . July 16, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2016. * ^ Ullman, Berthold L. (1957), "Cleopatra's Pearls", The Classical Journal, 52 (5): 193–201. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
, Geography , XVII 10 * ^ Note that an unnamed editor of the respected Loeb Classical Library translation stated that the "twin snakes" mentioned in the text are simply a "symbol of death." Virgil
Virgil
, Aeneid
Aeneid
, VIII 696–697 * ^ Horace
Horace
, Odes, I 37 * ^ Sextus Propertius , Elegies, III 11 * ^ Florus , Epitome of Roman History, II 21 * ^ Velleius Paterculus , Compendium of Roman History, II 87 * ^ For a possible poetic allusion to the asp, see Wallace Stevens' In the Carolinas * ^ Everitt, Anthony (2007), Augustus: The Life of Rome's First Emperor, New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, pp. 194–195, ISBN 0-8129-7058-6 * ^ Melissa Gray (2010-06-30). "Poison, not snake, killed Cleopatra, scholar says - Cleopatra
Cleopatra
died a quiet and pain free death, historian alleges.". CNN
CNN
. Retrieved 2015-10-11. * ^ Plutarch, Life of Antony 79.6 and 85.4–6; Cassius Dio, Roman History 51.11.4–5 and 51.13.3–5 * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
, Parallel Lives, LXXXV 2–3 (Life of Antony) * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
, ibid., LXXXVI 3. See also Cassius Dio , Roman History, LI 21 * ^ Suetonius
Suetonius
, On the Life of the Caesars , Augustus, XVII 4 * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
, loc. cit. * ^ Cassius Dio , op. cit., LI 14 * ^ Galen
Galen
, De Theriaca ad Pisonem, CCXXXVII, who says she bit herself, rather than an asp biting her. * ^ Shakespeare , Antony and Cleopatra , V ii * ^ "Cleopatra". The Walters Art Museum . * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
, ibid. * ^ "Dig \'may reveal\' Cleopatra\'s tomb". BBC
BBC
News. 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2009-04-24. * ^ Plutarch, Life of Antony 81.4 – 82.1; Cassius Dio, Roman History 51.15.5; Suetonius, Augustus
Augustus
17.5 * ^ Plutarch, Life of Antony 87.1–2; Cassius Dio, Roman History 51.15.6; Suetonius, Augustus
Augustus
17.5 and Caligula 26.1 * ^ A B C D "The Beauty of Cleopatra". University of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-05-28. * ^ "she could pass from one language to another; so that there were few of the barbarian nations that she answered by an interpreter; to most of them she spoke herself, as to the Ethiopians, Troglodytes, Hebrews, Arabians, Syrians, Medes, Parthians, and many others, whose language she had learnt; which was all the more surprising because most of the kings, her predecessors, scarcely gave themselves the trouble to acquire the Egyptian tongue, and several of them quite abandoned the Macedonian." Plutarch, Antony, 27.3-4 * ^ Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3 The family tree and short discussions of the individuals can be found on pages 268-281. The authors refer to Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V as Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI and Cleopatra Selene I is called Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V Selene. * ^ Stacy Schiff , Cleopatra: A Life, Hachette Digital, Inc., 2010, ISBN 978-0-316-00192-2 Google Books * ^ HSC Ancient History, By Peter Roberts, pg 125, at https://books.google.co.za/books?id=Krh7n9AyS40C&pg=PA129&dq=arsinoe+iv&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjYz-KfxrzOAhXEAsAKHbaGD2MQ6AEILDAD#v=onepage&q=arsinoe%20iv&f=false

REFERENCES

Primary sources

* Hegesippus, Historiae i.29–32. * Lucan
Lucan
, Bellum civile ix.909–911, x. * Macrobius, Saturnalia iii.17.14–18. * Orosius, Historiae adversus paganos vi.16.1–2, 19.4–18. * Pliny, Naturalis historia vii.2.14, ix.58.119–121, xxi.9.12. * Plutarch
Plutarch
(1958), "Caesar", in Warner, Rex, Fall of the Roman Republic, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-044084-4 * Plutarch
Plutarch
(1965), "Mark Antony", in Scott-Kilvert, Ian, Makers of Rome, Baltimore: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-044158-1 * Suetonius, De vita Caesarum Iul i.35.52, ii.17.

Modern sources

* Bradford, Ernle Dusgate Selby (2000), Cleopatra, Penguin Group, ISBN 978-0-14-139014-7 * Burstein, Stanley M. (2004), The reign of Cleopatra, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-32527-8 * Flamarion, Edith; Bonfante-Warren, Alexandra (1997), Cleopatra: The Life and Death of a Pharaoh, Harry Abrams, ISBN 978-0-8109-2805-3

* Foss, Michael (1999), The Search for Cleopatra, Arcade Publishing, ISBN 978-1-55970-503-5 * Fraser, P.M. (1972), Ptolemaic Alexandria, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-814278-1 * Lindsay, Jack (1972), Cleopatra, New York: Coward-McCann * Nardo, Don (1994), Cleopatra, Lucent Books, ISBN 978-1-56006-023-9 * Pomeroy, Sarah B. (1984), Women in Hellenistic Egypt: from Alexander to Cleopatra, New York: Schocken Books, ISBN 0-8052-3911-1 * Roller, Duane W. (2010), Cleopatra: a biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-536553-5 * Southern, Pat (2000), Cleopatra, Tempus, ISBN 978-0-7524-1494-2 * Syme, Ronald (1962), The Roman Revolution, Oxford University Press

* Volkmann, H. (1958), Cleopatra: A Study in Politics and Propaganda, T.J. Cadoux, trans, New York: Sagamore Press * Walker, Susan; Higgs, Peter (2001), Cleopatra
Cleopatra
of Egypt, From History to Myth, British Museum Press, ISBN 978-0-7141-1943-4 * Weigall, Arthur (1923), The Life and Times of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Queen of Egypt, London: Putnam

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