Cleomenes I
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Cleomenes I (;
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
Κλεομένης; died c. 490 BC) was Agiad
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
of
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: wikt:Σπάρτη, Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in Laconia, in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the nam ...
from c. 524 to c. 490 BC. One of the most important Spartan kings, Cleomenes was instrumental in organising the Greek resistance against the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenian Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, , ), also called the First Persian Empire, was an History of Iran#Classical antiquity, ancient Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. Bas ...
of Darius, as well as shaping the geopolitical balance of
Classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (the 5th and 4th centuries BC) in Ancient Greece,The "Classical Age" is "the modern designation of the period from about 500 B.C. to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C." (Thomas R. Martin ...
.


Herodotus' account

Most of the life of Cleomenes is known through the ''
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history History (derived ) is the systematic study and the documentation of the human activity. The time period of event before the invention of writing systems is considere ...
'' of
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, , }; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
, an Athenian historian of the second half of the 5th century. He is one the most important characters of books 5 and 6, covering the decades before the
Persian Wars The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Polis, Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world ...
. Herodotus' account however contains many mistakes, especially on the chronology of several major events, and is also very biased against Cleomenes. It seems that Herodotus got his information on Cleomenes from his opponents: the descendants of his half-brothers
Leonidas Leonidas I (; grc-gre, Λεωνίδας; died 19 September 480 BC) was a List of kings of Sparta#Heraclids, king of the Greek city-state of Sparta, and the 17th of the List of kings of Sparta#Agiad dynasty, Agiad line, a dynasty which claimed d ...
and Cleombrotus, as well as those of
Demaratus Demaratus ( el, Δημάρατος ; Doric: ) was a king of Sparta from around 515 BC to 491 BC. The 15th of the Eurypontid line, he was the first son born to his father, King Ariston. As king, Demaratus is known chiefly for his opposition ...
, the other Spartan king who was deposed by Cleomenes in 491. Herodotus for instance states that Cleomenes' reign was short; however he ruled for about 30 years. Damaratus conversely receives positive treatment in the ''Histories'', even though he betrayed to the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian peoples, Iranian ethnic group who comprise over half of the population of Iran. They share a Culture of Iran, common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language as well as of Iranian languages, t ...
during the First Invasion of Greece.
Paul Cartledge Paul Anthony Cartledge (born 24 March 1947)"CARTLEDGE, Prof. Paul Anthony", ''Who's Who 2010'', A & C Black, 2010online edition/ref> is a British ancient historian and academic. From 2008 to 2014 he was the A. G. Leventis Professor of Greek Cu ...
writes that Cleomenes suffered from a ''
damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", indicating that a person is to be excluded from official accounts. Depending on the extent, it can be a case of historical negationism. There are and have been many routes to , includin ...
'' from the Spartans, notably for having corrupted the
Oracle An oracle is a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions, most notably including precognition of the future, inspired by deities. As such, it is a form of divination. Description The wor ...
of
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
in 491.Cartledge, ''Sparta and Lakonia'', p. 130.


Family background and accession

Cleomenes was the son of
Anaxandridas II Anaxandridas II ( grc-gre, Ἀναξανδρίδας) was an Agiad king of Sparta between c. 560 BC and c. 524 BC, father of Leonidas I and grandfather of Pleistarchus. Under the leadership of the ephor Chilon of Sparta, Chilon, in office during ...
, who belonged to the Agiad dynasty, one of the two royal families of Sparta (the other being the Eurypontids). As his father did not have a son from his first wife (who was also his niece), the ephors forced him to marry another woman, without divorcing his first wife—an unprecedented occurrence of
bigamy In cultures where monogamy is mandated, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still legally married to another. A legal separation, legal or de facto separation of the couple does not alter their marital status as m ...
in Sparta. His new spouse likely came from the family of the ephor
Chilon Chilon of Sparta ( grc, Χείλων) (fl. 6th century BC) was a Spartan Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: wikt:Σπάρτη, Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in Laconia, in ancient Gre ...
, an important reformer, who held office in during the mid-6th-century.Ste. Croix, "Herodotus and King Cleomenes", p. 422. Cleomenes was born from this second marriage, but then his father returned to his first wife and had three further sons with her:
Dorieus Dorieus (died c.510 BC; grc-gre, Δωριεύς) was a Spartan prince of the List of kings of Sparta#Agiad dynasty, Agiad dynasty who is mentioned several times in Herodotus. The second son of Anaxandridas II, he was the younger half-brother of Cl ...
, the future king
Leonidas Leonidas I (; grc-gre, Λεωνίδας; died 19 September 480 BC) was a List of kings of Sparta#Heraclids, king of the Greek city-state of Sparta, and the 17th of the List of kings of Sparta#Agiad dynasty, Agiad line, a dynasty which claimed d ...
, and Cleombrotus—the latter two were possibly twins. The name Dorieus ("the Dorian") explicitly refers to the Dorian ethnicity of Sparta, and might be a rejection of the ephor Chilon's policy of establishing an amicable relationship with the ethnically different
Achaia Achaea () or Achaia (), sometimes transliterated from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language fa ...
in the northern
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos,(), or Morea is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the Isthmu ...
. The family of Anaxandridas' second wife immediately contested the legitimacy of Dorieus even before his birth, as the ephors attended his birth in order to certify the authenticity of the pregnancy.Griffith-Williams, "The Succession to the Spartan Kingship", p. 49. This shows that there were strong familial rivalries among Spartan royal circles; besides, at the same time, a cousin of Anaxandridas' second wife was also the bride of the future Eurypontid king Leotychidas. In turn, when his father died, Cleomenes' succession was contested by Dorieus, because of his superior "manly virtue".Griffith-Williams, "The Succession to the Spartan Kingship", p. 49. Perhaps this statement is related to a great performance during the
agoge The ( grc-gre, ἀγωγή in Attic Greek, or , in Doric Greek) was the rigorous education and training program mandated for all male Spartiate, Spartan citizens, with the exception of the firstborn son in the ruling houses, Eurypontid and Agia ...
—the rigorous military training at Sparta—which Dorieus had to endure, while Cleomenes avoided it as heir-apparent (the only possible exemption). Dorieus could have also contested Cleomenes' legitimacy on the ground that he was a son of the king's first wife, who was additionally of royal descent. As Cleomenes was the eldest son, his claim was nevertheless deemed stronger and he became king. It prompted the departure of Dorieus to colonial ventures in
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya bo ...
and
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...
, where he died in c.510. The date of Cleomenes' accession had been debated among modern scholars for a long time, until historian David Harvey found that the Greek historian
Diodoros of Sicily Diodorus Siculus, or Diodorus of Sicily ( grc-gre, wikt:Διόδωρος, Διόδωρος ;  1st century BC), was an ancient Greece, ancient Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history ''Bibliotheca historica' ...
had confused the length of
Cleomenes II Cleomenes II ( grc-gre, Κλεομένης; died 309 BC) was king of Sparta from 370 to 309 BC. He was the second son of Cleombrotus I, and grandfather of Areus I, who succeeded him. Although he reigned for more than 60 years, his life ...
's reign (370–309) with that of his earlier namesake. Putting aside Diodoros' error, Harvey states that as Cleomenes came to the throne "a few years earlier than the Plataia incident", he dates the start of his reign to 524–523.


