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Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
Philopator (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Philopator;[8] 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)[note 1] was a queen and last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
of Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion
Caesarion
for eighteen days. She was also a diplomat, naval commander, administrator, linguist, and medical author.[9] As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
that had lasted since the reign of Alexander. In 58 BC Cleopatra
Cleopatra
presumably accompanied her father Ptolemy XII during his exile to Rome, after a revolt in Egypt allowed his eldest daughter Berenice IV to claim the throne. The latter was killed in 55 BC when Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
returned to Egypt with Roman military assistance. When Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
died in 51 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII acceded to the throne as joint rulers, but a fallout between them led to open civil war. After losing the 48 BC Battle of Pharsalus in Greece against his rival Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in Caesar's Civil War, the Roman statesman Pompey
Pompey
the Great fled to Egypt, a Roman client state. However, Ptolemy XIII had Pompey
Pompey
killed while Caesar occupied Alexandria
Alexandria
in pursuit of Pompey. With his authority as consul of the Roman Republic, Caesar attempted to reconcile Ptolemy XIII with Cleopatra. However, Ptolemy XIII's chief adviser Potheinos viewed Caesar's terms as favoring Cleopatra, so his forces, which eventually fell under the control of Cleopatra's younger sister Arsinoe IV, besieged both Caesar and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
at the palace. The siege was lifted by reinforcements in early 47 BC and Ptolemy XIII died shortly thereafter in the Battle of the Nile. Arsinoe IV
Arsinoe IV
was eventually exiled to Ephesus
Ephesus
and Caesar, now an elected dictator, declared Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and her younger brother Ptolemy XIV as joint rulers of Egypt. However, Caesar maintained a private affair with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
that produced a son, Caesarion
Caesarion
(i.e. Ptolemy XV), before he departed Alexandria
Alexandria
for Rome. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
traveled to Rome
Rome
as a client queen in 46 and 44 BC, staying at Caesar's villa. When Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC Cleopatra attempted to have Caesarion
Caesarion
named as his heir, but this fell instead to Caesar's grandnephew Octavian
Octavian
(known as Augustus
Augustus
by 27 BC, when he became the first Roman emperor). Cleopatra
Cleopatra
then had her brother Ptolemy XIV killed and elevated her son Caesarion
Caesarion
as co-ruler. In the Liberators' civil war
Liberators' civil war
of 43–42 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
sided with the Roman Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
formed by Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. After their meeting at Tarsos
Tarsos
in 41 BC, Cleopatra had an affair with Antony that would eventually produce three children: the twins Alexander Helios and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene II, and Ptolemy Philadelphus. Antony used his authority as triumvir to carry out the execution of Arsinoe IV
Arsinoe IV
at Cleopatra's request. He became increasingly reliant on Cleopatra
Cleopatra
for both funding and military aid during his invasions of the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
and the Kingdom of Armenia. Although his invasion of Parthia was unsuccessful, he managed to occupy Armenia, bringing king Artavasdes II back to Alexandria
Alexandria
in 34 BC as a paraded prisoner in his mock Roman triumph
Roman triumph
hosted by Cleopatra. This was followed by the Donations of Alexandria, a formal declaration that Cleopatra's children with Antony would rule over various erstwhile territories under Antony's authority. This event, along with Antony's marriage to Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and divorce of Octavia Minor, sister of Octavian, led to the Final War of the Roman Republic. After engaging in a war of propaganda, Octavian
Octavian
forced Antony's allies in the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
to flee Rome
Rome
in 32 BC and declared war on Cleopatra. The combined naval fleet of Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
was defeated at the 31 BC Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
by Octavian's general Agrippa. Octavian's forces invaded Egypt in 30 BC and defeated those of Antony, leading to his suicide. When Cleopatra
Cleopatra
learned that Octavian
Octavian
planned to bring her to Rome
Rome
for his triumphal procession, she committed suicide by poisoning, the popular belief being that she was bitten by an asp. Cleopatra's legacy survives in numerous works of art, both ancient and modern, and many dramatizations of incidents from her life in literature and other media. She was described in various works of Roman historiography and featured heavily in ancient Latin
Latin
poetry. The latter produced a generally polemic and negative view of the queen that pervaded later Medieval and Renaissance literature. In the visual arts, ancient depictions of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
include Roman and Ptolemaic coinage, statues, busts, reliefs, cameo glass, cameo carvings, and paintings. She was the subject of many works in Renaissance and Baroque art, which included sculptures, paintings, poetry, theatrical dramas such as William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
(1608) and operas such as George Frideric Handel's Giulio Cesare in Egitto (1724). In modern times Cleopatra
Cleopatra
has appeared in both the applied and fine arts, burlesque satire, Hollywood
Hollywood
films such as Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1963), and brand images for commercial products, becoming a pop culture icon of Egyptomania
Egyptomania
since the Victorian era.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Biography

2.1 Childhood, tutelage, and exile 2.2 Accession to the throne 2.3 Assassination of Pompey 2.4 Relationship with Julius Caesar 2.5 Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in the Liberators' civil war 2.6 Relationship with Mark Antony 2.7 Donations of Alexandria 2.8 Battle of Actium 2.9 Downfall and death

3 Legacy

3.1 Children and successors 3.2 Roman literature and historiography 3.3 Cultural depictions

3.3.1 Depictions in ancient art

3.3.1.1 Statues 3.3.1.2 Coinage portraits 3.3.1.3 Greco-Roman busts 3.3.1.4 Paintings 3.3.1.5 Portland Vase 3.3.1.6 Native Egyptian art

3.3.2 Medieval and Early Modern reception 3.3.3 Modern depictions and brand imaging

3.4 Written works

4 Ancestry 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Notes 6.2 Citations 6.3 Cited in text

7 Further reading 8 External links

Etymology The name Cleopatra
Cleopatra
originates from the Greek name Kleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα), meaning "glory of the father" in the feminine form.[10] It is derived from kleos (Greek: κλέος), "glory", combined with pater (Greek: πατήρ), "father", using the genitive form patros (Greek: πατρός).[10] The masculine form would have been written either as Kleopatros (Greek: Κλεόπατρος) or Patroklos (Greek: Πάτροκλος).[10] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was the name of Alexander the Great's sister, as well as Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Alcyone, husband of Meleager
Meleager
in Greek mythology.[11] Through the marriage of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra I Syra
(a Seleucid princess), the name entered the Ptolemaic dynasty.[12][13] Cleopatra's adopted title Thea Philopatora (Greek: Θεά Φιλοπάτωρα) means "goddess who loves her father."[14][15] Biography Childhood, tutelage, and exile Main article: Early life of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII

Hellenistic-Greek bust of Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
Auletes, the father of Cleopatra VII, located in the Louvre, Paris[16]

Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
was born in early 69 BC to the ruling Ptolemaic pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes
Ptolemy XII Auletes
and an unknown mother,[17] perhaps Ptolemy XII's wife Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V Tryphaena).[18][19][20][21][note 2] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
had two sisters, Berenice IV and Arsinoe IV, and two brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV.[22][23][24] Her childhood tutor was Philostratos, from whom she learned the Greek arts of oration and philosophy.[25] During her youth Cleopatra
Cleopatra
presumably studied at the Musaeum, including the Library of Alexandria.[26][27] Ptolemaic pharaohs spoke Greek and governed Egypt as Hellenistic-Greek monarchs from the multicultural and largely-Greek city of Alexandria established by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
of Macedon, refusing to learn the native Egyptian language.[28][29][30][note 3] In contrast, Cleopatra could understand and speak multiple languages by adulthood. These included Egyptian, Ethiopian, Trogodyte, Hebrew (or Aramaic), Arabic, the Syrian language (Syriac?), Median, Parthian, and Latin, although her Roman colleagues would have preferred to speak with her in her native Koine Greek.[31][32][33] Aside from Greek, Egyptian, and Latin, these languages reflected Cleopatra's desire to restore African and Asian territories that once belonged to the Ptolemaic Empire.[34] Roman interventionism in Egypt predated the reign of Cleopatra VII.[35][36] When Ptolemy IX Lathyros
Ptolemy IX Lathyros
died in late 81 BC he was succeeded by his daughter Berenice III.[37] However, with opposition building at the royal court against the idea of a sole-reigning female monarch, Berenice III
Berenice III
accepted joint rule and marriage with her cousin and stepson Ptolemy XI Alexander II, an arrangement made by the dictator Sulla.[37] The incestuous Ptolemaic practice of sibling marriage was introduced by Ptolemy II
Ptolemy II
and his sister Arsinoe II, a long-held royal Egyptian practice but one that was loathed by contemporary Greeks.[38][39] By the reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, however it was considered a normal arrangement for Ptolemaic rulers.[38][39] Ptolemy XI had his stepmother-wife killed shortly after their marriage in 80 BC, but he was lynched soon thereafter in the resulting riot over the assassination.[37][40] Ptolemy XI, and perhaps even Ptolemy IX or Ptolemy X
Ptolemy X
Alexander I, willed the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
to Rome
Rome
as collateral for loans, so that the Romans had legal grounds to take over Egypt, their client state.[37][41][42] The Romans chose instead to divide the Ptolemaic realm among the illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX, bestowing Cyprus
Cyprus
to Ptolemy of Cyprus and Egypt to Ptolemy XII.[37][40] Cleopatra V (or VI) Tryphaena disappears from official records a few months after the birth of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
in 69 BC.[43][44] The three younger children of Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
were all born in the more than decade-long absence of his wife.[45][46] In 65 BC the Roman censor Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus
argued before the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
that Rome should annex Ptolemaic Egypt, but his proposed bill and the similar bill of tribune Servilius Rullus in 63 BC were rejected.[47][48] Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
responded to the threat of possible annexation by offering remuneration and lavish gifts to powerful Roman statesmen such as Pompey
Pompey
the Great during his campaign against Mithridates VI of Pontus and eventually Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
after he became consul in 59 BC.[49][50][51] However, Ptolemy XII's profligate behavior bankrupted him and he was forced to acquire loans from the Roman banker Gaius Rabirius Postumus.[52][53][54]

Most likely a posthumous painted portrait of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
of Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
with red hair and her distinct facial features, wearing a royal diadem and pearl-studded hairpins, from Roman Herculaneum, Italy, late 1st-century BC to mid-1st century AD[55][note 4]

In 58 BC the Romans annexed Cyprus
Cyprus
and drove Ptolemy XII's brother Ptolemy of Cyprus to commit suicide rather than exile to Paphos.[56][57][54] Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
remained publicly silent on the death of his brother, a decision which, along with ceding traditional Ptolemaic territory to the Romans, damaged his credibility among subjects already enraged by his economic policies.[56][58] Ptolemy XII was then exiled from Egypt by force, traveling first to Rhodes, then Athens, and finally the villa of the triumvir Pompey
Pompey
in the Alban Hills near Praeneste.[56][57][59] Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
spent nearly a year there on the outskirts of Rome, ostensibly accompanied by his then 11-year-old daughter Cleopatra.[56][59][note 5] Berenice IV sent an embassy to Rome
Rome
to advocate for her rule and oppose the reinstatement of her father Ptolemy XII, but Ptolemy employed his assassins to kill the leaders of the embassy, an incident that was covered up by his powerful Roman supporters.[60][53][61] When the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
denied Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
the offer of an armed escort and provisions for a return to Egypt, he decided to leave Rome
Rome
in late 57 BC and reside in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[62][63] The Roman financiers of Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
remained determined to restore him to power.[64] Pompey
Pompey
persuaded Aulus Gabinius, the Roman governor of Syria, to invade Egypt and restore Ptolemy XII, offering him 10,000 talents for the proposed mission.[64][65] Although it put him at odds with Roman law, Gabinius invaded Egypt in the spring of 55 BC by way of Hasmonean Judea, where Hyrcanus II
Hyrcanus II
had Antipater the Idumaean, father of Herod the Great, furnish the Roman-led army with supplies.[64][66] Under Gabinius' command was the young cavalry officer Mark Antony, who distinguished himself by preventing Ptolemy XII from massacring the inhabitants of Pelousion
Pelousion
and rescuing the body of Archelaos, husband of Berenice IV, after the latter was killed in battle, ensuring him a proper royal burial.[67][68] Cleopatra, now 14 years of age, would have traveled with the Roman expedition into Egypt; years later Mark Antony
Mark Antony
would profess that he had fallen in love with her at this time.[67][69] Gabinius was put on trial in Rome
Rome
for abusing his authority, for which he was acquitted, but his second trial for accepting bribes led to his exile, from which he was recalled seven years later in 48 BC by Julius Caesar.[70] Crassus replaced him as governor of Syria
Syria
and extended his provincial command to Egypt, but he was killed by the Parthians
Parthians
at the Battle of Carrhae
Battle of Carrhae
in 53 BC.[70][71] Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
had his rival daughter Berenice and her wealthy supporters executed, seizing their properties.[72][73][74] He allowed Gabinius' largely Germanic and Gallic Roman garrison—the Gabiniani—to harass people in the streets of Alexandria
Alexandria
and installed his longtime Roman financier Rabirius Postumus as his chief financial officer.[72][75][76] Rabirius Postumus was unable to collect the entirety of Ptolemy XII's debt by the time of the latter's death, hence it was passed on to his successors Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
and Ptolemy XIII.[77] Within a year Rabirius Postumus was placed under protective custody and sent back to Rome after his life was endangered for draining Egypt of its resources.[77][78][74] Despite these problems, Ptolemy XII, who died of natural causes, created a will designating Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
and Ptolemy XIII as his joint heirs, oversaw major construction projects such as the Temple of Edfu
Temple of Edfu
and Dendera
Dendera
Temple, and stabilized the economy.[79][78][80] On 31 May 52 BC Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was made a regent of Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
as indicated by an inscription in the Temple of Hathor
Hathor
at Dendera.[81][82][83] Accession to the throne Main articles: Early life of Cleopatra VII
Early life of Cleopatra VII
and Reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Further information: Coronation of the pharaoh

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
dressed as a pharaoh and presenting offerings to the goddess Isis, dated 51 BC; limestone stele dedicated by a Greek man named Onnophris; located in the Louvre, Paris

Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
died sometime before 22 March 51 BC, when Cleopatra, in her first act as queen, began her voyage to Hermonthis, near Thebes, to install a new sacred Buchis
Buchis
bull, worshiped as an intermediary for the god Montu
Montu
in the Ancient Egyptian religion.[84][8][85][86][note 6] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
faced several pressing issues and emergencies shortly after taking the throne. These included famine caused by drought and low-level flooding of the Nile and lawless behavior instigated by the Gabiniani, the now unemployed and assimilated Roman soldiers left by Gabinius to garrison Egypt.[87][88] Inheriting her father's debts, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
also owed the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
17.5 million drachmas.[89] In 50 BC Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, proconsul of Syria, sent his two eldest sons to Egypt, most likely to negotiate with the Gabiniani and recruit them as soldiers in the desperate defense of Syria
Syria
against the Parthians.[90] However, the Gabiniani tortured and murdered these two, perhaps with secret encouragement by rogue senior administrators in Cleopatra's court.[90][91] Bibulus sent the prisoners back to Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and chastised her for interfering in Roman affairs that should have been handled directly by the Roman Senate.[92] Bibulus, siding with Pompey
Pompey
in Caesar's Civil War, was then charged with preventing Caesar from landing a naval fleet in Greece, a task that he failed and which ultimately allowed Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
to reach Egypt in pursuit of Pompey.[92] By 29 August 51 BC official documents started listing Cleopatra
Cleopatra
as the sole ruler, evidence that she had rejected her brother Ptolemy XIII as a co-ruler.[89][91][93] However, Ptolemy XIII still retained strong allies, notably the eunuch Potheinos, his childhood tutor, regent, and administrator of his properties.[94][88][24][95] Others involved in the cabal against Cleopatra
Cleopatra
included Achillas, a prominent military commander, and Theodotus of Chios, another tutor of Ptolemy XIII.[94][95] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
seems to have attempted a short-lived alliance with her brother Ptolemy XIV, but by the autumn of 50 BC Ptolemy XIII had the upper hand in their conflict and began signing documents with his name before that of his sister, followed by the establishment of his first regnal date in 49 BC.[8][96][97][95] Assassination of Pompey Main article: Reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII

A Roman bust of Pompey
Pompey
the Great made during the reign of Augustus
Augustus
(27 BC - 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70-60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and her forces were still fighting against Ptolemy XIII within Alexandria
Alexandria
when Gnaeus Pompeius, son of Pompey, arrived at Alexandria
Alexandria
in the summer of 49 BC seeking military aid on behalf of his father.[96] After returning to Italy from the wars in Gaul
Gaul
and crossing the Rubicon in January of 49 BC, Caesar forced Pompey
Pompey
and his supporters to flee to Greece in a Roman civil war.[98][99] In perhaps their last joint decree, both Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Ptolemy XIII agreed to Gnaeus Pompeius' request and sent his father 60 ships and 500 troops, including the Gabiniani, a move that helped erase some of the debt owed to Rome.[98][100] Losing the fight against her brother, Cleopatra was then forced to flee Alexandria
Alexandria
and withdraw to the region of Thebes.[101][102][103] By the spring of 48 BC Cleopatra
Cleopatra
traveled to Roman Syria
Roman Syria
with her little sister Arsinoe IV
Arsinoe IV
to gather an invasion force that would head to Egypt.[104][97][105] She returned with an army, perhaps right around the time of Caesar's arrival, but her advance to Alexandria
Alexandria
was blocked by her brother's forces, including some Gabiniani mobilized to fight against her, and she had to make camp outside Pelousion
Pelousion
in the eastern Nile Delta.[106][97][107] In Greece, Caesar and Pompey's forces engaged each other at the decisive Battle of Pharsalus
Battle of Pharsalus
on 9 August 48 BC, leading to the destruction of most of Pompey's army and his forced flight to Tyre, Lebanon.[106][108][109][110] Given his close relationship with the Ptolemies, he ultimately decided that Egypt would be his place of refuge, where he could replenish his forces.[111][109][107] Ptolemy XIII's advisers, however, feared the idea of Pompey
Pompey
using Egypt as his base of power in a protracted Roman civil war.[111][112] In a scheme devised by Theodotos, Pompey
Pompey
arrived by ship near Pelousion
Pelousion
after being invited by written message, only to be ambushed and stabbed to death on 28 September 48 BC.[111][108][113][112] Ptolemy XIII believed he had demonstrated his power and simultaneously diffused the situation by having Pompey's embalmed severed head sent to Caesar, who arrived in Alexandria
Alexandria
by early October and resided at the royal palace.[114][115][116][112] Caesar expressed grief and outrage over the killing of Pompey, and called on both Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII to disband their forces and reconcile with each other.[114][117][116][118] Relationship with Julius Caesar Main article: Reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Further information: Military campaigns of Julius Caesar, Siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
(47 BC), and Battle of the Nile (47 BC) Ptolemy XIII arrived at Alexandria
Alexandria
at the head of his army, in clear defiance of Caesar's demand that he disband and leave his army before his arrival.[119][120] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
initially sent emissaries to Caesar, but upon allegedly hearing that Caesar was inclined to having affairs with royal women, she came to Alexandria
Alexandria
to see him personally.[119][121][120] Historian Cassius Dio records that she simply did so without informing her brother, dressing in an attractive manner and charming him with her wit.[119][122] Plutarch
Plutarch
provides an entirely different and perhaps mythical account that alleges she was bound inside a bed sack to be smuggled into the palace to meet Caesar.[119][6][121][123] When Ptolemy XIII realized that his sister was in the palace and consorting directly with Caesar, he attempted to rouse the populace of Alexandria
Alexandria
into a riot, but he was arrested by Caesar who used his oratorical skills to calm the frenzied crowd.[124][125][126] Caesar then brought Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
and Ptolemy XIII before the assembly of Alexandria, where Caesar revealed the written will of Ptolemy XII—previously possessed by Pompey—naming Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Ptolemy XIII as his joint heirs.[127][125][121][128] Caesar then attempted to arrange for the other two siblings, Arsinoe IV
Arsinoe IV
and Ptolemy XIV, to rule together over Cyprus, thus removing potential rival claimants to the Egyptian throne while also appeasing the Ptolemaic subjects still bitter over the loss of Cyprus
Cyprus
to the Romans in 58 BC.[129][125][130][128]

The Tusculum portrait, a contemporary Roman bust of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy

Potheinos, judging that this agreement actually favored Cleopatra
Cleopatra
over Ptolemy XIII and that the latter's army of 20,000, including the Gabiniani, could most likely defeat Caesar's army of 4,000 unsupported troops, decided to have Achillas lead their forces to Alexandria
Alexandria
to attack both Caesar and Cleopatra.[129][125][131][132] The resulting siege of the palace with Caesar and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
trapped together inside lasted into the following year of 47 BC.[133][117][134][135][136] After Caesar managed to execute Potheinos, Arsinoe IV
Arsinoe IV
joined forces with Achillas and was declared queen, but soon afterwards had her tutor Ganymedes kill Achillas and take his position as commander of her army.[137][138][139][68] Ganymedes then tricked Caesar into requesting the presence of the erstwhile captive Ptolemy XIII as a negotiator, only to have him join the army of Arsinoe IV.[137][140][141] Sometime between January and March 47 BC Caesar's reinforcements arrived, including those led by Mithridates of Pergamon and Antipater the Idumaean.[137][117][142][143][note 7] Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV withdrew their forces to the Nile River, where Caesar attacked them and forced Ptolemy XIII to flee by boat but it capsized and he drowned.[144][117][145][146][147] Ganymedes was perhaps killed in the battle, Theodotos was found years later in Asia by Marcus Brutus
Marcus Brutus
and executed, while Arsinoe IV
Arsinoe IV
was forcefully paraded in Caesar's triumph in Rome
Rome
before being exiled to the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[148][149][150] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was conspicuously absent from these events and resided in the palace, most likely because she was pregnant with Caesar's child ever since September 47 BC.[151][152][147] Caesar's term as consul had expired at the end of 48 BC.[148] However, his officer Mark Antony
Mark Antony
helped to secure Caesar's election as dictator lasting for a year, until October 47 BC, providing Caesar with the legal authority to settle the dynastic dispute in Egypt.[148] Wary of repeating the mistake of Berenice IV in having a sole-ruling female monarch, Caesar appointed 12-year-old Ptolemy XIV as 22-year-old Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII's joint ruler in a nominal sibling marriage, but Cleopatra
Cleopatra
continued living privately with Caesar.[153][117][142][154][note 8] The exact date at which Cyprus
Cyprus
was returned to her control is not known, although she had a governor there by 42 BC.[155][142] Caesar is alleged to have joined Cleopatra
Cleopatra
for a cruise of the Nile and sightseeing of monuments, although this may be a romantic tale reflecting later well-to-do Roman proclivities and not a real historic event.[156][117][157][158] The historian Suetonius
Suetonius
provided considerable details about the voyage, including use of a Thalamegos pleasure barge first constructed by Ptolemy IV, which during his reign measured 300 ft (91.4 m) in length and 80 ft (24.3 m) in height and was complete with dining rooms, state rooms, holy shrines, and promenades along its two decks resembling a floating villa.[156][159] Caesar could have had an interest in the Nile cruise owing to his fascination with geography, as he was well-read in the works of Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
and Pytheas
Pytheas
and perhaps wanted to discover the source of the river, but turned back before reaching Ethiopia.[160][161]

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesar (1866). Painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme

Caesar departed from Egypt in about April 47 BC, allegedly to confront Pharnaces II of Pontus, son of Mithridates the Great, who was stirring up trouble for Rome
Rome
in Anatolia.[162] It is possible that Caesar, married to the prominent Roman woman Calpurnia, also wanted to avoid being seen together with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
when she bore him their son.[162][157] He left three legions in Egypt, later increased to four, under the command of the freedman Rufio, to secure Cleopatra's tenuous position but also perhaps to keep her activities in check.[162][163][164] Caesarion, Cleopatra's alleged child with Caesar was born 23 June 47 BC, originally named " Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Caesar" as preserved on a stele at the Serapeion
Serapeion
in Memphis.[165][117][166][146][167] Perhaps owing to his still childless marriage with Calpurnia, Caesar remained publicly silent about Caesarion.[168] Cleopatra, on the other hand, made repeated official declarations about Caesarion's parentage, with Caesar as the father.[168][169] Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
and her nominal joint ruler Ptolemy XIV visited Rome sometime in late 46 BC, presumably without Caesarion, and were given lodging in Caesar's Villa within the Horti Caesaris.[170][166][171] Like with their father Ptolemy XII, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
awarded Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIV with the legal status of friendly and allied monarchs to Rome.[172][173][174] Cleopatra's visitors at Caesar's villa across the Tiber
Tiber
included the senator Cicero, who found her to be arrogant.[175][176] Sosigenes of Alexandria, one of the members of Cleopatra's court, aided Caesar in the calculations for the new Julian Calendar, put into effect 1 January 45 BC.[177][178] The Temple of Venus Genetrix, established in the Forum of Caesar
Forum of Caesar
on 25 September 46 BC, contained a golden statue of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(which stood there at least until the 3rd century AD), associating the mother of Caesar's child directly with the goddess Venus, mother of the Romans.[179][178][180] The statue also subtly linked the Egyptian goddess
Egyptian goddess
Isis
Isis
with the Roman religion.[175]

Egyptian bust of a Ptolemaic queen, possibly Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, 50-30 BC, Brooklyn Museum

Cleopatra's presence in Rome
Rome
most likely had an effect on the events at the Lupercalia
Lupercalia
festival a month before Caesar's assassination.[181] Mark Antony
Mark Antony
attempted to place a royal diadem on Caesar's head, which the latter refused in what was most likely a staged performance, perhaps to gauge the Roman public's mood about accepting Hellenistic-style kingship.[181] Cicero, who was present at the festival, mockingly asked where the diadem came from, an obvious reference to the Ptolemaic queen who he abhorred.[181] Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March
Ides of March
(15 March 44 BC), but Cleopatra stayed in Rome
Rome
until about mid-April, in the vain hope of having Caesarion
Caesarion
recognized as Caesar's heir.[182][183] However, Caesar's will named his grandnephew Octavian
Octavian
as the primary heir, and Octavian arrived in Italy around the same time Cleopatra
Cleopatra
decided to depart for Egypt.[182][183] A few months later Cleopatra
Cleopatra
decided to kill her brother and joint ruler Ptolemy XIV by poisoning, elevating her son Caesarion
Caesarion
instead as her co-ruler.[184][185] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in the Liberators' civil war Main article: Reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Further information: Liberators' civil war

Cleopatra's Gate
Cleopatra's Gate
in Tarsos
Tarsos
(Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey), the site where she met Mark Antony
Mark Antony
in 41 BC[186]

Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
in 43 BC, in which they were each elected for five-year terms to restore order in the Republic and bring Caesar's assassins to justice.[187][188] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
received messages from both Gaius Cassius Longinus, one of Caesar's assassins, and Publius Cornelius Dolabella, proconsul of Syria
Syria
and Caesarian loyalist, requesting military aid.[187] She decided to write Cassius an excuse that her kingdom faced too many internal problems while sending the four legions left by Caesar in Egypt to Dolabella.[187][189] However, these troops were captured by Cassius in Palestine.[187][189] While Serapion, Cleopatra's governor of Cyprus, defected to Cassius and provided him with ships, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
took her own fleet to Greece to personally assist Octavian
Octavian
and Antony, but her ships were heavily damaged in a Mediterranean storm and she arrived too late to aid in the fighting.[187][190] By the autumn of 42 BC Antony defeated the forces of Caesar's assassins at the Battle of Philippi
Battle of Philippi
in Greece, leading to the suicide of Cassius and Marcus Junius Brutus.[187][191] By the end of 42 BC, Octavian
Octavian
gained control over much of the western half of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Antony the eastern half, with Lepidus largely marginalized.[192] In the summer of 41 BC Antony established his headquarters at Tarsos
Tarsos
in Anatolia and summoned Cleopatra
Cleopatra
there in several letters, which she initially rebuffed until Antony's envoy Quintus Dellius convinced her to come.[193][194] The meeting allowed Cleopatra
Cleopatra
to clear up the misconception that she had supported Cassius during the civil war and address territorial exchanges in the Levant, but Antony also undoubtedly desired to form a personal, romantic relationship with the queen.[195][194] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
sailed up the Kydnos River to Tarsos
Tarsos
in her Thalamegos, inviting Antony and his officers for two nights of lavish banquets on board her ship.[196][197] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
managed to clear her name as a supposed supporter of Cassius, arguing she had really attempted to help Dolabella in Syria, while convincing Antony to have her exiled sister Arsinoe IV
Arsinoe IV
executed at Ephesus.[198][199] Cleopatra's former rebellious governor of Cyprus was also handed over to her for execution.[198][200] Relationship with Mark Antony Main article: Reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII

A Roman bust of the consul and triumvir Mark Antony, Vatican Museums

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
invited Antony to come to Egypt before departing from Tarsos, which led Antony to visit Alexandria
Alexandria
by November 41 BC.[198][201] Antony was well-received by the populace of Alexandria, for his heroic actions in restoring Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
to power and coming to Egypt without an occupational force like Caesar had done.[202][203] In Egypt, Antony continued to enjoy the lavish royal lifestyle he had witnessed aboard Cleopatra's ship docked at Tarsos.[204][200] He also had his subordinates, such as Publius Ventidius Bassus, drive the Parthians
Parthians
out of Anatolia and Syria.[203][205][206][207] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
carefully chose Antony as her partner for producing further heirs, as he was deemed to be the most powerful Roman figure following Caesar's demise.[208] With his triumviral powers, Antony also had the broad authority to restore former Ptolemaic lands to Cleopatra
Cleopatra
that were currently in Roman hands.[209][210] While it is clear that both Cilicia
Cilicia
and Cyprus
Cyprus
were under Cleopatra's control by 19 November 38 BC, the transfer probably occurred earlier in the winter of 41-40 BC, during her time spent with Antony.[209] By the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony
Mark Antony
left Egypt due to troubles in Syria, where his governor Lucius Decidius Saxa was killed and his army taken by Quintus Labienus, a former officer under Cassius who now served the Parthian Empire.[211] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
provided Antony with 200 ships for his campaign and as payment for her newly-acquired territories.[211] She would not see Antony again until 37 BC, but she maintained correspondence and evidence suggests she kept a spy in his camp.[211] By the end of 40 BC Cleopatra
Cleopatra
gave birth to twins, a boy named Alexander Helios and a girl named Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene II, both of whom Antony acknowledged as his children.[212][213] Helios (Greek: Ἥλιος), the sun, and Selene (Greek: Σελήνη), the moon, were symbolic of a new era of societal rejuvenation,[214] as well as an indication that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
hoped Antony would repeat the exploits of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
by conquering Persia.[203] Mark Antony's Parthian campaign in the east was disrupted by the events of the Perusine War (41-40 BC), initiated by his ambitious wife Fulvia
Fulvia
against Octavian
Octavian
in the hopes of making her husband the undisputed leader of Rome.[214][215] It has been suggested that Fulvia wanted to cleave Antony away from Cleopatra, but the conflict emerged in Italy even before Cleopatra's meeting with Antony at Tarsos.[216] Fulvia
Fulvia
and Antony's brother Lucius Antonius were eventually besieged by Octavian
Octavian
at Perusia
Perusia
(modern Perugia, Italy) and then exiled from Italy, after which Fulvia
Fulvia
died at Sikyon
Sikyon
in Greece while attempting to reach Antony.[217] Her sudden death led to a reconciliation of Octavian
Octavian
and Antony at Brundisium
Brundisium
in Italy in September 40 BC.[217][203] Although the agreement struck at Brundisium
Brundisium
solidified Antony's control of the Roman Republic's territories east of the Ionian Sea, it also stipulated that he concede Italia, Hispania, and Gaul, and marry Octavian's sister Octavia the Younger, a potential rival for Cleopatra.[218][219]

Antony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

In December 40 BC Cleopatra
Cleopatra
received Herod I
Herod I
(the Great) in Alexandria as an unexpected guest and refugee who fled a turbulent situation in Judea.[220] Herod had been installed as a tetrarch there by Mark Antony, but he was soon at odds with Antigonus II Mattathias
Antigonus II Mattathias
of the long-established Hasmonean dynasty.[220] The latter had imprisoned Herod's brother and fellow tetrarch Phasael, who was executed while Herod was in mid-flight towards Cleopatra's court.[220] Cleopatra attempted to provide him with a military assignment, but Herod declined and traveled to Rome, where the triumvirs Octavian
Octavian
and Mark Antony named him king of Judea.[221][222] This act put Herod on a collision course with Cleopatra, who would desire to reclaim former Ptolemaic territories of his new Herodian kingdom.[221] Relations between Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
perhaps soured when he not only married Octavia, but also bore her two children, Antonia the Elder in 39 BC and Antonia Minor
Antonia Minor
in 36 BC, moving his headquarters to Athens.[223] However, Cleopatra's position in Egypt was secure.[203] Her rival Herod was occupied with civil war in Judea
Judea
that required heavy Roman military assistance, but received none from Cleopatra.[223] Since the triumviral authority of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Octavian
Octavian
had expired on 1 January 37 BC, Octavia arranged for a meeting at Tarentum where the triumvirate was officially extended to 33 BC.[224] With two legions granted by Octavian
Octavian
and a thousand soldiers lent by Octavia, Mark Antony
Mark Antony
traveled to Antioch, where he made preparations for war against the Parthians.[225] Antony summoned Cleopatra
Cleopatra
to Antioch
Antioch
to discuss pressing issues such as Herod's kingdom and financial support for his Parthian campaign.[225][226] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
brought her now three-year-old twins to Antioch, where Mark Antony
Mark Antony
saw them for the first time and where they probably first received their surnames Helios and Selene as part of Antony and Cleopatra's ambitious plans for the future.[227][228] In order to stabilize the east, Antony not only enlarged Cleopatra's domain,[226] but also established new ruling dynasties and client rulers who would be loyal to him yet would ultimately outlast him.[229][210][note 9] In this arrangement Cleopatra
Cleopatra
gained significant former Ptolemaic territories in the Levant, including nearly all of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
(Lebanon) minus Tyre and Sidon, which remained in Roman hands.[230][210][226] She also received Ptolemais Akko
Ptolemais Akko
(modern Acre, Israel), a city that was established by Ptolemy II.[230] Given her ancestral relations with the Seleucids, she was granted the region of Koile-Syria
Koile-Syria
along the upper Orontes River.[231][226] She was even given the region surrounding Jericho
Jericho
in Palestine, but she leased this territory back to Herod.[232][222] At the expense of the Nabataean king Malichus I (a cousin of Herod), Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was also given a portion of the Nabataean Kingdom around the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
on the Red Sea, including Ailana (modern Aqaba, Jordan).[233][222] To the west Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was handed Cyrene along the Libyan coast, as well as Itanos
Itanos
and Olous in Roman Crete.[234][226] Although still administered by Roman officials, these territories nevertheless enriched her kingdom and led her to declare the inauguration of a new era by double-dating her coinage in 36 BC.[235][236]

Roman aurei bearing the portraits of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
(left) and Octavian (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Lepidus in 43 BC

Antony's enlargement of the Ptolemaic realm by relinquishing directly-controlled Roman territory was exploited by his rival Octavian, who tapped into the public sentiment in Rome
Rome
against the empowerment of a foreign queen at the expense of their Republic.[237] Octavian
Octavian
also fostered the narrative that Antony was neglecting his virtuous Roman wife Octavia, granting both her and Livia, Octavian's wife, extraordinary privileges of sacrosanctity.[237] Cornelia Africana, daughter of Scipio Africanus, was the first living Roman woman to have a statue dedicated to her.[235] She was followed by Octavian's sister Octavia and his wife Livia, whose statues were most likely erected in the Forum of Caesar
Forum of Caesar
to rival that of Cleopatra's erected by Caesar.[235] In 36 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
accompanied Antony to the Euphrates River
Euphrates River
in his journey towards invading the Parthian Empire.[238] She then returned to Egypt, perhaps due to her advanced state of pregnancy.[239] By the summer of 36 BC gave birth to Ptolemy Philadelphus, her second son with Antony.[239][226] Antony's Parthian campaign in 36 BC turned into a complete debacle and was stymied by a number of factors, including the betrayal of Artavasdes II of Armenia, who defected to the Parthian side.[240][210][241] After losing some 30,000 men, more so than Crassus at Carrhae (an indignity he had hoped to avenge), Antony finally arrived at Leukokome near Berytus
Berytus
(modern Beirut, Lebanon) in December, engaged in heavy drinking before Cleopatra
Cleopatra
arrived to provide funds and clothing for his battered troops.[240][242] Octavia offered to lend him more troops for another expedition, but Antony desired to avoid the political pitfalls of returning to Rome
Rome
and so he traveled with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
back to Alexandria
Alexandria
to see his newborn son.[240] Donations of Alexandria Main articles: Donations of Alexandria
Alexandria
and Reign of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII

A denarius minted in 32 BC; on the obverse is a diademed bust of Cleopatra, with the Latin
Latin
inscription "CLEOPATRA[E REGINAE REGVM]FILIORVM REGVM", and on the reverse a bust of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
with the inscription reading ANTONI ARMENIA DEVICTA.[243][244]

As Antony prepared for another Parthian expedition in 35 BC, this time aimed at their ally Armenia, Octavia traveled to Athens with 2,000 troops in alleged support of Antony, but most likely in a scheme devised by Octavian
Octavian
to embarrass him for his military losses.[245][246][note 10] Antony received these troops but told Octavia not to stray east of Athens as he and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
traveled together to Antioch, only to suddenly and inexplicably abandon the military campaign and head back to Alexandria.[245][246] When Octavia returned to Rome
Rome
Octavian
Octavian
portrayed his sister as a victim wronged by Antony, although she refused to leave Antony's household.[247][210] Octavian's confidence grew as he eliminated his rivals in the west, including Sextus Pompeius
Sextus Pompeius
and even Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, who was placed under house arrest after revolting against Octavian
Octavian
in Sicily.[247][210][242] Quintus Dellius was sent as Antony's envoy to Artavasdes II of Armenia in 34 BC to negotiate a potential marriage alliance that would wed the Armenian king's daughter to Antony and Cleopatra's son Alexander Helios.[248][249] When this was declined, Antony marched his army into Armenia, defeated their forces and captured the king and Armenian royal family.[248][250] Antony then held a military parade in Alexandria
Alexandria
in mock of a Roman triumph, dressed as Dionysos
Dionysos
as he rode into the city on a chariot and presented the royal prisoners to Queen Cleopatra, who was seated on a golden throne above a silver dais.[248][251] News of this event was heavily criticized in Rome
Rome
as a perversion of time-honored Roman rites and rituals to be enjoyed instead by an Egyptian queen.[248]

A papyrus document dated February 33 BC granting military commander Publius Canidius Crassus
Publius Canidius Crassus
tax exemptions in Egypt and containing the signature of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
in a different hand, with her statement "make it happen" Greek: γινέσθωι, translit. ginesthō[252][253]

In an event held at the gymnasium soon after the triumph, known as the Donations of Alexandria, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
dressed as Isis
Isis
and declared that she was the Queen of Kings
Queen of Kings
with her son Caesarion, King of Kings, while Alexander Helios was declared king of Armenia, Medes, and Parthia, and two-year-old Ptolemy Philadelphos was declared king of Syria
Syria
and Cilicia.[254][255][256] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene was also bestowed with Crete and Cyrene.[257][258] Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
were probably wed during this ceremony.[257][256][note 11] Antony sent a report to Rome
Rome
requesting ratification of these territorial claims, which Octavian
Octavian
wanted to publicize for propaganda purposes, but the two consuls, both supporters of Antony, had it censored from public view.[259][258] In late 34 BC, following the Donations of Alexandria, Antony and Octavian
Octavian
engaged in a heated war of propaganda that would last for years.[260][258] Antony claimed that his rival had illegally deposed Lepidus from their triumvirate and barred him from raising troops in Italy, while Octavian
Octavian
accused Antony of unlawfully detaining the king of Armenia, marrying Cleopatra
Cleopatra
despite still being married to his sister Octavia, and wrongfully claiming Caesarion
Caesarion
as the heir of Caesar instead of Octavian.[260][258] The litany of accusations and gossip associated with this propaganda war have shaped the popular perceptions about Cleopatra
Cleopatra
from Augustan-period literature all the way to various media in modern times.[261][262] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was said to have had brainwashed Mark Antony
Mark Antony
with witchcraft and sorcery and was as dangerous as Homer's Helen of Troy
Helen of Troy
in destroying civilization.[263] Horace's Satires preserved an account that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
once dissolved a pearl worth 2.5 million drachmas in vinegar just to win a dinner party bet.[264] The accusation that Antony had stolen books of the Library of Pergamon to restock the Library of Alexandria
Alexandria
later turned out to be an admitted fabrication by Gaius Calvisius Sabinus.[265] A papyrus document dated to February 33 BC contains the signature handwriting of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII.[252][253] It concerns certain tax exemptions in Egypt granted to Publius Canidius Crassus, former Roman consul and Antony's confidant who would command his land forces at Actium.[266][253] A subscript in a different handwriting at the bottom of the papyrus reads "make it happen" (Greek: γινέσθωι, translit. ginesthō), undoubtedly the autograph of the queen, as it was Ptolemaic practice to countersign documents in avoidance of forgery.[266][253] Battle of Actium Main article: Battle of Actium

A reconstructed statue of Augustus
Augustus
as a younger Octavian, dated ca. 30 BC

In a speech to the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
on the first day of his consulship on 1 January 33 BC, Octavian
Octavian
accused Antony of attempting to subvert Roman freedoms and territorial integrity as a slave to his Oriental queen.[267] Before Antony and Octavian's joint imperium expired on 31 December 33 BC, Antony declared Caesarion
Caesarion
as the true heir of Julius Caesar in an attempt to undermine Octavian.[267] On 1 January 32 BC the Antonian loyalists Gaius Sosius
Gaius Sosius
and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus were elected as consuls.[266] On 1 February 32 BC Sosius gave a fiery speech condemning Octavian, now a private citizen without public office, introducing pieces of legislation against him.[266][268] During the next senatorial session, Octavian
Octavian
entered the Senate house with armed guards and levied his own accusations against the consuls.[266][269] Intimidated by this act, the next day the consuls and over two-hundred senators still in support of Antony fled Rome
Rome
and joined the side of Antony.[266][269][270] Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
traveled together to Ephesus
Ephesus
in 32 BC, where she provided him with 200 naval ships of the 800 total he was able to acquire.[266] Domitius Ahenobarbus, wary of Octavian's propaganda, attempted to persuade Antony to have Cleopatra
Cleopatra
excluded from the campaign against Octavian.[271][272] Publius Canidius Crassus
Publius Canidius Crassus
made the counterargument that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was funding the war effort and was a competent monarch.[271][272] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
refused Antony's requests that she return to Egypt, judging that by blocking Octavian
Octavian
in Greece she could more easily defend Egypt.[271][272] Cleopatra's insistence that she be involved in the battle for Greece led to defections of prominent Romans such as Domitius Ahenobarbus and Lucius Munatius Plancus.[271][269] During the spring of 32 BC Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
traveled to Athens, where she persuaded Antony to send Octavia an official declaration of divorce.[271][269][256] This encouraged Munatius Plancus to advise Octavian
Octavian
that he should seize Antony's will, invested with the Vestal Virgins.[271][269][258] Although a violation of sacred and legal rights, Octavian
Octavian
forcefully acquired the document from the Temple of Vesta, a useful tool in the propaganda war against Antony and Cleopatra.[271][258] Octavian
Octavian
highlighted parts of the will such as Caesarion
Caesarion
being named heir to Caesar, that the Donations of Alexandria were legal, that Antony should be buried alongside Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in Egypt instead of Rome, and that Alexandria
Alexandria
would be made the new capital of the Roman Republic.[273][269][258] In a show of loyalty to Rome, Octavian
Octavian
decided to begin construction of his own mausoleum at the Campus Martius.[269] Octavian's legal standing was also improved by being elected consul in 31 BC.[269] With Antony's will made public, Octavian
Octavian
had his casus belli and Rome
Rome
declared war on Cleopatra,[273][274][275] not Antony.[note 12] The legal argument for war was based less on Cleopatra's territorial acquisitions, with former Roman territories ruled by her children with Antony, and more on the fact that she was providing military support to a private citizen now that Antony's triumviral authority had expired.[276]

