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CLAUDIUS (/ˈklɔːdiəs/ ; Latin : _ Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar Augustus
Augustus
Germanicus_; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty , he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor . He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul , the first Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
to be born outside Italy
Italy
. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship , shared with his nephew Caligula
Caligula
in 37.

Claudius' infirmity probably saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius
Tiberius
and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family.

Despite his lack of experience, Claudius
Claudius
proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain (if the earlier invasions of Britain by Caesar and Caligula's aborted attempts are not counted). Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility. Claudius
Claudius
was constantly forced to shore up his position; this resulted in the deaths of many senators . These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife. After his death in 54 AD (at age of 63), his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero
Nero
succeeded him as Emperor.

He was a descendant of the Octavii Rufi (through Gaius Octavius ), Julii Caesares
Julii Caesares
(through Julia Minor and Julia Antonia ), and the Claudii Nerones (through Nero
Nero
Claudius Drusus ); he was a great-nephew of Augustus
Augustus
through his full sister Octavia Minor , a nephew of Tiberius
Tiberius
through his father Drusus, Tiberius' brother, an uncle of Caligula
Caligula
and finally a great-uncle of Nero
Nero
through Caligula's father and Nero's grandfather Germanicus
Germanicus
, his brother.

CONTENTS

* 1 Family and early life

* 1.1 Public life * 1.2 Assassination
Assassination
of Caligula
Caligula
(41 AD)

* 2 As Emperor

* 2.1 Expansion of the Empire * 2.2 Judicial and legislative affairs * 2.3 Public works

* 2.4 Claudius
Claudius
and the Senate

* 2.4.1 Plots and coup attempts

* 2.5 Secretariat and centralization of powers * 2.6 Religious reforms * 2.7 Public games and entertainments

* 3 Marriages and personal life

* 3.1 Plautia Urgulanilla
Plautia Urgulanilla
* 3.2 Aelia Paetina * 3.3 Valeria Messalina * 3.4 Agrippina the Younger

* 4 Claudius\' affliction and personality * 5 Scholarly works and their impact * 6 Death

* 7 After death

* 7.1 Divine honours * 7.2 Views of the new regime * 7.3 Flavian and later perspectives * 7.4 Views of ancient historians

* 8 In modern literature, film and radio * 9 Ancestry * 10 See also * 11 Footnotes * 12 References * 13 External links

FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE

ROMAN IMPERIAL DYNASTIES

JULIO-CLAUDIAN DYNASTY

CHRONOLOGY

Augustus
Augustus
27 BC – 14 AD

Tiberius
Tiberius
14–37 AD

Caligula
Caligula
37–41 AD

Claudius 41–54 AD

Nero
Nero
54–68 AD

FAMILY

Gens Julia Gens Claudia Julio-Claudian family tree Category: Julio-Claudian dynasty

SUCCESSION

_Preceded by_ Roman Republic
Roman Republic
_Followed by_ Year of the Four Emperors

Claudius
Claudius
was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum (modern Lyon , France). He had two older siblings, Germanicus
Germanicus
and Livilla . His mother, Antonia, may have had two other children who died young.

His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor , Augustus
Augustus
' sister, and he was therefore the great-great grandnephew of Gaius Julius
Julius
Caesar . His paternal grandparents were Livia , Augustus' third wife, and Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the illegitimate son of Augustus, to give the appearance that Augustus
Augustus
was Claudius' paternal grandfather.

In 9 BC, his father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania, possibly from illness. Claudius
Claudius
was then left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When Claudius' disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off on his grandmother Livia for a number of years.

Livia was a little kinder, but nevertheless often sent him short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a "former mule-driver" to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of will-power. However, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests.

In 7 AD, Livy was hired to tutor him in history, with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus. He spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher Athenodorus . Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius' oratory. Expectations about his future began to increase.

PUBLIC LIFE

His work as a budding historian damaged his prospects for advancement in public life. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars that was either too truthful or too critical of Octavian —then reigning as Augustus
Augustus
Caesar . In either case, it was far too early for such an account, and may have only served to remind Augustus
Augustus
that Claudius
Claudius
was Antony's descendant. His mother and grandmother quickly put a stop to it, and this may have convinced them that Claudius
Claudius
was not fit for public office. He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line.

When he returned to the narrative later in life, Claudius
Claudius
skipped over the wars of the second triumvirate altogether. But the damage was done, and his family pushed him into the background. When the Arch of Pavia
Pavia
was erected to honor the Imperial clan in 8 BC, Claudius' name (now Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
Germanicus
Germanicus
after his elevation to paterfamilias of Claudii Nerones on the adoption of his brother) was inscribed on the edge—past the deceased princes, Gaius and Lucius , and Germanicus' children. There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius
Claudius
himself decades later, and that he originally did not appear at all.

When Augustus
Augustus
died in 14 AD, Claudius
Claudius
— then 23 — appealed to his uncle Tiberius
Tiberius
to allow him to begin the _cursus honorum _. Tiberius, the new Emperor, responded by granting Claudius
Claudius
consular ornaments. Claudius
Claudius
requested office once more and was snubbed. Since the new Emperor was no more generous than the old, Claudius
Claudius
gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life.

Despite the disdain of the Imperial family, it seems that from very early on the general public respected Claudius. At Augustus' death, the _equites _, or knights, chose Claudius
Claudius
to head their delegation. When his house burned down, the Senate demanded it be rebuilt at public expense. They also requested that Claudius
Claudius
be allowed to debate in the Senate. Tiberius
Tiberius
turned down both motions, but the sentiment remained.

During the period immediately after the death of Tiberius' son, Drusus , Claudius
Claudius
was pushed by some quarters as a potential heir. This again suggests the political nature of his exclusion from public life. However, as this was also the period during which the power and terror of the commander of the Praetorian Guard , Sejanus , was at its peak, Claudius
Claudius
chose to downplay this possibility.

After the death of Tiberius
Tiberius
the new emperor Caligula
Caligula
(the son of Claudius' brother Germanicus
Germanicus
) recognized Claudius
Claudius
to be of some use. He appointed Claudius
Claudius
his co-consul in 37 in order to emphasize the memory of Caligula's deceased father Germanicus. Despite this, Caligula
Caligula
relentlessly tormented his uncle: playing practical jokes, charging him enormous sums of money, humiliating him before the Senate, and the like. According to Cassius Dio Claudius
Claudius
became very sickly and thin by the end of Caligula's reign, most likely due to stress. A possible surviving portrait of Claudius
Claudius
from this period may support this.

ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA (41 AD)

A coin of Herod of Chalcis
Herod of Chalcis
, showing him with his brother Agrippa of Judaea crowning Claudius. British Museum
British Museum
.

On 24 January 41, Caligula
Caligula
was assassinated in a broad-based conspiracy involving the Praetorian commander Cassius Chaerea and several senators . There is no evidence that Claudius
Claudius
had a direct hand in the assassination , although it has been argued that he knew about the plot — particularly since he left the scene of the crime shortly before his nephew was murdered. However, after the deaths of Caligula\'s wife and daughter , it became apparent that Cassius intended to go beyond the terms of the conspiracy and wipe out the Imperial family. _ Detail from A Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
41AD_, c. 1871. _ Proclaiming Claudius
Claudius
Emperor_, 1867. Two drastically different oil paintings by Lawrence Alma-Tadema of Claudius' being proclaimed Emperor by Gratus of the Praetorian Guard .

In the chaos following the murder, Claudius
Claudius
witnessed the German guard cut down several uninvolved noblemen, including many of his friends. He fled to the palace to hide. According to tradition, a Praetorian named Gratus found him hiding behind a curtain and suddenly declared him _princeps _. A section of the guard may have planned in advance to seek out Claudius, perhaps with his approval. They reassured him that they were not one of the battalions looking for revenge. He was spirited away to the Praetorian camp and put under their protection.

The Senate quickly met and began debating a change of government, but this eventually devolved into an argument over which of them would be the new _princeps_. When they heard of the Praetorians' claim, they demanded that Claudius
Claudius
be delivered to them for approval, but he refused, sensing the danger that would come with complying. Some historians, particularly Josephus
Josephus
, claim that Claudius
Claudius
was directed in his actions by the Judaean King Herod Agrippa . However, an earlier version of events by the same ancient author downplays Agrippa's role so it remains uncertain. Eventually the Senate was forced to give in and, in return, Claudius
Claudius
pardoned nearly all the assassins.

AS EMPEROR

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

_ Claudius
Claudius
issued this denarius _ type to emphasize his clemency after Caligula's assassination. The depiction of the goddess Pax-Nemesis , representing subdued vengeance, would be used on the coins of many later emperors.

Claudius
Claudius
took several steps to legitimize his rule against potential usurpers, most of them emphasizing his place within the Julio-Claudian family. He adopted the name "Caesar" as a cognomen , as the name still carried great weight with the populace. In order to do so, he dropped the cognomen "Nero" which he had adopted as _paterfamilias_ of the Claudii Nerones when his brother Germanicus
Germanicus
was adopted out.

While Claudius
Claudius
had never been formally adopted either by Augustus
Augustus
or his successors, he was nevertheless the grandson of his sister Octavia, and so he felt that he had the right of family. He also adopted the name "Augustus" as the two previous emperors had done at their accessions. He kept the honorific "Germanicus" to display the connection with his heroic brother. He deified his paternal grandmother Livia to highlight her position as wife of the divine Augustus. Claudius
Claudius
frequently used the term "filius Drusi" (son of Drusus) in his titles, in order to remind the people of his legendary father and lay claim to his reputation.

Since Claudius
Claudius
was the first Emperor proclaimed on the initiative of the Praetorian Guard instead of the Senate, his repute suffered at the hands of commentators (such as Seneca ). Moreover, he was the first Emperor who resorted to bribery as a means to secure army loyalty and rewarded the soldiers of the Praetorian Guard that had elevated him with 15,000 sesterces. Tiberius
Tiberius
and Augustus
Augustus
had both left gifts to the army and guard in their wills , and upon Caligula's death the same would have been expected, even if no will existed. Claudius
Claudius
remained grateful to the guard, however, issuing coins with tributes to the Praetorians in the early part of his reign.

EXPANSION OF THE EMPIRE

Under Claudius, the Empire underwent its first major expansion since the reign of Augustus. The provinces of Thrace
Thrace
, Noricum
Noricum
, Pamphylia , Lycia
Lycia
, and Judea
Judea
were annexed (or put under direct rule) under various circumstances during his term. The annexation of Mauretania
Mauretania
, begun under Caligula, was completed after the defeat of rebel forces, and the official division of the former client kingdom into two Imperial provinces. The most far-reaching conquest was the conquest of Britannia
Britannia
_. _ Bronze head of Claudius
Claudius
found in the River Alde at Rendham , near Saxmundham , Suffolk ( British Museum
British Museum
). Potentially taken from the Temple of Claudius in Colonia Victricensis during the Boudican revolt .

In 43 AD, Claudius
Claudius
sent Aulus Plautius
Aulus Plautius
with four legions to Britain (_Britannia_) after an appeal from an ousted tribal ally. Britain was an attractive target for Rome
Rome
because of its material wealth – particularly mines and slaves. It was also a haven for Gallic rebels and the like, and so could not be left alone much longer. Claudius himself travelled to the island after the completion of initial offensives, bringing with him reinforcements and elephants. The latter must have made an impression on the Britons when they were displayed in the large tribal centre of Camulodunum , modern day Colchester
Colchester
. The Roman _colonia _ of _Colonia Claudia Victricensis_ was established as the provincial capital of the newly established province of Britannia
Britannia
at Camulodunum, where a large Temple was dedicated in his honour .

He left after 16 days, but remained in the provinces for some time. The Senate granted him a triumph for his efforts. Only members of the Imperial family were allowed such honours, but Claudius
Claudius
subsequently lifted this restriction for some of his conquering generals. He was granted the honorific "Britannicus" but only accepted it on behalf of his son, never using the title himself. When the Briton general Caractacus was captured in 50 AD, Claudius
Claudius
granted him clemency. Caractacus lived out his days on land provided by the Roman state, an unusual end for an enemy commander.

Claudius
Claudius
conducted a census in 48 that found 5,984,072 Roman citizens (adult males with Roman citizenship
Roman citizenship
; women, children, slaves, and free adult males without Roman citizenship
Roman citizenship
were not counted), an increase of around a million since the census conducted at Augustus' death. He had helped increase this number through the foundation of Roman colonies that were granted blanket citizenship . These colonies were often made out of existing communities, especially those with elites who could rally the populace to the Roman cause. Several colonies were placed in new provinces or on the border of the Empire to secure Roman holdings as quickly as possible.

JUDICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE AFFAIRS

Claudius
Claudius
personally judged many of the legal cases tried during his reign. Ancient historians have many complaints about this, stating that his judgments were variable and sometimes did not follow the law. He was also easily swayed. Nevertheless, Claudius
Claudius
paid detailed attention to the operation of the judicial system.

He extended the summer court session, as well as the winter term, by shortening the traditional breaks. Claudius
Claudius
also made a law requiring plaintiffs to remain in the city while their cases were pending, as defendants had previously been required to do. These measures had the effect of clearing out the docket. The minimum age for jurors was also raised to 25 in order to ensure a more experienced jury pool.

Claudius
Claudius
also settled disputes in the provinces. He freed the island of Rhodes
Rhodes
from Roman rule for their good faith and exempted Troy
Troy
from taxes. Early in his reign, the Greeks
Greeks
and Jews of Alexandria sent him two embassies at once after riots broke out between the two communities. This resulted in the famous "Letter to the Alexandrians", which reaffirmed Jewish rights in the city but also forbade them to move in more families en masse. According to Josephus
Josephus
, he then reaffirmed the rights and freedoms of all the Jews in the Empire .

One of Claudius's investigators discovered that many old Roman citizens based in the modern city of Trento
Trento
were not in fact citizens. The Emperor issued a declaration, contained in the _Tabula clesiana _, that they would be considered to hold citizenship from then on, since to strip them of their status would cause major problems. However, in individual cases, Claudius
Claudius
punished false assumption of citizenship harshly, making it a capital offense. Similarly, any freedmen found to be laying false claim to membership of the Roman equestrian order were sold back into slavery.

Numerous edicts were issued throughout Claudius' reign. These were on a number of topics, everything from medical advice to moral judgments. A famous medical example is one promoting yew juice as a cure for snakebite . Suetonius wrote that he is even said to have thought of an edict allowing public flatulence for good health. One of the more famous edicts concerned the status of sick slaves. Masters had been abandoning ailing slaves at the temple of Aesculapius on Tiber Island to die instead of providing them with medical assistance and care, and then reclaiming them if they lived. Claudius
Claudius
ruled that slaves who were thus abandoned and recovered after such treatment would be free. Furthermore, masters who chose to kill slaves rather than take care of them were liable to be charged with murder.

PUBLIC WORKS

Claudius
Claudius
embarked on many public works throughout his reign, both in the capital and in the provinces. He built two aqueducts , the Aqua Claudia , begun by Caligula
Caligula
, and the Anio Novus . These entered the city in 52 AD and met at the famous Porta Maggiore
Porta Maggiore
. He also restored a third, the Aqua Virgo . The Porta Maggiore
Porta Maggiore
aqueduct in Rome
Rome

He paid special attention to transportation. Throughout Italy
Italy
and the provinces he built roads and canals. Among these was a large canal leading from the Rhine
Rhine
to the sea, as well as a road from Italy
Italy
to Germany – both begun by his father, Drusus. Closer to Rome, he built a navigable canal on the Tiber , leading to Portus , his new port just north of Ostia . This port was constructed in a semicircle with two moles and a lighthouse at its mouth. The construction also had the effect of reducing flooding in Rome.

The port at Ostia was part of Claudius' solution to the constant grain shortages that occurred in winter, after the Roman shipping season. The other part of his solution was to insure the ships of grain merchants who were willing to risk travelling to Egypt in the off-season. He also granted their sailors special privileges, including citizenship and exemption from the Lex Papia-Poppaea , a law that regulated marriage. In addition, he repealed the taxes that Caligula
Caligula
had instituted on food, and further reduced taxes on communities suffering drought or famine .

The last part of Claudius' plan was to increase the amount of arable land in Italy. This was to be achieved by draining the Fucine lake , which would have the added benefit of making the nearby river navigable year-round. A tunnel was dug through the lake bed, but the plan was a failure. The tunnel was crooked and not large enough to carry the water, which caused it to back up when opened. The resultant flood washed out a large gladiatorial exhibition held to commemorate the opening, causing Claudius
Claudius
to run for his life along with the other spectators. The draining of the lake was revisited many times in history, including by Emperors Trajan
Trajan
and Hadrian
Hadrian
, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was finally achieved by the Prince Torlonia in the 19th century, producing over 160,000 acres (650 km2) of new arable land. He expanded the Claudian tunnel to three times its original size.

CLAUDIUS AND THE SENATE

Obverse of Claudius' denarius Reverse of Claudius' denarius with "S C" meaning " Senatus consultum "

Because of the circumstances of his accession, Claudius
Claudius
took great pains to please the Senate. During regular sessions, the Emperor sat among the Senate body, speaking in turn. When introducing a law, he sat on a bench between the consuls in his position as holder of the power of Tribune
Tribune
(the Emperor could not officially serve as a Tribune of the Plebes as he was a Patrician , but it was a power taken by previous rulers). He refused to accept all his predecessors' titles (including Imperator
Imperator
) at the beginning of his reign, preferring to earn them in due course. He allowed the Senate to issue its own bronze coinage for the first time since Augustus. He also put the Imperial provinces of Macedonia and Achaea back under Senate control.

Claudius
Claudius
set about remodeling the Senate into a more efficient, representative body. He chided the senators about their reluctance to debate bills introduced by himself, as noted in the fragments of a surviving speech:

If you accept these proposals, Conscript Fathers, say so at once and simply, in accordance with your convictions. If you do not accept them, find alternatives, but do so here and now; or if you wish to take time for consideration, take it, provided you do not forget that you must be ready to pronounce your opinion whenever you may be summoned to meet. It ill befits the dignity of the Senate that the consul designate should repeat the phrases of the consuls word for word as his opinion, and that every one else should merely say 'I approve', and that then, after leaving, the assembly should announce 'We debated'.

In 47 he assumed the office of _censor _ with Lucius Vitellius , which had been allowed to lapse for some time. He struck the names of many senators and equites who no longer met qualifications, but showed respect by allowing them to resign in advance. At the same time, he sought to admit eligible men from the provinces. The Lyon Tablet preserves his speech on the admittance of Gallic senators, in which he addresses the Senate with reverence but also with criticism for their disdain of these men. (He even jokes about how the Senate had admitted members from beyond Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
( Lyons, France ), i.e. himself). He also increased the number of Patricians by adding new families to the dwindling number of noble lines. Here he followed the precedent of Lucius Junius Brutus and Julius
Julius
Caesar .