Reign

During the first years of his reign, Cleomenes adopted prudent diplomacy, rejecting foreign expeditions when solicited, possibly due to the threat of a
helot The helots (; el, εἵλωτες, ''heílotes'') were a Wikt:subjugate, subjugated population that constituted a majority of the population of Laconia and Messenia – the territories ruled by Sparta. There has been controversy since Classical ...
revolt that a defeat in a war abroad would cause.


Encounter at Plataia (519 BC)

The first known deed of Cleomenes as king is his dealing with the city of Plataia, located between Thebes and
Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is a coastal city in the Mediterranean and is both the capital and largest city of Greece. With a population close to four million, it is also the seventh largest c ...
. In 519,
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, , }; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
states that Cleomenes happened to be in the vicinity of Plataia, when the Plataians requested an alliance with Sparta, which he rejected. Instead he advised them to ally themselves with Athens, because he wanted to stir a border conflict between Thebes and Athens, two of the most powerful ''poleis'' of central Greece.Ste. Croix, "Herodotus and King Cleomenes", p. 423. The Plataians probably wished to avoid their forced incorporation into the Boiotian League, which was being built by Thebes at this time. Their Spartan alliance request perhaps indicates that they wanted to become a member of the
Peloponnesian League The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of ancient Greek Polis, city-states, dominated by Sparta and centred on the Peloponnese, which lasted from c.550 to 366 BC. It is known mainly for being one of the two rivals in the Peloponnesian War (431 ...
, which was likewise being put in place at this time. G. E. M. de Ste. Croix and
Paul Cartledge Paul Anthony Cartledge (born 24 March 1947)"CARTLEDGE, Prof. Paul Anthony", ''Who's Who 2010'', A & C Black, 2010online edition/ref> is a British ancient historian and academic. From 2008 to 2014 he was the A. G. Leventis Professor of Greek Cu ...
call this move "a master-stroke" of diplomacy, but other modern scholars do not believe it was Cleomenes' intention to create a rift between Thebes and Athens. Herodotus does not explain why Cleomenes was near Plataia at that time. A number of theories have been advanced to explain it. Perhaps he was marching on Thebes to support an invasion of his ally, Lattamyas of
Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek#Thessalian, Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic and modern administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece, co ...
, but as the Thebans had defeated the Thessalians at the Battle of Ceressus before he arrived, he took the opportunity to try and undermine them without engaging his forces. Another possibility is that he was trying to convince either
Megara Megara (; el, Μέγαρα, ) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece. It lies in the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis Island, Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, befo ...
or Thebes to join the Peloponnesian League, or he was arbitrating between Megara and Athens over the island of Salamis. The date of this event has been challenged by some modern scholars, who have often suggested 509 rather than 519, as it would better fit with Cleomenes' latter involvement in Athenian politics, but the majority view remains in favour of 519.


Foreign embassies (c.517–c.513 BC)