Left: a silver tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
minted at Seleucia Pieria, Syria Right: a silver tetradrachm of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
minted at Ascalon, Israel

Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well-trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian
Octavian
had a fully professional force.[277][272] Antony wanted to cross the Adriatic Sea and blockade Octavian
Octavian
at either Tarentum or Brundisium,[278] but Cleopatra, concerned primarily with defending Egypt, overrode the decision to attack Italy directly.[279][272] Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
set up their winter headquarters at Patrai
Patrai
in Greece and by the spring of 31 BC they moved to Actium
Actium
along the southern Ambracian Gulf.[279][278] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Antony had the support of various allied kings, but conflict between Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Herod had previously erupted and an earthquake in Judea
Judea
provided him an excuse to be absent from the campaign.[280] They also lost the support of Malichus I of Nabataea, which would prove to have strategic consequences.[281] Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
lost several skirmishes against Octavian
Octavian
around Actium during the summer of 31 BC, while defections to Octavian's camp continued, including Antony's long-time companion Quintus Dellius.[281] The allied kings also began to defect to Octavian's side, starting with Amyntas of Galatia
Amyntas of Galatia
and Deiotaros of Paphlagonia.[281] While some in Antony's camp suggested abandoning the naval conflict to retreat inland, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
urged for a naval confrontation instead to keep Octavian's fleet away from Egypt.[282] On 2 September 31 BC the naval forces of Octavian, led by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, met those of Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
at the Battle of Actium.[282][278][274] Cleopatra, aboard her flagship the Antonias, commanded 60 ships at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf, at the rear of the fleet, in what was likely a move by Antony's officers to marginalize her during the battle.[282] Antony had ordered that their ships should have sails on board for a better chance to pursue or flee from the enemy, which Cleopatra, ever-concerned about defending Egypt, used to swiftly move through the area of major combat in a strategic withdrawal to the Peloponnese.[283][284][285] Antony followed her and boarded her ship, identified by its distinctive purple sails, as the two escaped the battle and headed for Tainaron.[283] Antony reportedly avoided Cleopatra
Cleopatra
during this three-day voyage, until her ladies in waiting at Tainaron
Tainaron
urged him to speak with her.[286] The Battle of Actium
Actium
raged on without Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Antony, until the morning of 3 September, followed by massive defections of officers, troops, and allied kings to Octavian's side.[286][284][287] Downfall and death Main article: Death of Cleopatra Further information: Epaphroditus (freedman of Augustus) and Tomb of Antony and Cleopatra

Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II, Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her[288]

While Octavian
Octavian
occupied Athens, Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
landed at Paraitonion
Paraitonion
in Egypt.[286][289] The couple then went their separate ways, Antony to Cyrene to raise more troops and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
sailing into the harbor at Alexandria
Alexandria
in a misleading attempt to portray the activities in Greece as a victory.[286] It is also uncertain if at this time she actually executed Artavasdes II of Armenia
Armenia
and sent his head to Artavasdes I, king of Media Atropatene, his rival, in an attempt to strike an alliance with him.[290][291] Lucius Pinarius, Mark Antony's appointed governor of Cyrene, received word that Octavian
Octavian
had won the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
before Antony's messengers could arrive at his court.[290] Pinarius had these messengers executed and defected to Octavian's side, surrendering to him the four legions under his command that Antony desired to obtain.[290] Antony nearly committed suicide after hearing news of this but was stopped by his staff officers.[290] In Alexandria
Alexandria
he built a reclusive cottage on the island of Pharos
Pharos
that he nicknamed the Timoneion, after the philosopher Timon of Athens, who was famous for his cynicism and misanthropy.[290] Herod the Great, who had personally advised Antony after the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
that he should betray Cleopatra, traveled to Rhodes
Rhodes
to meet Octavian
Octavian
and resign his kingship out of loyalty to Antony.[292] Octavian
Octavian
was impressed by his speech and sense of loyalty, so he allowed him to maintain his position in Judea, further isolating Antony and Cleopatra.[292] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion.[293] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
planned to relinquish her throne to him, taking her fleet from the Mediterranean into the Red Sea
Red Sea
and then setting sail to a foreign port, perhaps in India where she could spend time recuperating.[293][291] However, these plans were ultimately abandoned when Malichus I of Nabataea, as advised by Octavian's governor of Syria
Syria
Quintus Didius, managed to burn Cleopatra's fleet, in revenge for his losses in a war with Herod that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
had largely initiated.[293][291] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
had no other option but to stay in Egypt and negotiate with Octavian.[293] Although most likely pro- Octavian
Octavian
propaganda, it was reported that at this time Cleopatra started testing the strengths of various poisons on prisoners and even her own servants.[294]

The Death of Cleopatra
Death of Cleopatra
by Guido Cagnacci, 1658

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
had Caesarion
Caesarion
enter into the ranks of the ephebi, which, along with reliefs on a stele from Koptos
Koptos
dated 21 September 31 BC, demonstrated that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was now grooming her son to become the sole ruler of Egypt.[295] In a show of solidarity Antony also had Marcus Antonius Antyllus, his son with Fulvia, enter the ephebi at the same time.[293] Separate messages and envoys from Antony and Cleopatra were then sent to Octavian, still stationed at Rhodes, although Octavian
Octavian
seems to have only replied to Cleopatra.[294] Cleopatra requested that her children should inherit Egypt and that Antony should be allowed to live in exile in Egypt, offering Octavian
Octavian
money in the future and immediately sending him lavish gifts.[294][291] Octavian
Octavian
sent his diplomat Thyrsos to Cleopatra
Cleopatra
after she threatened to burn herself and vast amounts of her treasure within a tomb already under construction.[296] Thyrsos advised her to kill Antony so that her life would be spared, but when Antony suspected foul intent he had this diplomat flogged and sent back to Octavian
Octavian
without a deal.[297]

The Death of Cleopatra, by Jean-Baptiste Regnault, 1796–1797

After lengthy negotiations that ultimately produced no results, Octavian
Octavian
set out to invade Egypt in the spring of 30 BC,[298] stopping at Ptolemais in Phoenicia
Phoenicia
where his new ally Herod provided his army with fresh supplies.[299] Octavian
Octavian
moved south and swiftly took Pelousion, while Cornelius Gallus, marching eastward from Cyrene, defeated Antony's forces near Paraitonion.[300] Octavian
Octavian
advanced quickly onto Alexandria, but Antony returned and won a small victory over his tired troops outside the city's hippodrome.[300] However, on 1 August 30 BC Antony's naval fleet surrendered to Octavian, followed by his cavalry.[300][284] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
hid herself in her tomb with her close attendants, sending a message to Antony that she had committed suicide.[300] In despair, Antony responded to this by stabbing himself in the stomach and taking his own life at age 53.[300][284][291] According to Plutarch
Plutarch
he was allegedly still dying, however, when brought to Cleopatra
Cleopatra
at her tomb, telling her he had died honorably and that she could trust Octavian's companion Gaius Proculeius over anyone else in his entourage.[300] It was Proculeius, however, who infiltrated her tomb using a ladder and detained the queen, denying her the ability to burn herself with her treasures.[301] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was then allowed to embalm and bury Antony within her tomb before she was escorted to the palace.[301][291]

The Death of Cleopatra
Death of Cleopatra
by Reginald Arthur, 1892

Octavian
Octavian
entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and seized Cleopatra's three youngest children.[301] When she met with Octavian she told him bluntly that "I will not be led in a triumph" (Greek: οὑ θριαμβεύσομαι, translit. ou thriamvéfsoume) according to Livy, a rare recording of her exact words.[302][303] Octavian
Octavian
promised that he would keep her alive but offered no explanation about his future plans for her kingdom.[304] When a spy informed her that Octavian
Octavian
planned to move her and her children to Rome
Rome
in three days she prepared for suicide, as she had no intentions of being paraded in a Roman triumph
Roman triumph
like her sister Arsinoe IV.[304][284][291] It is unclear if Cleopatra's suicide, in August 30 BC at age 39, took place within the palace or her tomb.[305][306][note 1] It is said she was accompanied by her servants Eiras and Charmion, who also took their own lives.[304] Octavian
Octavian
was said to be angered by this outcome but had her buried in royal fashion next to Antony in her tomb.[304][307] Cleopatra's physician Olympos did not give an account of the cause of her death, although the popular belief is that she allowed an asp, or Egyptian cobra, to bite and poison her.[308][309][291] Plutarch
Plutarch
relates this tale, but then suggests an implement (knestis) was used to introduce the toxin by scratching, while Cassius Dio says that she injected the poison with a needle (belone) and Strabo
Strabo
argued for an ointment of some kind.[310][309][311] No venomous snake was found with her body, but she did have tiny puncture wounds on her arm that could have been caused by a needle.[308][311] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
decided in her last moments to send Caesarion
Caesarion
away to Upper Egypt and perhaps with plans to flee to Nubia, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
or India.[312][313] Caesarion, now Ptolemy XV, would reign for a mere eighteen days until executed on the orders of Octavian
Octavian
on 29 August 30 BC, as he was returning to Alexandria
Alexandria
under the false pretense that Octavian
Octavian
would allow him to be king.[314][315] Octavian
Octavian
was convinced by the advice of the philosopher Arius Didymus that there was room for only one Caesar in the world.[316] With the fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Egypt was made into a Roman province,[317][284][318] marking the end of the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period.[319] In January 27 BC Octavian
Octavian
was renamed Augustus
Augustus
('the revered') and amassed constitutional powers that established him as the first Roman emperor, inaugurating the Principate
Principate
era of the Roman Empire.[320] Legacy Children and successors

Illustration of a coin of the Numidian ruler Juba II, king of Mauretania, on the obverse, with Cleopatra Selene II
Cleopatra Selene II
on the reverse.

After her suicide, Cleopatra's three surviving children Cleopatra Selene II, Alexander Helios, and Ptolemy Philadelphos were sent to Rome
Rome
with Octavian's sister Octavia as their guardian.[321][322] Cleopatra Selene II
Cleopatra Selene II
and Alexander Helios were present in the Roman triumph of Octavian
Octavian
in 29 BC.[321][323] The fates of Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus are unknown after this point.[321][323] Octavia arranged the betrothal of their sister Cleopatra Selene II
Cleopatra Selene II
to Juba II, son of Juba I
Juba I
whose North African kingdom of Numidia
Numidia
had been turned into a Roman province
Roman province
in 46 BC by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
due to Juba I's support of Pompey.[324][313][323] The emperor Augustus
Augustus
installed Juba II and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene II, after their wedding in 25 BC, as the new rulers of Mauretania, where they transformed the old Carthaginian city of Iol
Iol
into their new capital, renamed Caesarea Mauretaniae
Caesarea Mauretaniae
(modern Cherchell, Algeria).[324][323] Cleopatra Selene II
Cleopatra Selene II
imported many important scholars, artists, and advisers from her mother's royal court in Alexandria
Alexandria
to serve her in Caesarea, now permeated in Hellenistic-Greek culture.[325] She also named her son Ptolemy of Mauretania, in honor of their Ptolemaic dynastic heritage.[326][327] Cleopatra Selene II
Cleopatra Selene II
died around 5 BC and when Juba II
Juba II
died in 23/24 AD he was succeeded by his son Ptolemy.[326][328] However, Ptolemy was eventually executed by the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Caligula
Caligula
in 40 AD, perhaps under the pretense that Ptolemy had unlawfully minted his own royal coinage and utilized regalia reserved for the Roman emperor.[329][330] Ptolemy of Mauretania
Mauretania
was the last known monarch of the Ptolemaic dynasty, although Queen Zenobia
Zenobia
of the short-lived Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
would claim descent from Cleopatra.[331][332] A cult dedicated to Cleopatra
Cleopatra
still existed as late as 373 AD when Petesenufe, an Egyptian scribe of the book of Isis, explained that he "overlaid the figure of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
with gold."[333] Roman literature and historiography Further information: Roman historiography, Greek historiography, and Latin
Latin
poetry

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners by Alexandre Cabanel (1887)[334]

A (restructured) Roman statue of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
wearing a diadem and 'melon' hairstyle similar to coinage portraits, marble, found near the Tomba di Nerone, Rome
Rome
along the Via Cassia, Museo Pio-Clementino[1][335][336]