Nevertheless, many in the Senate remained hostile to Claudius, and many plots were made on his life. This hostility carried over into the historical accounts. As a result, Claudius
Claudius
reduced the Senate's power for the sake of efficiency. The administration of Ostia was turned over to an Imperial Procurator after construction of the port. Administration of many of the empire's financial concerns was turned over to Imperial appointees and freedmen. This led to further resentment and suggestions that these same freedmen were ruling the Emperor.

Plots And Coup
Coup
Attempts

Several coup attempts were made during Claudius' reign, resulting in the deaths of many senators. Appius Silanus was executed early in Claudius' reign under questionable circumstances. Shortly after, a large rebellion was undertaken by the Senator Vinicianus and Scribonianus , the governor of Dalmatia and gained quite a few senatorial supporters. It ultimately failed because of the reluctance of Scribonianus' troops, which led to the suicide of the main conspirators.

Many other senators tried different conspiracies and were condemned. Claudius' son-in-law Pompeius Magnus was executed for his part in a conspiracy with his father Crassus Frugi. Another plot involved the consulars Lusiius Saturninus, Cornelius Lupus, and Pompeius Pedo.

In 46, Asinius Gallus , the grandson of Asinius Pollio , and Titus Statilius Taurus Corvinus were exiled for a plot hatched with several of Claudius' own freedmen. Valerius Asiaticus was executed without public trial for unknown reasons. The ancient sources say the charge was adultery , and that Claudius
Claudius
was tricked into issuing the punishment. However, Claudius
Claudius
singles out Asiaticus for special damnation in his speech on the Gauls, which dates over a year later, suggesting that the charge must have been much more serious.

Asiaticus had been a claimant to the throne in the chaos following Caligula's death and a co-consul with the Titus
Titus
Statilius Taurus Corvinus mentioned above. Most of these conspiracies took place before Claudius' term as Censor , and may have induced him to review the Senatorial rolls. The conspiracy of Gaius Silius in the year after his Censorship, 48, is detailed in the section discussing Claudius' third wife, Messalina . Suetonius states that a total of 35 senators and 300 knights were executed for offenses during Claudius' reign. Needless to say, the responses to these conspiracies could not have helped Senate-emperor relations.

SECRETARIAT AND CENTRALIZATION OF POWERS

Claudius
Claudius
was hardly the first emperor to use freedmen to help with the day-to-day running of the Empire. He was, however, forced to increase their role as the powers of the _princeps_ became more centralized and the burden larger. This was partly due to the ongoing hostility of the Senate, as mentioned above, but also due to his respect for the senators. Claudius
Claudius
did not want free-born magistrates to have to serve under him, as if they were not peers.

The secretariat was divided into bureaus, with each being placed under the leadership of one freedman. Narcissus was the secretary of correspondence. Pallas became the secretary of the treasury. Callistus became secretary of justice. There was a fourth bureau for miscellaneous issues, which was put under Polybius until his execution for treason. The freedmen could also officially speak for the Emperor, as when Narcissus addressed the troops in Claudius' stead before the conquest of Britain.

Since these were important positions, the senators were aghast at their being placed in the hands of former slaves. If freedmen had total control of money, letters, and law, it seemed it would not be hard for them to manipulate the Emperor. This is exactly the accusation put forth by the ancient sources. However, these same sources admit that the freedmen were loyal to Claudius.

He was similarly appreciative of them and gave them due credit for policies where he had used their advice. However, if they showed treasonous inclinations, the Emperor did punish them with just force, as in the case of Polybius and Pallas' brother, Felix . There is no evidence that the character of Claudius' policies and edicts changed with the rise and fall of the various freedmen, suggesting that he was firmly in control throughout.

Regardless of the extent of their political power, the freedmen did manage to amass wealth through their positions. Pliny the Elder notes that several of them were richer than Crassus , the richest man of the Republican era .

RELIGIOUS REFORMS

Portrait of Claudius, National Archaeological Museum of Spain

Claudius, as the author of a treatise on Augustus' religious reforms, felt himself in a good position to institute some of his own. He had strong opinions about the proper form for state religion. He refused the request of Alexandrian Greeks
Greeks
to dedicate a temple to his divinity, saying that only gods may choose new gods. He restored lost days to festivals and got rid of many extraneous celebrations added by Caligula. He re-instituted old observances and archaic language.

Claudius
Claudius
was concerned with the spread of eastern mysteries within the city and searched for more Roman replacements. He emphasized the Eleusinian mysteries which had been practiced by so many during the Republic. He expelled foreign astrologers, and at the same time rehabilitated the old Roman soothsayers (known as haruspices ) as a replacement. He was especially hard on Druidism , because of its incompatibility with the Roman state religion and its proselytizing activities.

It is also reported that at one time he expelled the Jews from Rome, probably because the Jews within the city caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus . Claudius
Claudius
opposed proselytizing in any religion, even in those regions where he allowed natives to worship freely. The results of all these efforts were recognized even by Seneca, who has an ancient Latin god defend Claudius
Claudius
in his satire.

PUBLIC GAMES AND ENTERTAINMENTS

According to Suetonius, Claudius
Claudius
was extraordinarily fond of games. He is said to have risen with the crowd after gladiatorial matches and given unrestrained praise to the fighters. Claudius
Claudius
also presided over many new and original events. Soon after coming into power, Claudius
Claudius
instituted games to be held in honor of his father on the latter's birthday. Annual games were also held in honour of his accession, and took place at the Praetorian camp where Claudius
Claudius
had first been proclaimed Emperor.

Claudius
Claudius
organised a performance of the Secular Games , marking the 800th anniversary of the founding of Rome. Augustus
Augustus
had performed the same games less than a century prior. Augustus' excuse was that the interval for the games was 110 years, not 100, but his date actually did not qualify under either reasoning. Claudius
Claudius
also presented naval battles to mark the attempted draining of the Fucine Lake , as well as many other public games and shows.