In c.516, Cleomenes received an embassy from Maeandrius of
Samos Samos (, also ; el, Σάμος ) is a Greece, Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of western Turkey, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait. It is also a se ...
asking him for help to expel the tyrant
Syloson Syloson ( grc-gre, Συλοσών, ''gen''.: Συλοσῶνος) governed Samos as a vassal ruler on behalf of the Achaemenid Empire, Achaemenid Persian Empire. He was appointed by king Darius I and was the brother of Polycrates of Samos. When P ...
, a puppet of the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenian Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, , ), also called the First Persian Empire, was an History of Iran#Classical antiquity, ancient Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. Bas ...
, which was at the time was subjugating the city-states of the eastern
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi ( Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος: "Egéo Pélagos", Turkish: "Ege Denizi" or "Adalar Denizi") is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea between Europe and Asia. It is located between the Balkans ...
.Cartledge, ''Sparta and Lakonia'', p. 124. However, with the support of the
ephors The ephors were a board of five magistrates in ancient Sparta. They had an extensive range of judicial, religious, legislative, and military powers, and could shape Sparta's home and foreign affairs. The word "''ephors''" (Ancient Greek ''ép ...
, Cleomenes refused and they expelled Maeandrius from the Peloponnese. Perhaps Cleomenes did not want to commit the Peloponnesian League to long-distance wars, especially against Persian Empire. Maeandrius' intentions may have also played a role, as he probably coveted the
tyranny A tyrant (), in the modern English language, English usage of the word, is an autocracy, absolute ruler who is unrestrained by law, or one who has usurper, usurped a legitimate ruler's sovereignty. Often portrayed as cruel, tyrants may defen ...
of Samos. In about 513,
Darius the Great Darius I ( peo, wiktionary:𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁, 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 ; grc-gre, Δαρεῖος ; – 486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was a List of monarchs of Persia, Persian ruler who served as the third King o ...
invaded
Scythia Scythia (Scythian languages, Scythian: ; Old Persian: ; Ancient Greek: ; Latin: ) or Scythica (Ancient Greek: ; Latin: ), also known as Pontic Scythia, was a kingdom created by the Scythians during the 6th to 3rd centuries BC in the Pontic– ...
, which prompted the latter to send an embassy to Sparta in order to request an alliance against the Persians. Herodotus says the Scythians offered to go from the river Phasis to
Media Media may refer to: Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications delivered over mass el ...
, while the Spartans would march east from
Ephesus Ephesus (; grc-gre, Ἔφεσος, Éphesos; tr, Efes; may ultimately derive from hit, 𒀀𒉺𒊭, Apaša) was a city in ancient Greece on the coast of Ionia, southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in t ...
. This story is however suspect, as the Scythian ambassadors later resurfaced to explain the death of Cleomenes, and the proposed alliance looks like a Pan-Hellenic fantasy of Herodotus'. An alternative date of after 494 BC has been proposed, because the mention of Ephesus by Herodotus implies that the city was not under Persian control, which only happened after the
Ionian Revolt The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris (Asia Minor), Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Achaemenid Empire, Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the hear ...
of 499 – 494.


Interventions into Athenian politics (511–501 BC)


First and second Spartan-Athenian War (c.511–510 BC)

In the 500s, Cleomenes meddled four times in Athenian politics, which ultimately led to the creation of democracy in Athens.Cartledge, ''Sparta and Lakonia'', p. 124. The powerful, but exiled,
Alcmaeonid The Alcmaeonidae or Alcmaeonids ( grc-gre, Ἀλκμαιωνίδαι ; Attic An attic (sometimes referred to as a ''loft'') is a space found directly below the pitched roof of a house or other building; an attic may also be called a ''sky p ...
family of Athens bribed the Oracle of Apollo at
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
to tell the Spartans that they would not have access to the Oracle unless they removed the tyranny of the Peisistratid dynasty, who had held power in Athens since 561. The first Spartan expedition, headed by Anchimolus, took place in c.511, but was defeated by the tyrant
Hippias Hippias of Elis (city), Elis (; el, Ἱππίας ὁ Ἠλεῖος; late 5th century BC) was a Ancient Greece, Greek sophist, and a contemporary of Socrates. With an assurance characteristic of the later sophists, he claimed to be regarded as a ...
, son of
Pisistratus Pisistratus or Peisistratus ( grc-gre, wikt:Πεισίστρατος, Πεισίστρατος ; 600 – 527 BC) was a politician in ancient Athens, ruling as tyrant in the late 560s, the early 550s and from 546 BC until his death. His unificat ...
, thanks to the help he received from his Thessalian allies, who had sent a force of 1000 cavalrymen.Cartledge, ''Sparta and Lakonia'', p. 126. In 510, Sparta sent a bigger force commanded by Cleomenes, who went to
Attica Attica ( el, Αττική, Ancient Greek ''Attikḗ'' or , or ), or the Attic Peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital city, capital of Greece and its countryside. It is a peninsula projecting into t ...
by land. The Spartans defeated the
Thessalian Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek#Thessalian, Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic and modern administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece, co ...
mercenaries of Hippias, then besieged Hippias in the
Acropolis An acropolis was the settlement of an upper part of an ancient Greek city, especially a citadel, and frequently a hill with precipitous sides, mainly chosen for purposes of defense. The term is typically used to refer to the Acropolis of Athens, ...
, where he had sought shelter with his supporters. The tyrant surrendered after the Spartans captured his sons by chance; he then went into exile in the Persian Empire.Cartledge, ''Sparta and Lakonia'', p. 126. The war against Hippias was consistent with the policy of removing tyrants followed by Sparta during the late 6th-century. Moreover, the tyrants of Athens were known for their Persian sympathies (called
Medism In ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a northeastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, classical anti ...
), which Cleomenes started to vigorously fight throughout Greece at this time. Hippias was also a friend of Argos, another one of Sparta's enemies. Embarrassed by owing the fall of the tyranny to the intervention of a Spartan king, the Athenians later promoted instead the story of
Harmodius and Aristogeiton Harmodius (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed l ...
, who had murdered Hippias' brother
Hipparchus Hipparchus (; el, wikt:Ἵππαρχος, Ἵππαρχος, ''Hipparkhos'';  BC) was a Ancient astronomy, Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry, but is most famous for his incidenta ...
in 514. Another reason for the Spartan interventions in Athens may be the defection of Megara from the Peloponnesian League, perhaps at the instigation of Hippias. This would also be the reason why Anchimolus had to use ships to reach Attica, since the
Isthmus of Corinth The Isthmus of Corinth (Greek language, Greek: Ισθμός της Κορίνθου) is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. The word "isthmus" comes ...
was cut off. Cleomenes then forced Megara back into the League in 511/510. Moreover,
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; – after AD 119) was a Greek people, Greek Middle Platonism, Middle Platonist philosopher, historian, Biography, biographer, essayist, and priest at the Temple of Apollo (D ...
mentions that at the time of
Solon Solon ( grc-gre, wikt:Σόλων, Σόλων;  BC) was an History of Athens, Athenian statesman, constitutional lawmaker and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in A ...
, Sparta acted as arbitrator between Athens and Megara for the ownership of Salamis, an island in the
Saronic Gulf The Saronic Gulf (Greek language, Greek: Σαρωνικός κόλπος, ''Saronikós kólpos'') or Gulf of Aegina in Greece is formed between the peninsulas of Attica and Argolis and forms part of the Aegean Sea. It defines the eastern side of th ...
. But as Cleomenes is cited as one of the arbiters, several modern scholars place the settlement in c.510, just after the war, because Cleomenes finally decided in favour of Athens, probably to punish Megara for its defection, and also to bring Athens into the Peloponnesian League. This theory remains controversial as several other opinions place the Megara arbitration in c.519, at the same time as the Plataea incident.