Although almost fifty ancient works of Roman historiography mention Cleopatra, these often include only terse accounts of the Battle of Actium, her suicide, and Augustan propaganda about her personal deficiencies.[337] Although not a biography of Cleopatra, the Life of Antonius written by Plutarch
Plutarch
in the 1st century AD provides the most thorough surviving account of Cleopatra's life.[338][339] Plutarch lived a century after Cleopatra
Cleopatra
but relied on reliable primary sources such as Philotas of Amphissa, who had access to the Ptolemaic royal palace, Cleopatra's personal physician named Olympos, and Quintus Dellius, a close confidant of Antony and Cleopatra.[340] Plutarch's work included both the Augustan view of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
that became historical canon in his day as well as sources outside of this tradition, such as eyewitness reports.[338] The Jewish Roman historian Josephus, writing in the 1st century AD, provides valuable information on the life of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
via her diplomatic relationship with Herod the Great.[341][342] However, this work relies largely on Herod's memoirs and the biased account of Nicolaus of Damascus, the tutor of Cleopatra's children in Alexandria
Alexandria
before he moved to Judea
Judea
to serve as an adviser and chronicler at Herod's court.[341][342] The Roman History published by the official and historian Cassius Dio in the early 3rd century AD, while failing to fully comprehend the complexities of the late Hellenistic
Hellenistic
world, nevertheless provides a continuous history of the era of Cleopatra's reign.[341] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
is barely mentioned in the De Bello Alexandrino, the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Julius Caesar.[343] Cicero's writings provide an unflattering portrait of Cleopatra, who knew him personally.[343] The Augustan-period authors Vergil, Horace, Propertius, and Ovid
Ovid
perpetuated the negative views of Cleopatra approved by the ruling Roman regime,[343][339] although Vergil established the idea of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
as a figure of romance and epic melodrama.[344] Horace
Horace
also viewed Cleopatra's suicide as a positive choice,[345][339] an idea that found acceptance by the Late Middle Ages with Geoffrey Chaucer.[346][347] The historians Strabo, Velleius, Valerius Maximus, Pliny the Elder, and Appian, while not offering accounts as full as Plutarch, Josephus, or Cassius Dio, provided some details of her life that had not survived in other historical records.[343] Inscriptions on contemporary Ptolemaic coinage
Ptolemaic coinage
and some Egyptian papyrus documents demonstrate Cleopatra's point of view, but this material is very limited in comparison to Roman literary works.[343] The fragmentary Libyka commissioned by Cleopatra's son-in-law Juba II
Juba II
provides a glimpse at a possible body of historiographic material that supported Cleopatra's perspective.[343] Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world.[348] For instance, the historian Ronald Syme (1903–1989) asserted that she was of little importance to Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and that the propaganda of Octavian
Octavian
magnified her importance to an excessive degree.[348] Although the common view of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was one of a prolific seductress, she had only two known sexual partners, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Mark Antony, the two most prominent Romans of the time period who were most likely to ensure the survival of her dynasty.[349][350] Ancient sources also describe Cleopatra
Cleopatra
as having had a stronger personality and charming wit than physical beauty.[351][20][352] Cultural depictions Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra Depictions in ancient art Further information: Hellenistic
Hellenistic
art, Art of ancient Egypt, and Death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
§ Depictions in art and literature Statues Further information: Roman portraiture, Roman sculpture, Esquiline Venus, and Sleeping Ariadne

Left image: an Egyptian statue of either Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
or Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII as an Egyptian goddess
Egyptian goddess
in black basalt, second half of the 1st century BC;[353] Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg Right image: the Esquiline Venus, a Roman or Hellenistic-Egyptian statue of Venus (Aphrodite), which may be a depiction of Cleopatra VII,[354] Capitoline Museums, Rome

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was depicted in various ancient works of art, in the Egyptian as well as Hellenistic-Greek and Roman styles.[2] Surviving works include statues, busts, reliefs, and minted coins,[2][334] as well as an ancient carved cameos,[355] such as one depicting Cleopatra and Mark Antony
Mark Antony
in Hellenistic
Hellenistic
style, now in the Altes Museum, Berlin.[1] Contemporary images of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
were produced both in and outside of Ptolemaic Egypt. For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix
Temple of Venus Genetrix
in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple.[3][179][180] It was erected there by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and remained in the temple at least until the 3rd century AD, its preservation perhaps owing to Caesar's patronage, although Augustus
Augustus
did not remove or destroy artworks in Alexandria depicting Cleopatra.[356][357] In regards to surviving Roman statuary, a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was found near the Tomba di Nerone, Rome
Rome
along the Via Cassia
Via Cassia
and is now housed in the Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums.[1][335][336] Plutarch, in his Life of Antony, claimed that the public statues of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
were torn down by Augustus, but those of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
were preserved following her death thanks to her friend Archibius paying the emperor 2,000 talents to dissuade him from destroying hers.[358][333][307] Since the 1950s scholars have debated whether or not the Esquiline Venus—discovered in 1874 on the Esquiline Hill
Esquiline Hill
in Rome
Rome
and housed in the Palazzo dei Conservatori
Palazzo dei Conservatori
of the Capitoline Museums—is a depiction of Cleopatra, based on the statue's hairstyle and facial features, apparent royal diadem worn over the head, and the uraeus Egyptian cobra
Egyptian cobra
wrapped around the base.[354][359] Detractors of this theory argue that the facial features on the Berlin bust and coinage of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
differ and assert that it was unlikely she would be depicted as the naked goddess Venus (i.e. the Greek Aphrodite).[354][359] However, she was depicted in an Egyptian statue as the goddess Isis.[360] The Esquiline Venus
Esquiline Venus
is generally thought to be a mid-1st-century AD Roman copy of a 1st-century BC Greek original from the school of Pasiteles.[359] Coinage portraits Further information: Ptolemaic coinage, Roman currency, and Ancient Greek coinage

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Mark Antony
Mark Antony
on the obverse and reverse, respectively, of a silver tetradrachm struck at the Antioch
Antioch
mint in 36 BC

Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include those from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC.[361] Coins dated to the period of her marriage to Mark Antony, which also bear his image, portray the queen as having a very similar aquiline nose and prominent chin as that of her husband.[3] These similar facial features followed an artistic convention that represented the mutually-observed harmony of a royal couple.[3][2] Her strong, almost masculine facial features in these particular coins are strikingly different from the smoother, softer, and perhaps idealized sculpted images of her in either the Egyptian or Hellenistic
Hellenistic
styles.[2][362][363] Her masculine facial features on minted currency are similar to that of her father Ptolemy XII Auletes,[364][105] and perhaps also to those of her Ptolemaic ancestor Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
(316 - 260 BC)[2][365] and even depictions of earlier queens such as Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
and Nefertiti.[363] It is likely, due to political expediency, that Antony's visage was made to conform not only to hers but also to those of her Macedonian Greek ancestors who founded the Ptolemaic dynasty, to familiarize himself to her subjects as a legitimate member of the royal house.[2] The inscriptions on the coins are written in Greek, but also in the nominative case of Roman coins rather than the genitive case of Greek coins, in addition to having the letters placed in a circular fashion along the edges of the coin instead of across it horizontally or vertically as was customary for Greek ones.[2] These facets of their coinage represent the synthesis of Roman and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
culture, and perhaps also a statement to their subjects, however ambiguous to modern scholars, about the superiority of either Antony or Cleopatra over the other.[2] Diana E. E. Kleiner argues that Cleopatra, in one of her coins minted with the dual image of her husband Antony, made herself more masculine-looking than other portraits and more like an acceptable Roman client queen than a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
ruler.[362] Cleopatra had actually achieved this masculine-type look in coinage predating her affair with Antony, such as the coins struck at the Ashkelon
Ashkelon
mint during her brief period of exile to Syria
Syria
and the Levant, which Joann Fletcher explains as her attempt to appear like her father and as a legitimate successor to a male Ptolemaic ruler.[105][366] Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle.[3][366] The combination of this hairstyle with a diadem are also featured in two surviving sculpted marble busts.[1][367][334][368] This hairstyle, with hair braided back into a bun, is the same as that worn by her Ptolemaic ancestors Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
and Berenice II
Berenice II
(266 - 221 BC) in their own coinage.[3][369] After her visit to Rome
Rome
in 46-44 BC it became fashionable for Roman women to adopt this elaborate hairstyle, but it was abandoned for a more modest, austere look during the conservative rule of Augustus.[3][367][368] Greco-Roman busts Further information: Roman Republican portraiture

An ancient Roman bust, c. 50-30 BC, depicting a woman from Ptolemaic Egypt, either Queen Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
or a member of her entourage during her 46-44 BC visit to Rome
Rome
with her lover Julius Caesar; British Museum, London[367]

Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts of Cleopatra, the sculpture known as the 'Berlin Cleopatra', located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection of the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the bust known as the 'Vatican Cleopatra', located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose.[1][3][370][371][372] Both the Berlin Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Vatican Cleopatra
Cleopatra
have royal diadems, similar facial features, and perhaps once resembled the face of her bronze statue housed in the Temple of Venus Genetrix.[3][370][371][373][372] Both busts are dated to the mid-1st century BC and were found in Roman villas along the Via Appia
Via Appia
in Italy, the Vatican Cleopatra
Cleopatra
having been unearthed in the Villa of the Quintilii.[1][3][370][372] Francisco Pina Polo writes that Cleopatra's coinage present her image with certainty and asserts that the sculpted portrait of the Berlin bust is confirmed as having a similar profile with her hair pulled back into a bun, a diadem, and a hooked nose.[4] A third sculpted portrait of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
accepted by scholars as being authentic survives at the Archaeological Museum of Cherchel, Algeria.[357][367][374] This portrait features the royal diadem and similar facial features as the Berlin and Vatican busts, but has a more unique hairstyle and may even depict Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene II, daughter of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII.[374] Another Parian-marble Roman bust of Cleopatra, wearing a vulture headdress in Egyptian-style, is located at the Capitoline Museums.[375] Other possible but disputed busts of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
include one in the British Museum, London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome.[1][367] The woman in this bust has facial features similar to other portraits (including the pronounced aquiline nose), but lacks a royal diadem and sports a different hairstyle.[1][367] However, the British Museum
British Museum
bust could potentially represent Cleopatra
Cleopatra
at a different stage in her life and may also betray an effort by Cleopatra
Cleopatra
to discard the use of royal insignia (i.e. the diadem) to make herself more appealing to the citizens of Republican Rome.[367] Duane W. Roller speculates that the British Museum
British Museum
bust, along with those in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, Rome, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen (1868-1948), while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin bust but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle.[376]

Bust of Cleopatra
Bust of Cleopatra
VII, mid-1st century BC, Vatican Museums, Gregorian Profane Museum, showing Cleopatra
Cleopatra
with a 'melon' hairstyle and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
royal diadem worn over her head[1][370][3]

Angled view of the Vatican Cleopatra

Profile view of the Vatican Cleopatra

Rear view of the Vatican Cleopatra

Bust of Cleopatra
Bust of Cleopatra
VII, mid-1st-century BC, Altes Museum, Antikensammlung Berlin, showing Cleopatra
Cleopatra
with a 'melon' hairstyle and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
royal diadem worn over the head[1][370][3]

Angled view of the Berlin Cleopatra

Profile view of the Berlin Cleopatra

Opposite profile and rear side of the Berlin Cleopatra

Paintings

A Roman Second-style painting in the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii, Italy, depicting Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
as Venus Genetrix
Venus Genetrix
and her son Caesarion
Caesarion
as a cupid, mid-1st century BC[359][377]

A steel engraving published by John Sartain
John Sartain
in 1885 depicting the now lost painted death portrait of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
(left), an encaustic painting discovered in the ancient Roman ruins of the Egyptian Temple of Serapis
Serapis
at Hadrian's Villa
Hadrian's Villa
(in Tivoli, Lazio) in 1818; she is seen here wearing the knotted garment of Isis
Isis
(corresponding with Plutarch's description of her wearing the robes of Isis),[378] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers such as Ptolemy V (pictured to the right in a golden octodrachm minted in 204-203 BC).[379]

In the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii, Italy a mid-1st century BC Second-Style wall painting of the goddess Venus holding a cupid near massive temple doors is most likely a depiction of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
as Venus Genetrix
Venus Genetrix
with her son Caesarion.[359][377] The commission of the painting most likely coincides with the erection of the Temple of Venus Genetrix
Temple of Venus Genetrix
in the Forum of Caesar
Forum of Caesar
in September 46 BC, where Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
had a gilded statue erected depicting Cleopatra.[359][377] This statue likely formed the basis of her depictions in both sculpted art as well as this painting at Pompeii.[359][380] The woman in the painting wears a royal diadem over her head and is strikingly similar in appearance to the Vatican Cleopatra
Cleopatra
bust, which bears possible marks on the marble of its left cheek where a cupid's arm may have been torn off.[359][381][372][note 13] The room with the painting was walled off by its owner, perhaps in reaction to the execution of Caesarion
Caesarion
in 30 BC by order of Octavian, when public depictions of Cleopatra's son would have been unfavorable with the new Roman regime.[359][382] Behind her golden diadem crowned with a red jewel is a translucent veil with crinkles that suggest the 'melon' hairstyle favored by the queen.[381] Her skin is ivory white, her face round, her nose long and aquiline, and her large round eyes are deep-set, features that were common in both Roman and Ptolemaic-Egyptian depictions of deities.[381] Roller affirms that "there seems little doubt that this is a depiction of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesarion
Caesarion
before the doors of the Temple of Venus in the Forum Julium and, as such, it becomes the only extant contemporary painting of the queen."[359] Another painting from Pompeii, dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide.[288] The painting was originally thought to depict the Carthaginian noblewoman Sophonisba, who towards the end of the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
(218-201 BC) drank poison and committed suicide at the behest of her lover Masinissa, King of Numidia.[288] Arguments in favor of it depicting Cleopatra
Cleopatra
include the strong connection of her house with that of the Numidian royal family, Masinissa
Masinissa
and Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
having been associates and Cleopatra's own daughter marrying the Numidian prince Juba II.[288] Sophonisba
Sophonisba
was also a more obscure figure when this painting was made, while Cleopatra's suicide was far more famous.[288] An asp is absent from the painting, but many Romans held the view that she received poison in another manner than a venomous snakebite.[383] A set of double doors on the rear wall of the painting, positioned very high above the people in it, suggests the described layout of Cleopatra's tomb in Alexandria.[288] A male servant holds the mouth of an artificial Egyptian crocodile (possibly an elaborate tray handle), while another man standing by is dressed as a Roman.[288] In 1818 a now lost encaustic painting was discovered in the Temple of Serapis
Serapis
at Hadrian's Villa
Hadrian's Villa
near Tivoli, Lazio, Italy that depicted Cleopatra
Cleopatra
committing suicide with an asp biting her bare chest.[384] A chemical analysis performed in 1822 confirmed that the medium for the painting was composed of one-third wax and two-thirds resin.[384] The thickness of the painting over Cleopatra's bare flesh and her drapery were reportedly similar to the paintings of the Fayum mummy portraits.[385] A steel engraving published by John Sartain
John Sartain
in 1885 depicting the painting as described in the archaeological report shows Cleopatra
Cleopatra
wearing authentic clothing and jewelry of Egypt in the late Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period,[386] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers, as seen in their portraits on various coins minted during their respective reigns.[379] After Cleopatra's suicide, Octavian commissioned a painting to be made depicting her being bitten by a snake, parading this image in her stead during his triumphal procession in Rome.[385][312][298] The portrait painting of Cleopatra's death was ostensibly taken from Rome
Rome
along with the bulk of artworks and treasures used by Emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
to decorate his private villa, including the temple where the painting was found.[384] In a 1949 publication, Frances Pratt and Becca Fizel rejected the idea proposed by some scholars in the 19th and early 20th centuries that the painting was perhaps done by an artist of the Italian Renaissance.[384] Pratt and Fizel highlighted the Classical-style of the painting as preserved in textual descriptions and the steel engraving.[384] They argued that it was unlikely for a Renaissance-period painter to have painted works with encaustic materials, conducted thorough research into Hellenistic-period Egyptian clothing and jewelry as depicted in the painting, and then precariously placed it in the ruins of the Egyptian temple
Egyptian temple
at Hadrian's Villa.[386] Portland Vase The Portland Vase, a Roman cameo glass vase dated to the Augustan period and located in the British Museum, includes a possible depiction of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
with Mark Antony.[387][388] In this interpretation, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
can be seen grasping Antony and drawing him towards her while a serpent (i.e. the asp) rises between her legs, Eros
Eros
floats above, and Anton, the alleged ancestor of Antonian family, looks on in despair as his descendant Antony is led to his doom.[387] The other side of the vase perhaps contains a scene of Octavia Minor, abandoned by her husband Antony but watched over by her brother, the emperor Augustus.[387] The vase would thus have been created no earlier than 35 BC, when Antony sent his wife Octavia back to Italy and stayed with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in Alexandria.[387]