At Ostia, in front of a crowd of spectators, Claudius
Claudius
fought a killer whale which was trapped in the harbour. The event was witnessed by Pliny the Elder :

A killer whale was actually seen in the harbour of Ostia, locked in combat with the emperor Claudius. She had come when he was completing the construction of the harbour, drawn there by the wreck of a ship bringing leather hides from Gaul, and feeding there over a number of days, had made a furrow in the shallows: the waves had raised up such a mound of sand that she couldn't turn around at all, and while she was pursuing her banquet as the waves moved it shorewards, her back stuck up out of the water like the overturned keel of a boat. The Emperor ordered that a large array of nets be stretched across the mouths of the harbour, and setting out in person with the Praetorian cohorts gave a show to the Roman people, soldiers showering lances from attacking ships, one of which I saw swamped by the beast's waterspout and sunk. — "_Historia Naturalis_" IX.14–15.

Claudius
Claudius
also restored and adorned many public venues in Rome. At the Circus Maximus , the turning posts and starting stalls were replaced in marble and embellished, and an embankment was probably added to prevent flooding of the track. Claudius
Claudius
also reinforced or extended the seating rules that reserved front seating at the Circus for senators. Claudius
Claudius
rebuilt Pompey\'s Theatre after it had been destroyed by fire, organising special fights at the re-dedication which he observed from a special platform in the orchestra box.

MARRIAGES AND PERSONAL LIFE

Suetonius and the other ancient authors accused Claudius
Claudius
of being dominated by women and wives, and of being a womanizer .

Claudius
Claudius
married four times, after two failed betrothals. The first betrothal was to his distant cousin Aemilia Lepida , but was broken for political reasons. The second was to Livia Medullina , which ended with Medullina's sudden death on their wedding day.

PLAUTIA URGULANILLA

Plautia Urgulanilla
Plautia Urgulanilla
was the granddaughter of Livia's confidant Urgulania . During their marriage she gave birth to a son, Claudius Drusus. Drusus died of asphyxiation in his early teens, shortly after becoming engaged to Junilla, the daughter of Sejanus .

Claudius
Claudius
later divorced Urgulanilla for adultery and on suspicion of murdering her sister-in-law Apronia. When Urgulanilla gave birth after the divorce, Claudius
Claudius
repudiated the baby girl, Claudia, as the father was allegedly one of his own freedmen. This action made him later the target of criticism by his enemies.

AELIA PAETINA

Soon after (possibly in 28), Claudius
Claudius
married Aelia Paetina , a relative of Sejanus, if not Sejanus's adoptive sister. During their marriage, Claudius
Claudius
and Paetina had a daughter, Claudia Antonia . He later divorced her after the marriage became a political liability, although Leon (1948) suggests it may have been due to emotional and mental abuse by Paetina.

VALERIA MESSALINA

Some years after divorcing Aelia Paetina, in 38 or early 39, Claudius married Valeria Messalina , who was his first cousin once removed and closely allied with Caligula's circle. Shortly thereafter, she gave birth to a daughter, Claudia Octavia . A son, first named Tiberius Claudius
Claudius
Germanicus, and later known as Britannicus
Britannicus
, was born just after Claudius' accession.

This marriage ended in tragedy. The ancient historians allege that Messalina was a nymphomaniac who was regularly unfaithful to Claudius — Tacitus
Tacitus
states she went so far as to compete with a prostitute to see who could have the most sexual partners in a night — and manipulated his policies in order to amass wealth. In 48, Messalina married her lover Gaius Silius in a public ceremony while Claudius
Claudius
was at Ostia .

Sources disagree as to whether or not she divorced the Emperor first, and whether the intention was to usurp the throne. Scramuzza, in his biography, suggests that Silius may have convinced Messalina that Claudius
Claudius
was doomed, and the union was her only hope of retaining rank and protecting her children. The historian Tacitus
Tacitus
suggests that Claudius's ongoing term as Censor may have prevented him from noticing the affair before it reached such a critical point. Whatever the case, the result was the execution of Silius, Messalina, and most of her circle.

AGRIPPINA THE YOUNGER

Claudius
Claudius
did marry once more. The ancient sources tell that his freedmen put forward three candidates, Caligula
Caligula
's third wife Lollia Paulina , Claudius's divorced second wife Aelia Paetina and Claudius's niece Agrippina the Younger . According to Suetonius, Agrippina won out through her feminine wiles.

The truth is probably more political. The attempted coup d\'état by Silius and Messalina had probably made Claudius
Claudius
realize the weakness of his position as a member of the Claudian but not the Julian family. This weakness was compounded by the fact that he did not yet have an obvious adult heir, Britannicus
Britannicus
being just a boy.

Agrippina was one of the few remaining descendants of Augustus, and her son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (the future Emperor Nero
Nero
) was one of the last males of the Imperial family. Coup
Coup
attempts could rally around the pair and Agrippina was already showing such ambition. It has been suggested that the Senate may have pushed for the marriage, to end the feud between the Julian and Claudian branches. This feud dated back to Agrippina's mother\'s actions against Tiberius
Tiberius
after the death of her husband Germanicus
Germanicus
(Claudius's brother), actions which Tiberius
Tiberius
had gladly punished. In any case, Claudius
Claudius
accepted Agrippina and later adopted the newly mature Nero
Nero
as his son.

Nero
Nero
was married to Claudius' daughter Octavia, made joint heir with the underage Britannicus
Britannicus
, and promoted; Augustus
Augustus
had similarly named his grandson Postumus Agrippa and his stepson Tiberius
Tiberius
as joint heirs, and Tiberius
Tiberius
had named Caligula
Caligula
joint heir with his grandson Tiberius Gemellus . Adoption of adults or near adults was an old tradition in Rome, when a suitable natural adult heir was unavailable as was the case during Britannicus' minority. Claudius
Claudius
may have previously looked to adopt one of his sons-in-law to protect his own reign.

Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix , who was married to Claudius's daughter Claudia Antonia , was only descended from Octavia and Antony on one side – not close enough to the Imperial family to prevent doubts (although that did not stop others from making him the object of a coup attempt against Nero
Nero
a few years later). Besides which, he was the half-brother of Valeria Messalina and at this time those wounds were still fresh. Nero
Nero
was more popular with the general public as the grandson of Germanicus
Germanicus
and the direct descendant of Augustus.

CLAUDIUS\' AFFLICTION AND PERSONALITY

Claudius
Claudius
depicted as the Roman god Jupiter

The historian Suetonius describes the physical manifestations of Claudius' affliction in relatively good detail. His knees were weak and gave way under him and his head shook. He stammered and his speech was confused. He slobbered and his nose ran when he was excited. The Stoic Seneca states in his _ Apocolocyntosis _ that Claudius' voice belonged to no land animal, and that his hands were weak as well.