Athenian Revolution (507 BC)

In Athens, a struggle took place between aristocratic factions headed by
Cleisthenes Cleisthenes ( ; grc-gre, Κλεισθένης), or Clisthenes (c. 570c. 508 BC), was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a Athenian democracy, democratic footing in 508 BC. Fo ...
and Isagoras for the control of the city. The pro-Spartan oligarch Isagoras became
archon ''Archon'' ( gr, ἄρχων, árchōn, plural: ἄρχοντες, ''árchontes'') is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, mean ...
in 508/507, but Cleisthenes promised democratic reforms in order to gain greater support among the citizenry and expand his power-base. Now on the losing side, Isagoras called for help from his friend Cleomenes, whom it was rumoured was also in love with Isagoras' wife. Cleomenes obtained the exile of Cleisthenes through diplomacy, but Isagoras still felt unsafe, and requested intervention by his Spartan friend. Cleomenes personally came to Athens with a small bodyguard, possibly thinking that his prestige would be enough to change the political course of the city.Forrest, ''History of Sparta'', p. 87. Cleomenes expelled 700 families linked to Cleisthenes, and also wanted to establish a narrow
oligarchy Oligarchy (; ) is a conceptual form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. These people may or may not be distinguished by one or several characteristics, such as nobility Nobility is a social class foun ...
or a tyranny, by suppressing Athens' council ('' boule'') and creating instead a new council of 300 men filled with Isagoras' supporters.Huxley, ''Early Sparta'', p. 81. However, the boule rejected the dissolution order; this act of resistance triggered a large revolt among the Athenians. Taken by surprise, Cleomenes and Isagoras sought shelter on the Acropolis, where they were besieged. While on the Acropolis, Cleomenes tried to enter the Old Temple of
Athena Polias Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, warfare, and handicraft who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva. Athena was regarded as the patron and protectress o ...
, but the priestess barred him access, saying that the temple was forbidden to
Dorians The Dorians (; el, Δωριεῖς, ''Dōrieîs'', singular , ''Dōrieús'') were one of the four major ethnic groups into which the Greeks, Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans (tribe ...
—the ethnic group of the Spartans (Athenians were
Ionians The Ionians (; el, Ἴωνες, ''Íōnes'', grammatical number, singular , ''Íōn'') were one of the List of ancient Greek tribes, four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the Ancient Greece, ancient ...
). Cleomenes likely wanted to show his strength by making a sacrifice in a forbidden place, which was a typical behaviour for conquerors and notably Spartan commanders. Even though the priestess of Athena was the most important cleric in Athens, Herodotus chose not to give her name in order make her speak as the goddess resisting the Spartan invasion. Cleomenes famously replied: "Woman, I am not Dorian but Achaean". In this context, the Achaeans were the Greeks of
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') (born ) was a Greek poet who is credited as the author of the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'', two epic poems that are foundational works of ancient Greek literature. Homer is considered one of the ...
's poems. The name recalls the ephor Chilon's policy of appropriating their heritage in the middle of the 6th-century. A descendant of Chilon, Cleomenes therefore attempted to present himself as less alien to the Athenians by claiming an Achaean identity. His reply to the priestess also conveys a second meaning, as it can be translated by "I am not Dorieus", the name of his rival half-brother. In the third day of the siege, Cleomenes realised that his position was hopeless, and negotiated a surrender: the Spartans were allowed to leave with Isagoras, but the supporters of the latter were massacred.


Boeotian War (506 BC)