Possible depiction of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
being lured by Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, straddling a serpent, while Anton looks on and Eros
Eros
flies above[387]

Possible depiction of Anton, Mark Antony's alleged ancestor[387]

Possible depiction of Octavia Minor, being abandoned by her husband Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and watched by her brother Octavian
Octavian
(most likely now emperor Augustus)[387]

Possible depiction of Octavian, perhaps after his renaming as emperor Augustus
Augustus
in 27 BC[387]

Native Egyptian art

Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
and her son Caesarion
Caesarion
at the Temple of Dendera

The Bust of Cleopatra
Bust of Cleopatra
in the Royal Ontario Museum
Royal Ontario Museum
represents a bust of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in the Egyptian style.[389] Dated to the mid-1st-century BC, it is perhaps the earliest depiction of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
as both a goddess and ruling pharaoh of Egypt.[389] This sculpture also has pronounced eyes that share similarities with Roman copies of Ptolemaic sculpted works of art.[390] The Dendera Temple
Dendera Temple
complex near Dendera, Egypt, contains Egyptian-style carved relief images along the exterior walls of the Temple of Hathor
Hathor
depicting Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and her young son Caesarion
Caesarion
as a fully-grown adult and ruling pharaoh making offerings to the gods.[391][392] Augustus
Augustus
had his name inscribed there following the death of Cleopatra.[391] A large Ptolemaic black basalt statue measuring 41 in (1.04 m) in height, located now at the Hermitage Museum of Saint Petersburg, Russia, is thought to represent Arsinoe II, wife of Ptolemy II, but recent analysis has indicated that it could depict her descendant Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
due to the three uraei adorning her headdress, an increase from the two used by Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
to symbolize her rule over Lower and Upper Egypt.[358][355][353] The woman in the basalt statue also holds a divided, double cornucopia (dikeras), which can be seen on coins of both Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
and Cleopatra VII.[358][353] In his Kleopatra und die Caesaren (2006), Bernard Andreae contends that this basalt statue, like other idealized Egyptian portraits of the queen, does not contain realistic facial features and hence adds little to the knowledge of her appearance.[393] Medieval and Early Modern reception Further information: Medieval art, Medieval literature, Renaissance art, Renaissance literature, and Early Modern literature

The Banquet of Cleopatra, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, 1744, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne[394]

In modern times Cleopatra
Cleopatra
has become an icon of popular culture,[334] a reputation shaped by theatrical dramas dating back to the Renaissance as well as visual arts, such as paintings and films.[395] This material largely surpasses the scope and size of existent historiographic literature about her from Classical Antiquity
Classical Antiquity
and has made a greater impact on the general public's view of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
than the latter.[396] The 14th-century English poet Chaucer, in The Legend of Good Women, contextualized Cleopatra
Cleopatra
for the Christian world of the Middle Ages.[397] His depiction of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Antony, her shining knight engaged in courtly love, has been interpreted in modern times as being either playful or misogynyistic satire.[397] However, Chaucer highlighted Cleopatra's relationships with only two men as hardly the life of a seductress and wrote his works partly in reaction to the negative depiction of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in De Mulieribus Claris
De Mulieribus Claris
and De Casibus Virorum Illustrium by the 14th-century Italian poet Giovanni Boccaccio.[398][347] The Renaissance humanist
Renaissance humanist
Bernardino Cacciante, in his 1504 Libretto apologetico delle donne, was the first Italian to defend the reputation of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and criticize the perceived moralizing and misogyny in Boccaccio's works.[399] Works of Arabic, Islamic historiography covered the reign of Cleopatra, such as the 10th-century AD Meadows of Gold by Al-Masudi, although his work erroneously claimed that Octavian
Octavian
died soon after Cleopatra's suicide.[400] In the visual arts, the sculpted depiction of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
as a free-standing nude figure committing suicide began with the 16th-century sculptors Bartolommeo Bandinelli
Bartolommeo Bandinelli
and Alessandro Vittoria.[401] Early prints depicting Cleopatra
Cleopatra
include those by the Renaissance artists Raphael
Raphael
and Michelangelo, as well as 15th-century Quattrocento
Quattrocento
woodcuts in illustrated publications of Boccaccio's works.[402] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
also appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts, such as a depiction of her and Mark Antony
Mark Antony
lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master
Boucicaut Master
in 1409.[346] In the performing arts, the death of Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
in 1603 and 1606 German publication of alleged letters of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his 1594 play Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in 1607.[403] This was followed by the playwright William Shakespeare, whose Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was first performed in 1608 and provided a salacious view of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in stark contrast to England's own Virgin Queen.[404] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was also featured in operas, such as George Frideric Handel's 1724 Giulio Cesare in Egitto, which portrayed the love affair of Caesar and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and outlined the lifelong career of the queen in vivid detail.[405] Modern depictions and brand imaging Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra, History of modern literature, and Egyptomania

The Triumph of Cleopatra, by William Etty, 1821, now in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight

In Victorian Britain, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was highly associated with many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture
Egyptian culture
and her image was used to market various household products, including oil lamps, lithographs, postcards and cigarettes.[406] Fictional novels such as H. Rider Haggard's Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1889) and Théophile Gautier's One of Cleopatra's Nights (1838) depicted the queen as a sensual and mystic Easterner, while the Egyptologist Georg Ebers' Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1894) was more grounded in historical accuracy.[406][407] The French dramatist Victorien Sardou and Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
produced plays about Cleopatra, while burlesque shows such as F. C. Burnand's Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
offered satirical depictions of the queen connecting her and the environment she lived in with the modern age.[408] Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
was considered canonical by the Victorian era.[409] Its popularity led to the perception that the 1885 painting by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
depicted the meeting of Antony and Cleopatra on her pleasure barge in Tarsus, although Alma-Tadema revealed in a private letter that it depicts a subsequent meeting of theirs in Alexandria.[410] In his (unfinished) 1825 short story Egyptian Nights, Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
popularized the largely-ignored claims of 4th-century Roman historian Sextus Aurelius Victor that Cleopatra prostituted herself to men who paid for sex with their lives.[411][412] Cleopatra
Cleopatra
also became appreciated outside the Western world and Middle East, as the Qing-dynasty Chinese scholar Yan Fu (1854-1921) wrote an extensive biography about her.[413] Georges Méliès' Robbing Cleopatra's Tomb (French: Cléopâtre), an 1899 French silent horror film, was the first film to depict the character of Cleopatra.[414] Hollywood
Hollywood
films of the 20th century were influenced by earlier Victorian media, which helped to shape the character of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
played by Theda Bara
Theda Bara
in Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1917), Claudette Colbert
Claudette Colbert
in Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1934), and Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
in Cleopatra
Cleopatra
(1963).[415] In addition to her portrayal as a 'vampire' queen, Bara's Cleopatra
Cleopatra
also incorporated elements of 19th-century Orientalism, such as despotism, mixed with dangerous, overt female sexuality.[416] Colbert's character of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
served as a glamour model for selling Egytpian-themed products in department stores in the 1930s, which can be linked to director Cecil B. DeMille's filming techniques and emphasis on consumer commodities targeting female moviegoers.[417] In preparation for the film starring Taylor as Cleopatra, women's magazines of the early 1960s advertised how to use makeup, clothes, jewelry, and hairstyles to achieve the 'Egyptian' look similar to the queens Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Nefertiti.[418] By the end of the 20th century there were not only forty-three separate films associated with Cleopatra, but also some two hundred plays and novels, forty-five operas, and five ballets.[419] Written works Further information: Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
literature Whereas myths about Cleopatra
Cleopatra
persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on Ancient Greek medicine.[337] Only fragments exist of the medical and cosmetic writings attributed to Cleopatra, such as those preserved by Galen, including remedies for hair disease, baldness, and dandruff, along with a list of weights and measures for pharmacological purposes.[420][32][421] Aëtius of Amida attributed a recipe for perfumed soap to Cleopatra, while Paul of Aegina
Paul of Aegina
preserved alleged instructions of hers for dying and curling hair.[420] The attribution of certain texts to Cleopatra, however, is doubted by Ingrid D. Rowland, who highlights that the "Berenice called Cleopatra" cited by the 3rd or 4th-century female Roman physician Metrodora was likely conflated by medieval scholars as being Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII.[422] Ancestry

Left: a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
bust of Ptolemy I, now in the Louvre, Paris Right: a bust of Seleucus I Nicator, a Roman copy of a Greek original, from the Villa of the Papyri
Villa of the Papyri
(Herculaneum), now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
belonged to the Macedonian-Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies,[11][18][423][407] their European origins traced back to northern Greece.[424] Through her father Ptolemy XII Auletes
Ptolemy XII Auletes
she was a descendant of two prominent companions of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
of Macedon, including the general Ptolemy I, founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, and Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian-Greek founder of the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
of West Asia.[11][425][426] While Cleopatra's paternal line can be traced through her father, the identity of her mother is unknown.[427][18][428][19][20][excessive citations] She may have been the daughter of Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra V Tryphaena),[note 2] the cousin-wife[429] or sister-wife of Ptolemy XII.[16][18][19][430][431] Alternatively, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
may have been born to a Syrian or Egyptian concubine of Ptolemy XII.[19] Roller speculates that she could have been the daughter of a half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah, which would make Cleopatra
Cleopatra
three-quarters Macedonian-Greek and one-quarter native Egyptian.[432][20][24] However, it is generally believed that the Ptolemies did not intermarry with native Egyptians.[19][24][433][note 14] Michael Grant notes there is only one known Egyptian mistress of a Ptolemy and no known Egyptian wife of a Ptolemy, further arguing Cleopatra
Cleopatra
probably had not a drop of Egyptian blood in her and "would have described herself as Greek."[434] Cleopatra I
Cleopatra I
was the only member of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
known for certain to have introduced some non-Greek ancestry, being a descendant of Apama, the Sogdian-Persian wife of Seleucus I.[435][436] Even Roller noted, whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most.[17] Stacy Schiff argues that "the Ptolemies were in fact Macedonian Greek, which makes Cleopatra
Cleopatra
approximately as Egyptian as Elizabeth Taylor", that her Ptolemaic relatives were described as "honey skinned", that she was part Persian, and that "an Egyptian mistress is a rarity among the Ptolemies."[437] Claims that Cleopatra
Cleopatra
was an illegitimate child never appeared in Roman propaganda.[438][19] Grant argues that if Cleopatra
Cleopatra
had been illegitimate, her "numerous Roman enemies would have revealed this to the world."[439] Strabo
Strabo
was the only ancient historian who claimed that Ptolemy XII's children born after Berenice IV, including Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, were illegitimate.[438][440] Cleopatra V (or VI) was expelled from the court of Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
in late 69 BC, a few months after the birth of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, while Ptolemy XII's three younger children were all born in the decade-long absence of his wife.[43] The high degree of inbreeding among the Ptolemies is also illustrated by Cleopatra's immediate ancestry, of which a reconstruction is shown below.[note 15] The family tree given below also lists Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V, Ptolemy XII's wife, as a daughter of Ptolemy X
Ptolemy X
and Berenice III, which would make her a cousin of her husband Ptolemy XII, but she could have been a daughter of Ptolemy IX, which would have made her a sister-wife of Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
instead.[429] The confused accounts in ancient primary sources have also led scholars to number Ptolemy XII's wife as either Cleopatra V or Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI, the latter of whom may have actually been a daughter of Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
and which some use as an indication that Cleopatra V had died in 69 BC rather than reappearing as a co-ruler with Berenice IV in 58 BC (during Ptolemy XII's exile in Rome).[441][54]