However, he showed no physical deformity, as Suetonius notes that when calm and seated he was a tall, well-built figure of _dignitas _. When angered or stressed, his symptoms became worse. Historians agree that this condition improved upon his accession to the throne. Claudius
Claudius
himself claimed that he had exaggerated his ailments to save his life.

Modern assessments of his health have changed several times in the past century. Prior to World War II
World War II
, infantile paralysis (or polio) was widely accepted as the cause. This is the diagnosis used in Robert Graves ' Claudius
Claudius
novels , first published in the 1930s. Polio does not explain many of the described symptoms, however, and a more recent theory implicates cerebral palsy as the cause, as outlined by Ernestine Leon. Tourette syndrome
Tourette syndrome
has also been considered a possibility.

As a person, ancient historians described Claudius
Claudius
as generous and lowbrow, a man who sometimes lunched with the plebeians . They also paint him as bloodthirsty and cruel, overly fond of gladiatorial combat and executions, and very quick to anger; Claudius
Claudius
himself acknowledged the latter trait, and apologized publicly for his temper. According to the ancient historians he was also overly trusting, and easily manipulated by his wives and freedmen. But at the same time they portray him as paranoid and apathetic, dull and easily confused.

The extant works of Claudius
Claudius
present a different view, painting a picture of an intelligent, scholarly, well-read, and conscientious administrator with an eye to detail and justice. Thus, Claudius becomes an enigma. Since the discovery of his "Letter to the Alexandrians" in the last century, much work has been done to rehabilitate Claudius
Claudius
and determine where the truth lies.

SCHOLARLY WORKS AND THEIR IMPACT

Claudius
Claudius
wrote copiously throughout his life. Arnaldo Momigliano states that during the reign of Tiberius
Tiberius
– which covers the peak of Claudius' literary career – it became impolitic to speak of republican Rome. The trend among the young historians was to either write about the new empire or obscure antiquarian subjects. Claudius was the rare scholar who covered both.

Besides the history of Augustus' reign that caused him so much grief, his major works included an Etruscan history and eight volumes on Carthaginian history, as well as an Etruscan dictionary and a book on dice playing . Despite the general avoidance of the Republican era, he penned a defense of Cicero
Cicero
against the charges of Asinius Gallus . Modern historians have used this to determine the nature of his politics and of the aborted chapters of his civil war history. The Claudian letters
Claudian letters
.

He proposed a reform of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
by the addition of three new letters , two of which served the function of the modern letters _W_ and _Y_. He officially instituted the change during his censorship but they did not survive his reign. Claudius
Claudius
also tried to revive the old custom of putting dots between successive words (Classical Latin was written with no spacing). Finally, he wrote an eight-volume autobiography, that Suetonius describes as lacking in taste. Since Claudius
Claudius
(like most of the members of his dynasty) harshly criticized his predecessors and relatives in surviving speeches, it is not hard to imagine the nature of Suetonius' charge.

None of the works survive but live on as sources for the surviving histories of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Suetonius quotes Claudius' autobiography once and must have used it as a source numerous times. Tacitus
Tacitus
uses Claudius' arguments for the orthographical innovations mentioned above and may have used him for some of the more antiquarian passages in his annals. Claudius
Claudius
is the source for numerous passages of Pliny\'s _Natural History _.

The influence of historical study on Claudius
Claudius
is obvious. In his speech on Gallic senators, he uses a version of the founding of Rome identical to that of Livy, his tutor in adolescence. The speech is meticulous in details, a common mark of all his extant works, and he goes into long digressions on related matters. This indicates a deep knowledge of a variety of historical subjects that he could not help but share. Many of the public works instituted in his reign were based on plans first suggested by Julius
Julius
Caesar . Levick believes this emulation of Caesar may have spread to all aspects of his policies.

His censorship seems to have been based on those of his ancestors, particularly Appius Claudius Caecus , and he used the office to put into place many policies based on those of Republican times. This is when many of his religious reforms took effect, and his building efforts greatly increased during his tenure. In fact, his assumption of the office of Censor may have been motivated by a desire to see his academic labors bear fruit. For example, he believed (as most Romans did) that his ancestor Appius Claudius Caecus had used the censorship to introduce the letter "R" and so used his own term to introduce his new letters.

DEATH

A statue of Claudius
Claudius
in the Vatican museum .

The consensus of ancient historians was that Claudius
Claudius
was murdered by poison – possibly contained in mushrooms or on a feather – and died in the early hours of 13 October 54 AD.

Nearly all implicate his final wife, Agrippina , as the instigator. Agrippina and Claudius
Claudius
had become more combative in the months leading up to his death. This carried on to the point where Claudius
Claudius
openly lamented his bad wives, and began to comment on Britannicus' approaching manhood with an eye towards restoring his status within the imperial family. Agrippina had motive in ensuring the succession of Nero
Nero
before Britannicus
Britannicus
could gain power.

Some implicate either his taster Halotus , his doctor Xenophon , or the infamous poisoner Locusta
Locusta
as the administrator of the fatal substance. Some say he died after prolonged suffering following a single dose at dinner, and some have him recovering only to be poisoned again. Among contemporary sources, Seneca the younger ascribed the emperor's death to natural causes, while Josephus
Josephus
only spoke of rumors on his poisoning.

In modern times, some authors have cast doubt on whether Claudius
Claudius
was murdered or merely succumbed to illness or old age. Some modern scholars claim the near universality of the accusations in ancient texts lends credence to the crime. Claudius' ashes were interred in the Mausoleum of Augustus on 24 October 54 AD, after a funeral in the manner of Augustus.

AFTER DEATH

DIVINE HONOURS

Already, while alive, he received the widespread private worship of a living Princeps
Princeps
and was worshipped in Britannia
Britannia
in his own temple in Camulodunum .

Claudius
Claudius
was deified by Nero
Nero
and the Senate almost immediately. Those who regard this homage as cynical should note that, cynical or not, such a move would hardly have benefited those involved, had Claudius
Claudius
been "hated", as some commentators, both modern and historic, characterize him. Many of Claudius' less solid supporters quickly became Nero's men. Claudius' will had been changed shortly before his death to either recommend Nero
Nero
and Britannicus
Britannicus
jointly or perhaps just Britannicus, who would have been considered an adult man according to Roman law only a few months later.