Revengeful after the humiliation he suffered, Cleomenes set up a large coalition against Athens, gathering the Peloponnesian League, Boeotia, and
Chalkis Chalcis ( ; Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: , ) or Chalkida, also spelled Halkida (Modern Greek: , ), is the chief town of the island of Euboea or Evia in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point. The name is preserved from ...
(on the island of
Euboea Evia (, ; el, wikt:Εύβοια, Εύβοια ; grc, wikt:Εὔβοια, Εὔβοια ) or Euboia (, ) is the second-largest List of islands of Greece, Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia in mainlan ...
), which pushed Athens to seek an alliance with Persia—another reason for Cleomenes' intervention. The goal was again to install Isagoras as tyrant. However, once the Peloponnesian army arrived at
Eleusis Elefsina ( el, Ελευσίνα ''Elefsina''), or Eleusis (; Ancient Greek: ''Eleusis'') is a suburban city and Communities and Municipalities of Greece, municipality in the West Attica regional unit of Greece. It is situated about northwest ...
in Western Attica, the Corinthians refused to continue and returned home.
Demaratus Demaratus ( el, Δημάρατος ; Doric: ) was a king of Sparta from around 515 BC to 491 BC. The 15th of the Eurypontid line, he was the first son born to his father, King Ariston. As king, Demaratus is known chiefly for his opposition ...
, the Eurypontid king, similarly disagreed with Cleomenes and took the rest of the allies with him back to the Peloponnese, thus effectively calling off the invasion. As a result, the Athenians easily defeated the Boeotians, then Chalkis. The most frequent explanation for the Corinthians' decision is that they ignored Cleomenes' plan to install a tyrant in Athens; they thought would be an unjust act once they learned about it. Several modern historians find this change of mood unconvincing and have offered alternative theories. Lawrence Tritle has suggested instead that after Cleomenes retreated from the Acropolis, he captured Eleusis and left Isagoras in charge there until his return with the full army. The following year, the Spartans and their allies discovered at Eleusis that Athens had retaken this city; without a secure base in Attica, the whole expedition appeared hopeless and was cancelled. Simon Hornblower thinks that the Peloponnesians only learned about the alliance between Athens and Persia once they reached Eleusis, and they did not want to go to war with the latter. While near Eleusis, Cleomenes may have destroyed some trees in the sacred area of the city, probably for military reasons. This failed invasion had several consequences. Firstly, a law was passed in Sparta forbidding the two kings to go on campaign at the same time, in order to avoid another dangerous disagreement on the field. Secondly, the organisation of the Peloponnesian League was considerably amended. Sparta had to concede its allies the creation of a League congress, in which the allies could vote on declaring war and making peace. A few years later, possibly in 504, the first recorded congress of the Peloponnesian League took place in Sparta, during which the restoration of Hippias to Athens was debated. The Spartans wished to restore him because they said they had been tricked by the false oracles of the Alcmeonids, which prompted the removal of Hippias in 510. Hippias was present and pleaded his cause in Sparta, but the allies led by Corinth rejected the proposal. Hippias then left Greece for good, perhaps to the island of
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Chíos , traditionally known as Scio in English) is the fifth largest Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, island, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is ...
. Although some scholars have assumed this reversal of Sparta's foreign policy was Cleomenes' doing, it seems that he played no part in this, because Herodotus does not mention him at all. Ste.Croix instead writes that Sparta's support of Hippias came from Cleomenes' opponents in the city, who considered the new regime in Athens to be more hostile to Sparta than Hippias.


The Ionian Revolt and its Aftermath

In 499,
Aristagoras Aristagoras ( grc-gre, Ἀρισταγόρας ὁ Μιλήσιος), d. 497/496 BC, was the leader of the Ionian city of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC and a key player during the early years of the Ionian Revolt a ...
, the tyrant of
Miletus Miletus (; gr, Μῑ́λητος, Mī́lētos; Hittite language, Hittite transcription ''Millawanda'' or ''Milawata'' (Exonym and endonym, exonyms); la, Mīlētus; tr, Milet) was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek city on the western coast of ...
, came to Sparta to request help from King Cleomenes with the
Ionian Revolt The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris (Asia Minor), Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Achaemenid Empire, Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the hear ...
against
Persia Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, and also called Persia, is a country located in Western Asia. It is bordered by Iraq and Turkey to the west, by Azerbaijan and Armenia to the northwest, by the Caspian Sea and Turkmeni ...
. Aristagoras nearly persuaded Cleomenes to help, promising an easy conquest of Persia and its riches, but Cleomenes sent him away when he learned about the long distance to the heart of Persia. Aristagoras attempted to bribe him by offering silver. Cleomenes declined, so Aristagoras began offering him more and more. According to
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, , }; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
, once Aristagoras offered Cleomenes 50 talents of silver, Cleomenes's young daughter Gorgo warned him not to trust a man who threatened to corrupt him.


War against Argos (494 BC)