Ptolemy V
Ptolemy V
Epiphanes

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I

Ptolemy VI Philometor

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II

Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
Physcon

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III

Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II
Selene

Ptolemy IX Lathyros

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
IV

Ptolemy X
Ptolemy X
Alexander I

Berenice III

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V

Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
Auletes

Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII

See also

List of female rulers and title holders

References Notes

^ a b c d Theodore Cressy Skeat, in Skeat 1953, pp. 98–100, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC. Burstein 2004, p. 31 provides the same date as Skeat, while Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 277 tepidly support this, saying it occurred circa that date. Those in favor of claiming her death occurred on 10 August 30 BC include Roller 2010, pp. 147–148, Fletcher 2008, p. 3, and Anderson 2003, p. 56. ^ a b c Fletcher 2008, pp. 69, 74, 76, Jones 2006, p. xiii and Burstein 2004, p. 11 label the wife of Ptolemy XII Auletes
Ptolemy XII Auletes
as Cleopatra V Tryphaena, while Dodson & Hilton 2004, pp. 268–269, 273, Roberts 2007, p. 125, and Roller 2010, p. 18 call her Cleopatra VI Tryphaena, due to the confusion in primary sources conflating these two figures, who may have been one in the same. As explained by Whitehorne 1994, p. 182, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI may have actually been a daughter of Ptolemy XII, who appeared in 58 BC to jointly-rule with her alleged sister Berenice IV (while Ptolemy XII was exiled and living in Rome), whereas Ptolemy XII's wife Cleopatra V perhaps died as early as the winter of 69-68 BC, when she disappears from historical records. Roller 2010, pp. 18–19 assumes that Ptolemy XII's wife, who he numbers as Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI, was merely absent from the court for a decade after being expelled for an unknown reason, eventually ruling jointly with her daughter Berenice IV. Fletcher 2008, p. 76 explains that the Alexandrians deposed Ptolemy XII Auletes
Ptolemy XII Auletes
and installed "his eldest daughter, Berenike IV, and as co-ruler recalled Cleopatra V Tryphaena from 10 years' exile from the court. Although later historians assumed she must have been another of Auletes' daughters and numbered her ' Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI', it seems she was simply the fifth one returning to replace her brother and former husband Auletes." ^ The rulers of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
refused to speak Late Egyptian, which is the reason that ancient Greek (i.e. Koine Greek) as well as Late Egyptian were used on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone: "Radio 4 Programmes - A History of the World in 100 Objects, Empire Builders (300 BC - 1 AD), Rosetta Stone". BBC. Retrieved 2010-06-07.  As explained by Burstein 2004, pp. 43–54, Ptolemaic Alexandria was considered a city-state (i.e. polis) separate from the country of Egypt, with citizenship reserved for Greeks
Greeks
and Ancient Macedonians, but various other ethnic groups resided there, especially the Jews, as well as native Egyptians, Syrians, and Nubians. ^ Fletcher 2008, p. 87 describes the painting from Herculaneum further: "Cleopatra's hair was maintained by her highly skilled hairdresser Eiras. Although rather artificial looking wigs set in the traditional tripartite style of long straight hair would have been required for her appearances before her Egyptian subjects, a more practical option for general day-to-day wear was the no-nonsense 'melon hairdo' in which her natural hair was drawn back in sections resembling the lines on a melon and then pinned up in a bun at the back of the head. A trademark style of Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
and Berenike II, the style had fallen from fashion for almost two centuries until revived by Cleopatra; yet as both traditionalist and innovator, she wore her version without her predecessor's fine head veil. And whereas they had both been blonde like Alexander, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
may well have been a redhead, judging from the portrait of a flame-haired woman wearing the royal diadem surrounded by Egyptian motifs which has been identified as Cleopatra." ^ Fletcher 2008, pp. 76–77 expresses little doubt about this: "deposed in late summer 58 BC and fearing for his life, Auletes had fled both his palace and his kingdom, although he was not completely alone. For one Greek source reveals he had been accompanied 'by one of his daughters', and since his eldest Berenike IV, was monarch, and the youngest, Arisone, little more than a toddler, it is generally assumed that this must have been his middle daughter and favourite child, eleven-year-old Cleopatra." ^ Fletcher 2008, pp. 85–86 states that the partial solar eclipse of 7 March 51 BC marked the death of Ptolemy XII Auletes
Ptolemy XII Auletes
and accession of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
to the throne, although she apparently suppressed the news of his death, alerting the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
to this fact months later in a message they received on 30 June 51 BC. ^ For the Siege of Alexandria
Alexandria
(47 BC), Burstein 2004, p. 19 states that Julius Caesar's reinforcements came in January, but Roller 2010, p. 63 says that his reinforcements came in March. ^ Roller 2010, pp. 64–65 states that at this point (47 BC) Ptolemy XIV was 12 years old, while Burstein 2004, p. 19 claims that he was still only 10 years of age. ^ According to Roller 2010, pp. 91–92, these client state rulers installed by Mark Antony
Mark Antony
included Herod I
Herod I
of Judea, Amyntas of Galatia, Polemon I of Pontus, and Archelaus of Cappadocia. ^ Bringmann 2007, p. 301 claims that Octavia Minor
Octavia Minor
provided Mark Antony with 1,200 troops, not 2,000 as stated in Roller 2010, pp. 97–98 and Burstein 2004, pp. 27–28 ^ Roller 2010, p. 100 says that it is unclear if they were ever truly married, while Burstein 2004, p. 29 says that the marriage publicly sealed Antony's alliance with Cleopatra, in defiance of Octavian
Octavian
now that he was divorced from Octavia. Coins of Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
depict them in the typical manner of a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
royal couple, as explained by Roller 2010, p. 100. ^ As explained by Jones 2006, p. 147: "politically, Octavian
Octavian
had to walk a fine line as he prepared to engage in open hostilities with Antony. He was careful to minimize associations with civil war, as the Roman people had already suffered through many years of civil conflict and Octavian
Octavian
could risk losing support if he declared war on a fellow citizen." ^ The observation that the left cheek of the Vatican Cleopatra
Cleopatra
bust once had a cupid's hand that was broken off was first suggested by Ludwig Curtius in 1933. Diana E. E. Kleiner concurs with this assessment. See Kleiner 2005, p. 153 ^ As explained by Burstein 2004, pp. 47–50, the main ethnic groups of Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
were Egyptians, Greeks, and Jews, each of whom were legally segregated, living in different residential quarters and forbidden to intermarry with one another in the multicultural cities of Alexandria, Naukratis, and Ptolemais Hermiou. However, as explained by Fletcher 2008, pp. 82, 88–93, the native Egyptian priesthood was strongly linked to their Ptolemaic royal patrons, to the point where Cleopatra
Cleopatra
even had an Egyptian half-cousin, Pasherienptah III, the High Priest of Ptah
Ptah
at Memphis, Egypt. ^ This family tree and short discussions of the individuals can be found in Dodson & Hilton 2004, pp. 268–281. Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton refer to Cleopatra V as Cleopatra VI and Cleopatra Selene of Syria
Syria
is called Cleopatra V Selene.

Citations

^ a b c d e f g h i j k Raia & Sebesta (2017). ^ a b c d e f g h i Art Institute of Chicago. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Grout (2017b). ^ a b Polo (2013), pp. 184-186. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 54, 174-175. ^ a b Hölbl (2001), p. 234. ^ Burstein (2004), p. xx-xxiii, 155. ^ a b c Hölbl (2001), p. 231. ^ Roller (2010), p. 1. ^ a b c Behindthename.com. ^ a b c Roller (2010), pp. 15-16. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 15-16, 39. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 55-57. ^ Burstein (2004), p. 15. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 84. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 18. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 15. ^ a b c d Jones (2006), p. xiii. ^ a b c d e f Roberts (2007), p. 125. ^ a b c d Burstein (2004), p. 11. ^ Grant (1992), p. 4. ^ Roller (2010), p. 16. ^ Anderson (2003), p. 38. ^ a b c d Fletcher (2008), p. 73. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 45-46. ^ Roller (2010), p. 45. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 81. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 30-33. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 1, 3-5, 13-14, 88, 105-106. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 43-54. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 46-48. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. 11-12. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 5, 82, 88, 105-106. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 46-48, 100. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 38-42. ^ Burstein, pp. xviii, 10. ^ a b c d e Roller (2010), p. 17. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 36-37. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. 5. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. xix. ^ Burstein (2004), p. 12. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 74. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 18-19. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 68-69. ^ Roller (2010), p. 19. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 69. ^ Roller (2010), p. 20. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xix, 12-13. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 20-21. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xx, 12-13. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 74-76. ^ Roller (2010), p. 21. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. 13. ^ a b c Fletcher (2008), p. 76. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 87, 246-247, see image plates and captions. ^ a b c d Roller (2010), p. 22. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. xx, 13, 75. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 13, 75. ^ a b Fletcher (2008), pp. 76-77. ^ Roller (2010), p. 23. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 77-78. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 23-24. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 78. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 24. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xx, 13. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 13, 76. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 24-25. ^ a b Bustein (2004), p. 76. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 23, 73. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 25. ^ Burstein (2004), p. xx. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 25-26. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 13-14, 76. ^ a b Fletcher (2008), pp. 11-12. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 13-14. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 11-12, 80. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 26. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. 14. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 26-27. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 80, 85. ^ Roller (2010), p. 27. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xx, 14. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 84-85. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 53, 56. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xx, 15-16. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 88-92. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 53-54. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. 16-17. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 53. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 54-56. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. 16. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 56. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 91-92. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 56-57. ^ a b c Fletcher (2008), pp. 92-93. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 57. ^ a b c Burstein (2004), pp. xx, 17. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 58. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 94-95. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 95. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 58-59. ^ Burstein (2004), p. 17. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 95-96. ^ Roller (2010), p. 59. ^ a b c Fletcher (2008), p. 96. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 59-60. ^ a b Fletcher (2008), pp. 97-98. ^ a b Bringmann (2007), p. 259. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 17. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 96-97. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 60. ^ a b c Fletcher (2008), p. 98. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 17-18. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 60-61. ^ Bringmann (2007), pp. 259-260. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 18. ^ a b c d e f g Bringmann (2007), p. 260. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 98-100. ^ a b c d Roller (2010), p. 61. ^ a b Fletcher (2008), p. 100. ^ a b c Burstein (2004), p. 18. ^ Hölbl (2001), pp. 234-235. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 101-103. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 61-62. ^ a b c d Hölbl (2001), p. 235. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 112-113. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 26, 62. ^ a b Fletcher (2008), p. 113. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 62. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 18, 76. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 18-19. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 118. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 62-63. ^ Hölbl (2001), pp. 235-236. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 19. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 118-120. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 63. ^ Hölbl (2001), p. 236. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 118-119. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 76. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 119. ^ a b c Burstein (2004), p. 19. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 119-120. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 63-64. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 19, 76. ^ a b Anderson (2003), p. 39. ^ a b Fletcher (2008), p. 120. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 64. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 19-21, 76. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 172. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 64, 69. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 19-20. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 64-65. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 121. ^ Roller (2010), p. 65. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 65-66. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. 19-20. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 125. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 126. ^ Roller (2010), p. 66. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 108, 149-150. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 67. ^ Burstein (2004), p. 20. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 153. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 69-70. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 20. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 154, 161-162. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 70. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 162-163. ^ Roller (2010), p. 71. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 179-182. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 21, 57, 72. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 20, 64. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 181-182. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 72. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 194-195. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 72, 126. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. 21. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 72, 175. ^ a b Fletcher (2008), pp. 195-196. ^ a b c Roller (2010), pp. 72-74. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 74. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 21. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 74-75. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 22. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 77-79, Figure 6. ^ a b c d e f Roller (2010), p. 75. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 21-22. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. 22. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 22-23. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 22-23. ^ Roller (2010), p. 76. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 76-77. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 23. ^ Roller (2010), p. 77. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 77-79. ^ Burstein (2004), p. 23. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 79. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxi, 24, 76. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. 24. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxii, 24. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 79-80. ^ a b c d e Burstein (2004), p. 25. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 77-79, 82. ^ Bivar (1983), p. 58. ^ Brosius (2006), p. 96. ^ Kennedy (1996), pp. 80–81. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 81-82. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 82-83. ^ a b c d e f Bringmann (2007), p. 301. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 83. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 83-84. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxii, 25. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 84. ^ Bustein (2004), p. 73. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 84-85. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 85. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 85-86. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxii, 25, 73. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 86. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 86-87. ^ a b c Burstein (2004), p. 26. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 89. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 89-90. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 90. ^ a b c d e f Burstein (2004), pp. xxii, 25-26. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 90-91. ^ Bustein (2004), p. 77. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 91-92. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 92. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 92-93. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 93-94. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 94, 142. ^ Roller (2010), p. 94. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 95. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 26-27. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 94-95. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 95-96. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 96. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 97. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxii, 27. ^ a b Burstein (2004), p. 27. ^ Classical Numismatic Group. ^ Gurval (2011), p. 57. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 97-98. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. 27-28. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 98. ^ a b c d Roller (2010), p. 99. ^ Burstein (2004), p. 28. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxii, 28. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 28-29. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 133-134. ^ a b c d Burstein (2004), p. 33. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 99-100. ^ Bringmann (2007), pp. 301-302. ^ a b c Burstein (2004), pp. xxii, 29. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 100. ^ a b c d e f g Burstein (2004), p. 29. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 100-101. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 129-130. ^ Roller (2010), p. 130. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 65-66. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 130-131. ^ Roller (2010), p. 132. ^ Roller (2010), p. 133. ^ a b c d e f g Roller (2010), p. 134. ^ a b Bringmann (2007), p. 302. ^ Bringmann (2007), pp. 302-303. ^ a b c d e f g h Bringmann (2007), p. 303. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 29-30. ^ a b c d e f g Roller (2010), p. 135. ^ a b c d e Burstein (2004), p. 30. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 136. ^ a b Burstein (2004), pp. xxii, 30. ^ Jones (2006), p. 147. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 136-137. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 137, 139. ^ a b c Bringmann (2007), pp. 303-304. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 137. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 137-138. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 138. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 139. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 139-140. ^ a b c d e f Bringmann (2007), p. 304. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 30-31. ^ a b c d Roller (2010), p. 140. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxii-xxiii, 30-31. ^ a b c d e f g Roller (2010), pp. 178-179. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxii-xxiii. ^ a b c d e 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(2010), p. 153. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 32, 76-77. ^ a b c d Burstein (2004), p. 77. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 153-154. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 154-155. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 155. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 32, 77. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxiii, 32, 77. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 155-156. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xxiii, 32, 77-78. ^ Roller (2010), p. 156. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 32, 69, 77-78. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 151. ^ a b c d Anderson (2003), p. 36. ^ a b Lippold (1936), pp. 169-171. ^ a b Curtius (1933), pp. 184 ff. Abb. 3 Taf. 25—27.. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 7. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 7-8. ^ a b c Bustein (2004), p. 67. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 7-8, 44. ^ a b c Roller (2010), p. 8. ^ a b Gurval (2011), pp. 57-58. ^ a b c d e f Roller (2010), pp. 8-9. ^ Gurval (2011), pp. 66-70. ^ Gurval (2011), pp. 65-66. ^ a b Anderson (2003), p. 54. ^ a b Bustein (2004), p. 68. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 1-2. ^ Roller (2010), p. 2. ^ Burstein (2004), p. 63. ^ Roller (2010), p. 3. ^ Anderson (2003), pp. 37-38. ^ a b c Ashton (2008), pp. 83-85. ^ a b c Polo (2013), pp. 186, 194 footnote10. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 176. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 72, 151, 175. ^ a b Varner (2004), p. 20. ^ a b c Grout (2017a). ^ a b c d e f g h i j Roller (2010), p. 175. ^ Ashton (2008), p. 83. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 182-186. ^ a b Kleiner (2005), p. 144. ^ a b Fletcher (2008), p. 104. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 18, 182. ^ Roller (2010), p. 185. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 182. ^ a b c d e f g Walker & Higgs (2017). ^ a b Fletcher (2008), p. 195. ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 87. ^ a b c d e Roller (2010), pp. 174-175. ^ a b Polo (2013), pp. 185-186. ^ a b c d Fletcher (2008), pp. 198-199. ^ Kleiner (2005), p. 155. ^ a b Kleiner (2005), pp. 155-156. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 199-200. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 175-176. ^ a b c Walker (2008), pp. 35, 42-44. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
(1920), p. 9. ^ a b Sartain (1885), pp. 41, 44. ^ Walker (2008), pp. 35, 44. ^ a b c Walker (2008), p. 40. ^ Walker (2008), pp. 43-44. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 148, 178-179. ^ a b c d e Pratt & Fizel (1949), pp. 14-15. ^ a b Pratt & Fizel (1949), p. 14. ^ a b Pratt & Fizel (1949), p. 15. ^ a b c d e f g h Roller (2010), p. 178. ^ Walker (2004), pp. 41-59. ^ a b Ashton (2002), p. 39. ^ Ashton (2002), p. 36. ^ a b Kleiner (2005), p. 87. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 176-177. ^ Polo (2013), p. 194 footnote11. ^ Anderson (2003), pp. 11-36. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 6-7. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 6-9. ^ a b Gurval (2011), pp. 73-74. ^ Anderson (2003), pp. 51-54. ^ Anderson (2003), pp. 54-55. ^ Jones (2006), pp. 271-274. ^ Anderson (2003), p. 60. ^ Anderson (2003), pp. 51, 60-62. ^ Rowland (2011), p. 232. ^ Rowland (2011), pp. 232-233. ^ Woodstra, Brennan & Schrott (2005), p. 548. ^ a b Wyke & Montserrat (2011), pp. 173-174. ^ a b Pucci (2011), p. 201. ^ Wyke & Montserrat (2011), pp. 173-177. ^ Wyke & Montserrat (2011), p. 173. ^ DeMaria Smith (2011), p. 161. ^ Jones (2006), pp. 260-263. ^ Pucci (2011), p. 198, 201. ^ Hsia (2004), p. 227. ^ Jones (2006), pp. 325. ^ Wyke & Montserrat (2011), pp. 172-173, 178. ^ Wyke & Montserrat (2011), pp. 178-180. ^ Wyke & Montserrat (2011), pp. 181-183. ^ Wyke & Montserrat (2011), pp. 172-173. ^ Pucci (2011), p. 195. ^ a b Roller (2010), pp. 50-51. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 81-82. ^ Rowland (2011), pp. 141-142. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 3, 34, 36, 43, 63-64. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 1, 23. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 3, 34, 36, 51. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 23, 37-42. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 15-16, 164-166. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004), p. 273. ^ a b Dodson & Hilton (2004), pp. 268-269, 273. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. 11, 75. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 69, 74, 76. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 15, 18, 166. ^ Bustein (2004), pp. 69-70. ^ Grant (1992), p. 5. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 56, 73. ^ Holt (1989), pp. 64–65, footnote 63. ^ Schiff (2011), pp. 2, 42. ^ a b Roller (2010), p. 165. ^ Grant & 1992 [1972], p. 4, 5. ^ Bustein (2004), p. 69. ^ Whitehorne (1994), p. 182.