VIEWS OF THE NEW REGIME

Agrippina had sent away Narcissus shortly before Claudius' death, and now murdered the freedman. The last act of this secretary of letters was to burn all of Claudius' correspondence — most likely so it could not be used against him and others in an already hostile new regime. Thus Claudius' private words about his own policies and motives were lost to history. Just as Claudius
Claudius
had criticized his predecessors in official edicts (see below), Nero
Nero
often criticized the deceased Emperor and many of Claudius' laws and edicts were disregarded under the reasoning that he was too stupid and senile to have meant them.

Seneca's Apocolocyntosis reinforces the view of Claudius
Claudius
as an unpleasant fool and this remained the official view for the duration of Nero's reign. Eventually Nero
Nero
stopped referring to his deified adoptive father at all, and realigned with his birth family. Claudius' temple was left unfinished after only some of the foundation had been laid down. Eventually the site was overtaken by Nero's Golden House .

FLAVIAN AND LATER PERSPECTIVES

The Flavians , who had risen to prominence under Claudius, took a different tack. They were in a position where they needed to shore up their legitimacy, but also justify the fall of the Julio-Claudians. They reached back to Claudius
Claudius
in contrast with Nero, to show that they were good associated with good. Commemorative coins were issued of Claudius
Claudius
and his son Britannicus
Britannicus
, who had been a friend of the Emperor Titus
Titus
( Titus
Titus
was born in 39, Britannicus
Britannicus
was born in 41). When Nero's Golden House was burned, the Temple of Claudius was finally completed on the Caelian Hill.

However, as the Flavians became established, they needed to emphasize their own credentials more, and their references to Claudius
Claudius
ceased. Instead, he was lumped with the other emperors of the fallen dynasty. His state cult in Rome
Rome
probably continued until the abolition of all such cults of dead Emperors by Maximinus Thrax in 237–238. The _ Feriale Duranum _, probably identical to the festival calendars of every regular army unit, assigns him a sacrifice of a steer on his birthday, the Kalends of August. And such commemoration (and consequent feasting) probably continued until the Christianization and disintegration of the army in the late 4th century.

VIEWS OF ANCIENT HISTORIANS

The main ancient historians Tacitus
Tacitus
, Suetonius , and Cassius Dio all wrote after the last of the Flavians had gone. All three were senators or _equites_. They took the side of the Senate in most conflicts with the Princeps, invariably viewing him as being in the wrong. This resulted in biases, both conscious and unconscious. Suetonius lost access to the official archives shortly after beginning his work. He was forced to rely on second-hand accounts when it came to Claudius (with the exception of Augustus' letters, which had been gathered earlier). Suetonius painted Claudius
Claudius
as a ridiculous figure, belittling many of his acts and attributing the objectively good works to his retinue.

Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote a narrative for his fellow senators and fitted each of the emperors into a simple mold of his choosing. He wrote of Claudius as a passive pawn and an idiot in affairs relating to the palace and often in public life. During his censorship of 47-8 Tacitus
Tacitus
allows the reader a glimpse of a Claudius
Claudius
who is more statesmanlike (XI.23-25), but it is a mere glimpse. Tacitus
Tacitus
is usually held to have 'hidden' his use of Claudius' writings and to have omitted Claudius' character from his works. Even his version of Claudius' Lyons tablet speech is edited to be devoid of the Emperor's personality. Dio was less biased, but seems to have used Suetonius and Tacitus
Tacitus
as sources. Thus the conception of Claudius
Claudius
as the weak fool, controlled by those he supposedly ruled, was preserved for the ages.

As time passed, Claudius
Claudius
was mostly forgotten outside of the historians' accounts. His books were lost first, as their antiquarian subjects became unfashionable. In the 2nd century, Pertinax
Pertinax
, who shared his birthday, became emperor, overshadowing commemoration of Claudius.

IN MODERN LITERATURE, FILM AND RADIO

* The best known fictional representation of the Emperor Claudius were the books _ I, Claudius _ and _ Claudius the God _ (published in 1934 and 1935) by Robert Graves , both written in the first-person to give the reader the impression that they are Claudius' autobiography . Graves employed a fictive artifice to suggest that they were recently discovered, genuine translations of Claudius' writings. Claudius' extant letters, speeches, and sayings were incorporated into the text (mostly in the second book, _ Claudius
Claudius
the God_), to add authenticity.

* In 1937, director Josef von Sternberg attempted a film version of _ I, Claudius _, with Charles Laughton as Claudius. However, the lead actress Merle Oberon suffered a near-fatal accident and the movie was never finished. The surviving reels were featured in the BBC documentary _The Epic That Never Was_ (1965). The motion picture rights for a new film eventually passed to producer Scott Rudin . * Graves's two books were the basis for a British television adaptation _ I, Claudius _, produced by the BBC . The series starred Derek Jacobi
Derek Jacobi
as Claudius
Claudius
and was broadcast in 1976 on BBC2 . It was a substantial critical success, and won several BAFTA awards. The series was later broadcast in the United States on _ Masterpiece Theatre _ in 1977. The 1996 7-VHS release and the later DVD release of the television series, include _The Epic That Never Was_ documentary. * A radio adaptation of the Graves novels by Robin Brooks and directed by Jonquil Panting , was broadcast in six one-hour episodes on BBC Radio 4 beginning 4 December 2010. The cast featured Tom Goodman-Hill as Claudius, Derek Jacobi
Derek Jacobi
as Augustus, Harriet Walter as Livia, Tim McInnerny as Tiberius
Tiberius
and Samuel Barnett as Caligula. * In 2011, it was announced rights for a miniseries adaptation passed to HBO and BBC2. Anne Thomopoulos and Jane Tranter, producers of the popular HBO–BBC2 _ Rome
Rome
_ miniseries, are attached to the new _I, Claudius_ project.