In 494, a fifty years' peace that had been signed between Sparta and Argos expired, leading to a new war. This peace had been possibly concluded after a Spartan victory for the control the Thyreatis, the border area between the two cities, won by Anaxandridas II. Cleomenes' motivations may have been either to weaken a rival in the Peloponnese, or to punish Argos for its
Medism In ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a northeastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, classical anti ...
.Cartledge, ''Sparta and Lakonia'', p. 128. The campaign only involved Sparta, not the Peloponnesian League, and perhaps only Spartian citizens, without the
perioeci The Perioeci or Perioikoi (, ) were the second-tier citizens of the ''polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, :wikt:πόλις, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city" in Greek. In Ancient Greece, it originally referred to a ...
who usually fought alongside them in battle. They were at least 2,000 Spartan soldiers, with an equal number of
helots The helots (; el, εἵλωτες, ''heílotes'') were a Wikt:subjugate, subjugated population that constituted a majority of the population of Laconia and Messenia – the territories ruled by Sparta. There has been controversy since Classical ...
. The Spartan army marched north through the perioecic city of
Sellasia Sellasia ( el, Σελλασία, before 1929: Βρουλιά - ''Vroulia'') is a village in Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and Administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece located on ...
, then
Tegea Tegea (; el, Τεγέα) was a settlement in Arcadia (ancient region), ancient Arcadia, and it is also a former municipality in Arcadia (regional unit), Arcadia, Peloponnese (region), Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform i ...
, whence they moved north-east towards Argos. The Argives however blocked the way at the river Erasinos. Cleomenes returned south to the Thyreatis, within Spartan territory, in order to board his troops into ships lent by Sikyon and
Aegina Aegina (; el, Αίγινα, ''Aígina'' ; grc, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens. Tradition derives the name from Aegina (mythology), Aegina, the mother of the hero Aeacus, who was born ...
, two members of the Peloponnesian League.Ste. Croix, "Herodotus and King Cleomenes", p. 434. The ships landed on the other side of the
Argolic Gulf The Argolic Gulf (), also known as the Gulf of Argolis, is a Bay, gulf of the Aegean Sea off the east coast of the Peloponnese, Greece. It is about 50 km long and 30 km wide. Its main port is Nafplio, at its northwestern end. At the entran ...
, at
Tiryns Tiryns or (Ancient Greek: Τίρυνς; Modern Greek: Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean civilization , Mycenaean archaeological site in Argolis in the Peloponnese, and the location from which the mythical hero Heracles performed his Labours of Her ...
and
Nauplia Nafplio ( ell, Ναύπλιο) is a coastal city located in the Peloponnese in Greece and it is the capital of the regional unit of Argolis and an important touristic destination. Founded in antiquity, the city became an important seaport in the ...
, two subject cities of Argos. A large pitched battle took place at Sepeia, near Tiryns, where the entire Argive army was wiped out, perhaps up to 6,000 men. Ste.Croix thinks the battle was "the greatest slaughter of hoplites ..in any war between two Greek states". The survivors fled to a sacred ground nearby, but Cleomenes put the grove on fire and killed the Argives. He then dismissed most of his army but a thousand soldiers and moved to
Mycenae Mycenae ( ; grc, Μυκῆναι or , ''Mykē̂nai'' or ''Mykḗnē'') is an archaeological site near Mykines, Greece, Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece. It is located about south-west of Athens; north of Argos, Peloponne ...
, in the northeast of Argos. On his way, he stopped at the Heraion of Argos, the great temple of
Hera In ancient Greek religion, Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Greek, Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of marriage, women and family, and the protector of women during childbirth. In Greek myt ...
, where he committed another sacrilege by flogging the priest who tried to prevent him from performing a sacrifice in the temple. In both cases, Cleomenes had ordered his accompanying helots to commit the sacrileges, probably to shield the Spartiates from the religious consequences. Cleomenes remained in the vicinity of Argos in the aftermath of the battle in order to create two independent city-states out of Tiryns and Mycenae, thus cutting Argos' access to its best harbour at Nauplia. The reason behind this move was to durably weaken Argos, and possibly to hinder it from receiving troops from Persia. Mycenae and Tiryns joined the Peloponnesian League and remained good allies of Sparta. Despite his crushing victory against Argos, Cleomenes did not try to capture the city, possibly because its defences were too strong, or he failed to install a friendly government.Forrest, ''History of Sparta'', p. 90. On his return to Sparta, Cleomenes was accused of bribery before the ephors for having spared Argos after the battle. A trial took place before the
Gerousia The Gerousia (γερουσία) was the council of elders in ancient Sparta. Sometimes called Spartan senate in the literature, it was made up of the two List of kings of Sparta, Spartan kings, plus 28 men over the age of sixty, known as geronte ...
or the ecclesia. Cleomenes explained that after having taken the sacred grove of Argos, the oracle's forecast regarding the capture of Argos had been fulfilled—since they shared the same name, and was therefore acquitted.


Deposition of Demaratus (491 BC)

When the Persians invaded
Greece Greece,, or , romanized: ', officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, and is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Greece shares land borders with ...
after putting down the Ionian revolt in 493, many
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including cities such as ...
s quickly submitted to them fearing a loss of trade. Among these states was
Aegina Aegina (; el, Αίγινα, ''Aígina'' ; grc, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens. Tradition derives the name from Aegina (mythology), Aegina, the mother of the hero Aeacus, who was born ...
. So in 491, Cleomenes attempted to arrest the major collaborators there. The citizens of Aegina would not cooperate with him and the Eurypontid Spartan king,
Demaratus Demaratus ( el, Δημάρατος ; Doric: ) was a king of Sparta from around 515 BC to 491 BC. The 15th of the Eurypontid line, he was the first son born to his father, King Ariston. As king, Demaratus is known chiefly for his opposition ...
attempted to undermine his efforts. Cleomenes overthrew Demaratus, after first bribing the oracle at Delphi to announce that this was the divine will, and replaced him with Leotychidas.


Exile and death

Around 490 Cleomenes was forced to flee Sparta when his plot against his co-king Demaratus was discovered. Herodotus states that he first went to Thessaly, but such a large detour is implausible, and Herodotus' manuscript has often been corrected to "
Sellasia Sellasia ( el, Σελλασία, before 1929: Βρουλιά - ''Vroulia'') is a village in Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and Administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece located on ...
", which was a perioecic city north of Sparta. Sellasia was still too close to Sparta, and Cleomenes moved to Arcadia.