Cited in text Online sources

Cleopatra: Meaning & History, Behind the Name.com, retrieved 4 April 2014.  Cat. 22 Tetradrachm
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Portraying Queen Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, Art Institute of Chicago, retrieved 6 March 2018.  Radio 4 Programmes - A History of the World in 100 Objects, Empire Builders (300 BC - 1 AD), Rosetta Stone, BBC, retrieved 7 June 2010  Mark Antony
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and Cleopatra, Classical Numismatic Group, 17 May 2010, retrieved 25 March 2018  Grout, James (1 April 2017a), Basalt
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Statue of Cleopatra, Encyclopaedia Romana (University of Chicago), retrieved 7 March 2018.  Grout, James (1 April 2017b), Was Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Beautiful?, Encyclopaedia Romana (University of Chicago), retrieved 6 March 2018.  Plutarch
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(1920), Plutarch's Lives, translated by Bernadotte Perrin, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University), retrieved 8 March 2018.  Raia, Ann R.; Sebesta, Judith Lynn (September 2017), The World of State, College of New Rochelle, retrieved 6 March 2018.  Walker, Susan; Higgs, Peter (2017) [2001], Portrait Head, British Museum, retrieved 6 March 2018. 

Printed sources

Anderson, Jaynie (2003), Tiepolo's Cleopatra, Melbourne: Macmillan, ISBN 9781876832445.  Ashton, Sally-Ann (Spring 2002), "Identifying the ROM's "Cleopatra", Rotunda, Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum: 36–39.  Ashton, Sally-Ann (2008), Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Egypt, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4051-1390-8.  Bivar, A.D.H. (1983), "The Political History of Iran Under the Arsacids", in Yarshater, Ehsan, Cambridge History of Iran, 3.1, London & New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21–99, ISBN 0-521-20092-X. . Bringmann, Klaus (2007) [2002], A History of the Roman Republic, translated by W. J. Smyth, Cambridge: Polity Press, ISBN 0-7456-3371-4.  Brosius, Maria (2006), The Persians: An Introduction, London & New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-32089-5. . Burstein, Stanley M. (2004), The Reign of Cleopatra, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-32527-8.  Curtius, L. (1933), "Ikonographische Beitrage zum Portrar der romischen Republik und der Julisch-Claudischen Familie", RM (in German), 48: 182–243.  DeMaria Smith, Margaret Mary (2011), "HRH Cleopatra: the Last of the Ptolemies and the Egyptian Paintings of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema", in Miles, Margaret M., Cleopatra : a sphinx revisited, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 150–171, ISBN 978-0-520-24367-5.  Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2004), The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London: Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0-500-05128-3.  Fletcher, Joann (2008), Cleopatra
Cleopatra
the Great: The Woman Behind the Legend, New York: Harper, ISBN 978-0-06-058558-7.  Grant, Michael (1992) [1972], Cleopatra, Edison, NJ: Barnes and Noble Books, p. 4, ISBN 978-0880297257 . Gurval, Robert A. (2011), "Dying Like a Queen: the Story of Cleopatra and the Asp(s) in Antiquity", in Miles, Margaret M., Cleopatra : a sphinx revisited, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 54–77, ISBN 978-0-520-24367-5.  Holt, Frank L. (1989), Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Bactria: the Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia, Leiden: E. J. Brill, ISBN 90-04-08612-9.  Hölbl, Günther (2001) [1994], A History of the Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-20145-2.  Hsia, Chih-tsing (2004), C.T. Hsia on Chinese Literature, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-12990-4.  Jones, Prudence J. (2006), Cleopatra: a sourcebook, Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 9780806137414.  Kennedy, David (1996), "Parthia and Rome: eastern perspectives", The Roman Army in the East, Ann Arbor: Cushing Malloy Inc., Journal of Roman Archaeology: Supplementary Series Number Eighteen, pp. 67–90, ISBN 1-887829-18-0  Kleiner, Diana E. E. (2005), Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Rome, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01905-9.  Lippold, Georg (1936), Die Skulpturen des Vaticanischen Museums (in German), 3, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co..  Polo, Francisco Pina (2013), "The Great Seducer: Cleopatra, Queen and Sex Symbol", in Knippschild, Silke; Morcillo, Marta Garcia, Seduction and Power: Antiquity in the Visual and Performing Arts, London: Bloomsbury Academic, pp. 183–197, ISBN 978-1-44119-065-9.  Pratt, Frances; Fizel, Becca (1949), Encaustic Materials and Methods, New York: Lear Publishers, OCLC 560769.  Pucci, Giuseppe (2011), "Every Man's Cleopatra", in Miles, Margaret M., Cleopatra : a sphinx revisited, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 195–207, ISBN 978-0-520-24367-5.  Roberts, Peter (2007) [2003], HSC Ancient History: Book 2, Glebe (Sydney, Australia): Pascal Press, ISBN 978-1-74125-179-1.  Roller, Duane W. (2010), Cleopatra: a biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-536553-5.  Rowland, Ingrid D. (2011), "The Amazing Afterlife of Cleopatra's Love Potions", in Miles, Margaret M., Cleopatra : a sphinx revisited, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 132–149, ISBN 978-0-520-24367-5.  Sartain, John (1885), On the Antique Painting in Encaustic of Cleopatra: Discovered in 1818, Philadelphia: George Gebbie & Co..  Schiff, Stacy (2011), Cleopatra: A Life, UK: Random House, ISBN 978-0316001946  Skeat, T. C. (1953), "The Last Days of Cleopatra: A Chronological Problem", The Journal of Roman Studies, 43: 98–100.  Varner, Eric R. (2004), Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 90-04-13577-4.  Walker, Susan (2004), The Portland Vase, British Museum
British Museum
Objects in Focus, British Museum
British Museum
Press, ISBN 978-0714150222.  Walker, Susan (2008), " Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in Pompeii?", Papers of the British School at Rome, 76: 35–46; 345–8.  Whitehorne, John (1994), Cleopatras, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-05806-6  Woodstra, Chris; Brennan, Gerald; Schrott, Allen (2005), All Music Guide to Classical Music: The Definitive Guide to Classical Music, Ann Arbor, MI: All Media Guide (Backbeat Books), ISBN 978-087930-865-0.  Wyke, Maria; Montserrat, Dominic (2011), "Glamour Girls: Cleomania in Mass Culture", in Miles, Margaret M., Cleopatra : a sphinx revisited, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 172–194, ISBN 978-0-520-24367-5. 

Further reading

Bradford, Ernle Dusgate Selby (2000), Cleopatra, Penguin Group, ISBN 978-0-14-139014-7.  Flamarion, Edith; Bonfante-Warren, Alexandra (1997), Cleopatra: The Life and Death of a Pharaoh, Harry Abrams, ISBN 978-0-8109-2805-3.  Foss, Michael (1999), The Search for Cleopatra, Arcade Publishing, ISBN 978-1-55970-503-5.  Fraser, P.M. (1972), Ptolemaic Alexandria, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-814278-1.  Lindsay, Jack (1972), Cleopatra, New York: Coward-McCann.  Nardo, Don (1994), Cleopatra, Lucent Books, ISBN 978-1-56006-023-9.  Pomeroy, Sarah B. (1984), Women in Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Egypt: from Alexander to Cleopatra, New York: Schocken Books, ISBN 0-8052-3911-1.  Southern, Pat (2000), Cleopatra, Tempus, ISBN 978-0-7524-1494-2.  Syme, Ronald (1962), The Roman Revolution, Oxford University Press.  Volkmann, H. (1958), Cleopatra: A Study in Politics and Propaganda, T.J. Cadoux, trans, New York: Sagamore Press.  Weigall, Arthur (1923), The Life and Times of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Queen of Egypt, London: Putnam. 

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Cleopatra
on In Our Time at the BBC. Cleopatra, a Victorian children's book by Jacob Abbott, 1852, Project Gutenberg edition "Mysterious Death of Cleopatra" at the Discovery Channel Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
at BBC
BBC
History Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
at Ancient History Encyclopedia Eubanks, W. Ralph. (1 November 2010). "How History And Hollywood
Hollywood
Got 'Cleopatra' Wrong". National Public Radio
National Public Radio
(NPR) (a book review of Cleopatra: A Life, by Stacy Schiff).

Cleopatra Ptolemaic dynasty Born: 69 BC Died: 30 BC

Regnal titles

Preceded by Ptolemy XII Queen of Egypt 51–30 BC with Ptolemy XII, Ptolemy XIII, Ptolemy XIV and Ptolemy XV
Ptolemy XV
Caesarion Office abolished Egypt annexed by Roman Republic

v t e

Hellenistic
Hellenistic
rulers

Argeads

Philip II Alexander III the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Antigonids

Antigonus I Monophthalmus Demetrius I Poliorcetes Antigonus II Gonatas Demetrius II Aetolicus Antigonus III Doson Philip V Perseus Philip VI (pretender)

Ptolemies

Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II
Ptolemy II
Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV
Ptolemy IV
Philopator Ptolemy V
Ptolemy V
Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra I Syra
(regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II
Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
Physcon Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III Ptolemy IX Lathyros Ptolemy X
Ptolemy X
Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
Auletes Cleopatra VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
Philopator Ptolemy XV
Ptolemy XV
Caesarion

Kings of Cyrene

Magas Demetrius the Fair Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
Physcon Ptolemy Apion

Seleucids

Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus III Ceraunus Antiochus III the Great Seleucus IV Philopator Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Demetrius I Soter Alexander I Balas Demetrius II Nicator Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus

Lysimachids

Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos

Antipatrids

Cassander Philip IV Alexander V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Attalids

Philetaerus Eumenes I Attalus I Eumenes II Attalus II Attalus III Eumenes III

Greco-Bactrians

Diodotus I Diodotus II Euthydemus I Demetrius I Euthydemus II Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Demetrius II Eucratides I Plato Eucratides II Heliocles I

Indo-Greeks

Demetrius I Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Apollodotus I Demetrius II Antimachus II Menander I Zoilos I Agathokleia Lysias Strato I Antialcidas Heliokles II Polyxenos Demetrius III Philoxenus Diomedes Amyntas Epander Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso Nicias Menander II Artemidoros Hermaeus Archebius Telephos Apollodotus II Hippostratos Dionysios Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Strato III

Kings of Bithynia

Boteiras Bas Zipoetes I Nicomedes I Zipoetes II Etazeta (regent) Ziaelas Prusias I Prusias II Nicomedes II Nicomedes III Nicomedes IV Socrates Chrestus

Kings of Pontus

Mithridates I Ctistes Ariobarzanes Mithridates II Mithridates III Pharnaces I Mithridates IV Philopator Philadephos Mithridates V Euergetes Mithridates VI Eupator Pharnaces II Darius Arsaces Polemon I Pythodorida Polemon II

Kings of Commagene

Ptolemaeus Sames II Mithridates I Antiochus I Mithridates II Antiochus II Mithridates III Antiochus III Antiochus IV

Kings of Cappadocia

Ariarathes I Ariarathes II Ariamnes II Ariarathes III Ariarathes IV Ariarathes V Orophernes Ariarathes VI Ariarathes VII Ariarathes VIII Ariarathes IX Ariobarzanes I Ariobarzanes II Ariobarzanes III Ariarathes X Archelaus

Kings of the Cimmerian Bosporus

Paerisades I Satyros II Prytanis Eumelos Spartokos III Hygiainon (regent) Paerisades II Spartokos IV Leukon II Spartokos V Paerisades III Paerisades IV Paerisades V Mithridates I Pharnaces Asander with Dynamis Mithridates II Asander with Dynamis Scribonius’ attempted rule with Dynamis Dynamis with Polemon Polemon with Pythodorida Aspurgus Mithridates III with Gepaepyris Mithridates III Cotys I

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter Ptolemy II
Ptolemy II
Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV
Ptolemy IV
Philopator Ptolemy V
Ptolemy V
Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X
Ptolemy X
Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XII
Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV
Ptolemy XV
Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 67762941 LCCN: n80067160 ISNI: 0000 0001 0927 8576 GND: 11856322X SELIBR: 182837 SUDOC: 027316564 BNF: cb11938532d (data) NLA: 49682372 NDL: 00620501 NKC: jn2000070

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