Rebellion in Arcadia (c.490 BC)

Arcadia was the central region of the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos,(), or Morea is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the Isthmu ...
; it counted many small cities that Sparta had always prevented from uniting, applying a
divide and rule Divide and rule policy ( la, divide et impera), or divide and conquer, in politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power ...
policy. Upon his arrival in c.490, Cleomenes wanted to unite the Arcadians and requested them to swear the oath of "following him withersoever he might lead". This oath was a paraphrase of the oath of the Peloponnesian League, so it seems that Cleomenes tried to make them shift their allegiance from Sparta to himself, then turn against Sparta at the head of a personal union with the Arcadians. He might have promised them that if they helped him to regain his place in Sparta, he would recognise Arcadia as a single political unit. According to Herodotus, the oath would have been taken in the city of Nonacris, by the
Styx In Greek mythology, Styx (; grc, Στύξ ) is a river that forms the boundary between Gaia, Earth (Gaia) and the Greek underworld, Underworld. The rivers Acheron, Cocytus, Lethe, Phlegethon, and Styx all converge at the centre of the underworld ...
—the river of the
Underworld The underworld, also known as the netherworld or hell, is the supernatural world of the dead in various religious traditions and myths, located below the world of the living. Chthonic is the technical adjective for things of the underworld. ...
, where normally only gods swore oaths—therefore making Cleomenes commit another sacrilege and suffering from "divine megalomania". Based on Arcadian coins produced in the first half of the 5th century, several historians have even considered that Cleomenes created the first Arcadian League, whereas this federal structure only appear in ancient sources after the Spartan defeat at Leuctra in 371. However, more recent studies have shown that this coinage was probably not political, but connected to the festival of Zeus Lykaios, and that Cleomenes never completed his plans in Arcadia. The wording in Herodotus implies that the oath by the Styx was never taken.


Revolt of the helots

The Spartans arrived late at the
battle of Marathon The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of History of Athens, Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Achaemenid Empire, Persian force commanded by Datis and Artapherne ...
against Persia in 490. Their official explanation was that they had to finish a
religious festival A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion. Religious festivals are commonly celebrated on recurring cycles in a calendar year or lunar calendar. The science of religious rites and festivals is known ...
, but the philosopher
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
mentioned that it was caused by a revolt of the helots in Messenia, which several historians have linked to the activities of Cleomenes against Sparta at the time. Cleomenes could have promised the helots an improvement of their condition in exchange for help, as did his nephew the regent
Pausanias Pausanias ( el, wikt:Παυσανίας, Παυσανίας) may refer to: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias the Regent, Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pausanias of ...
a few years later. In support of this theory, the city of Messena in Sicily, was founded in c.488 by refugees from Messenia, and the Spartans made a dedication at Olympia after a victory against the Messenians at the beginning of the 5th century. Facing the threat of a combined revolt from Arcadia and Messenia, the Spartan authorities, notably the ephors, recalled Cleomenes to Sparta.


Return to Sparta and death

However, according to Herodotus Cleomenes was by this time considered to be insane. The Spartans, fearing what he was capable of put him in prison. By the command of his half-brothers, Leonidas I and Cleombrotus, Cleomenes was placed in chains. He died in prison in mysterious circumstances, with the Spartan authorities claiming his death was suicide due to insanity. While in prison, Cleomenes was found dead with his death being ruled as suicide by self-mutilation. He apparently convinced the helot guarding him into giving him a knife, with which he slashed his shins, thighs and belly in an especially brutal suicide. He was succeeded by the elder of his surviving half-brothers Leonidas I, who then married Cleomenes' daughter Gorgo. Herodotus gives four different versions that circulated in Greece to explain Cleomenes' madness and suicide. The most common one was that of divine retribution for having bribed the Oracle of Delphi. Alternatively, the Argives said it was for the massacre of the Argive soldiers cornered in their sacred grove after the battle of Sepeia; the Athenians thought it was for his sacrilege of the groves of Eleusis; the Spartans suggested that the wine he drank unmixed with water—a taste he acquired from the Scythian ambassadors who visited him in 514—turned him insane. For Herodotus, Cleomenes paid for his removal of Demaratus. The Athenians' and Argives' versions were coined to suit their own grief against Cleomenes, whereas the Spartan version was designed to absolve Sparta from any accusation of impiety. The suicide of Cleomenes has appeared suspect to modern scholars, who instead consider the possibility that he was murdered by his half-brother Leonidas, who was next in line. Cleomenes' daughter, Gorgo, seems to have transmitted to Herodotus the Spartan "official version" of her father's death, to which she might have participated as she was married to Leonidas.Harvey, "Leonidas the Regicide?", pp. 254, 255.


Notes


Bibliography


Ancient sources

*
Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus, or Diodorus of Sicily ( grc-gre, wikt:Διόδωρος, Διόδωρος ;  1st century BC), was an ancient Greece, ancient Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history ''Bibliotheca historica' ...
, ''
Bibliotheca Historica ''Bibliotheca historica'' ( grc, Βιβλιοθήκη Ἱστορική, ) is a work of universal history by Diodorus Siculus. It consisted of forty books, which were divided into three sections. The first six books are geographical in theme, a ...
''. * Herodotos, ''
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history History (derived ) is the systematic study and the documentation of the human activity. The time period of event before the invention of writing systems is considere ...
''.


Modern sources

* Richard M. Berthold,
The Athenian Embassies to Sardis and Cleomenes' Invasion of Attica
, ''Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte'', 3rd Qtr., 2002, Bd. 51, H. 3 (3rd Qtr., 2002), pp. 259–267. * John Boardman et al., ''
The Cambridge Ancient History ''The Cambridge Ancient History'' is a multi-volume work of ancient history from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, published by Cambridge University Press. The first series, consisting of 12 volumes, was planned in 1919 by Irish historian J. B. Bury ...
, volume IV, Persia Greece, and the Eastern Mediterranean, from c. 525 to 479 B.C.'', Cambridge University Press, 1988. * Robert J. Buck, ''A History of Boeotia'', University of Alberta Press, 1979 . * Pierre Carlier,
La vie politique à Sparte sous le règne de Cléomène Ier. Essai d’interprétation
, ''Ktèma'', 1977, n°2, pp. 65–84. *
Paul Cartledge Paul Anthony Cartledge (born 24 March 1947)"CARTLEDGE, Prof. Paul Anthony", ''Who's Who 2010'', A & C Black, 2010online edition/ref> is a British ancient historian and academic. From 2008 to 2014 he was the A. G. Leventis Professor of Greek Cu ...
, ''Sparta and Lakonia, A Regional History 1300–362 BC'', London, Routledge, 2002 (originally published in 1979). * ——, ''Agesilaos and the Crisis of Sparta'', Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. * George L. Cawkwell, "Cleomenes", ''Mnemosyne'', XLVI, 4 (1993), pp. 506–527. * Ephraim David, "The Trial of Spartan Kings", ''Revue internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité'', 32, 1985, pp. 131–140. * W. G. Forrest, ''History of Sparta, 950–192 B.C.'', New York/London, 1968. * Brenda Griffith-Williams,
The Succession to the Spartan Kingship, 520–400 BC
, ''Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies'', Vol. 54, No. 2 (2011), pp. 43–58. * Mogens Herman Hansen & Thomas Heine Nielsen (editors), ''An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis'', Oxford University Press, 2004. * David Harvey, "Leonidas the Regicide, Speculations on the death of Kleomenes I", in Glen W. Bowersock,
Walter Burkert Walter Burkert (; 2 February 1931 – 11 March 2015) was a German scholar of Greek mythology and Cult (religion), cult. A professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, he taught in the UK and the US. He has influenced gener ...
, Michael C. J. Putnam (editors), ''Arktouros, Hellenic Studies presented to Bernard M. W. Knox on the occasion of his 65th birthday'', Berlin/New York, de Gruyter, 1979,pp. 253–260. * ——,
The Length of the Reigns of Kleomenes
, '' Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte'', Bd. 58, H. 3 (2009), pp. 356–357. * Stephen Hodkinson,
Female property ownership and status in Classical and Hellenistic Sparta
, ''Centre for Hellenic Studies'', Harvard University, 2004. * Simon Hornblower, ''A Commentary on Thucydides, Volume I, Books I-III'', Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1991. * —— (editor), ''Herodotus, Histories, Book V'', Cambridge University Press, 2013. * —— &
Christopher Pelling Christopher Brendan Reginald Pelling, (born 14 December 1947) is a British classical scholar. He was the Regius Professor of Greek (Oxford), Regius Professor of Greek, at Christ Church, Oxford, from 2003 to 2015. He was President of the Society f ...
(editors), ''Herodotus, Histories, Book VI'', Cambridge University Press, 2017. * G. L. Huxley, ''Early Sparta'', London, Faber & Faber, 1962. * Andreas Konecny, Vassilis Aravantinos, Ron Marchese, et al., ''Plataiai, Archäologie und Geschichte einer boiotischen Polis'', Vienna, Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut, Sonderschriften Band 48, 2013. * Thomas Heine Nielsen, ''Arkadia and its Poleis in the Archaic and Classical Periods'', Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2002. * Josiah Ober, "'I Besieged That Man', Democracy’s Revolutionary Start", in Kurt A. Raaflaub, Josiah Ober, Robert Wallace, ''Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece'', Berkeley, University of California Press, 2007. * Jessica Paga, Building democracy in late archaic Athens, New York, Oxford University Press, 2021. * Robert Parker, ''Cleomenes on the Acropolis, An Inaugural Lecture delivered before the University of Oxford on 12 May 1997'', Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1998. * Anton Powell (editor), ''Classical Sparta, Techniques Behind Her Success'', London, Routledge, 1989. * Arlette Roobaert, ''Isolationnisme et Impérialisme Spartiates de 520 à 469 avant J.-C.'', Leuven, Peeters, 1985. * J. Roy,
An Arcadian League in the Earlier Fifth Century B. C.?
, ''Phoenix'', Vol. 26, No. 4 (Winter, 1972), pp. 334–341 * G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, ''The Origins of the Peloponnesian War'', London, Duckworth, 1972. *
Raphael Sealey Raphael Sealey (14 August 1927, Middlesbrough, England – 29 November 2013, Berkeley, California) was a classical scholar and ancient historian. Sealey studied at University College, Oxford in England under George Cawkwell, receiving an Master of ...
, ''A History of the Greek City-States, ca. 700 - 338 B.C.'', Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1976. * ——, "Herodotus and King Cleomenes I of Sparta", in ''Athenian Democratic Origins and other essays'', edited by David Harvey and Robert Parker, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 421–440 (transcription of a lecture made in 1972). * Lionel Scott, ''Historical commentary on Herodotus, Book 6'', Leiden/Boston, Brill, 2005. * Martha C. Taylor, ''Salamis and the'' Salaminoi'', the History of an Unofficial Athenian'' Demos, Amsterdam, Gieben, 1997. * Lawrence A. Tritle,
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, ''Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte'', 4th Qtr., 1988, Bd. 37, H. 4 (4th Qtr., 1988), pp. 457-460. * W. P. Wallace,
Kleomenes, Marathon, the Helots, and Arkadia
, ''The Journal of Hellenic Studies'', Vol. 74 (1954), pp. 32–35. {{Authority control 6th-century BC rulers 5th-century BC rulers 6th-century BC Spartans 5th-century BC Spartans Agiad kings of Sparta People who committed suicide in prison custody Suicides by sharp instrument in Greece Year of birth unknown 480s BC deaths Spartans of the Greco-Persian Wars Ancient Greeks who committed suicide