* The 1954 film _ Demetrius and the Gladiators _ also portrayed him sympathetically, played by Barry Jones . * In the 1960 film _ Messalina _, Claudius
Claudius
is portrayed by Mino Doro . * On television, Freddie Jones portrayed Claudius
Claudius
in the 1968 British television series _The Caesars _. * The 1975 TV Special
Special
_Further Up Pompeii!_ (based on the Frankie Howerd sit-com _ Up Pompeii! _) featured Cyril Appleton as Claudius. * In the 1979 motion picture _ Caligula
Caligula
_, where the role was performed by Giancarlo Badessi , Claudius
Claudius
is depicted as an idiot, in contrast to Robert Graves ' portrait of Claudius
Claudius
as a cunning and deeply intelligent man, who is perceived by others to be an idiot. * The 1985 made-for-television miniseries _A.D._ features actor Richard Kiley as Claudius. Kiley portrays him as thoughtful, but willing to cater to public opinion as well as being under the influence of Agrippina. * In the 2004 TV film _Imperium: Nero
Nero
_, Claudius
Claudius
is portrayed by Massimo Dapporto . * There is also a reference to Claudius' suppression of a coup in the movie _ Gladiator
Gladiator
_, though the incident is entirely fictional.

In literature, Claudius
Claudius
and his contemporaries appear in the historical novel _The Roman_ by Mika Waltari . Canadian-born science fiction writer A. E. van Vogt
A. E. van Vogt
reimagined Robert Graves' Claudius story, in his two novels _ Empire of the Atom _ and _The Wizard of Linn _.

ANCESTRY

ANCESTORS OF CLAUDIUS

8. Drusus Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
I

4. Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero

9. Claudia

2. Nero
Nero
Claudius Drusus

10. Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus

5. Livia Drusilla

22. Aufidius Lurco

11. Aufidia

1. CLAUDIUS

24. Marcus Antonius Orator

12. Marcus Antonius Creticus

6. Mark Antony

26. Lucius Julius
Julius
Caesar III

13. Julia Antonia

3. Antonia Minor

28. Gaius Octavius

14. Gaius Octavius

7. Octavia Minor

30. Marcus Atius

15. Atia Balba Caesonia

31. Julia Minor

SEE ALSO

* Julio-Claudian family tree * Temple of Claudius, Colchester * Temple of Claudius , Rome

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the name of Claudius:

* TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS IPA:

* ^ Claudius' regal name has an equivalent English meaning of " Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar, the Majestic Ruler, Conqueror of the Germans". * ^ Dio _Hist._ LX 2 * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 2. Suet _Claud._ 4 indicates the reasons for choosing this tutor, as outlined in Leon (1948). * ^ _A_ _B_ Suet. _Claud._ 4. * ^ Scramuzza (1940) p. 39. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stuart (1936). * ^ Dio _Rom. Hist._ LX 2. Suhr (1955) suggests that this must refer to before Claudius
Claudius
came to power. * ^ Major (1992) * ^ _A_ _B_ Josephus
Josephus
_Antiquitates Iudiacae_ XIX. Dio _Rom. Hist._ LX 1.3 * ^ Josephus
Josephus
_Ant. Iud._ XIX. * ^ Josephus
Josephus
_Bellum Iudiacum_ II, 204–233. * ^ Suetonius, _Claud._ 10 * ^ Pliny 5.1–5.2, Cassius Dio, 60.8, 60.9 * ^ Scramuzza, Chap. 9 * ^ "Head of the Emperor Claudius". British Museum. * ^ _A_ _B_ Crummy, Philip (1997) City of Victory; the story of Colchester
Colchester
- Britain's first Roman town. Published by Colchester Archaeological Trust (ISBN 1 897719 04 3 ) * ^ Scramuzza, Chap. 7, p. 142 * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 15. Dio _Rom. Hist._ LXI 33. * ^ _A_ _B_ Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 6 * ^ Josephus
Josephus
_Ant. Iud._ XIX.5.3 (287). * ^ Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 7, p.129 * ^ Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 7 * ^ Suetonius, _Claud._ 16 * ^ Suetonius, _Claud._ 32 * ^ Suetonius, _Claud._ 51 * ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
_Ann._ XII 57 * ^ Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 9, pp. 173–4 * ^ English translation of Berlin papyrus by W.D. Hogarth, in Momigliano (1934). * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 29. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tac. _Ann._ XII 65. Seneca _Ad Polybium._ * ^ Pliny _Natural History_ 134. * ^ There is some debate about what actually happened. It is reported by Suetonius and in Acts (18:2), Cassius Dio minimizes the event and Josephus—who was reporting on Jewish events—does not mention it at all. Some scholars hold that it didn't happen, while others have only a few missionaries expelled for the short term. * ^ Seneca _Apocolo._ 9. * ^ Suet. Claud. 12 * ^ Suet. Claud. 11 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Suet. Claud. 21 * ^ Translation of Pliny's _Historia Naturalis_ * ^ Humphrey, John, Roman circuses: arenas for chariot racing, University of California Press, 1986, pp. 100-101 * ^ Tac. _Ann._ XI 10. Also Dio _Rom. Hist._ LXI 31, and Pliny _Nat. Hist._ X 172. * ^ Scramuzza (1940) p. 90. Momigliano (1934) pp. 6–7. Levick (1990) p. 19. * ^ Tac. _Ann._ XI. 25, 8. * ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). _A Treasure of Royal Scandals_, p.212. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-7394-2025-9 . * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 26. * ^ _A_ _B_ Scramuzza (1940) pp. 91–92. See also Tac. _Ann._ XII 6, 7; Suet. _Claud._ 26. * ^ Levick (1990) p. 70. See also Scramuzza (1940) p. 92. * ^ Oost (1958). * ^ _A_ _B_ Suet. _Claud._ 30. * ^ Seneca _Apocolo._ 5, 6. * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 31. * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 38. * ^ Leon (1948). * ^ Burden, George. The Imperial Gene Archived 11 June 2001 at the Wayback Machine ., _The Medical Post_, 16 July 1996. Retrieved 24 June 2007. * ^ Murad, Ali (2010). "A Neurological Mystery from History: The Case of Claudius
Claudius
Caesar". _Journal of the History of the Neurosciences_. 19 (3): 221–7. PMID 20628951 . doi :10.1080/09647040902872775 . * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 5, 21, 40; Dio _Rom. Hist._ LX 2, 5, 12, 31. * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 34, 38. Tacitus
Tacitus
_Ann._ XII 20. * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 29. Dio _Rom. Hist._ LX 2, 8. * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 35, 36, 37, 39, 40. Dio _Rom. Hist._ LX 2, 3. * ^ Momigliano (1934) pp. 4–6. * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 41. * ^ See Claudius' letter to the people of Trent (linked below), in which he refers to the "obstinate retirement" of Tiberius. See also Josephus
Josephus
_Ant Iud._ XIX, where an edict of Claudius
Claudius
refers to Caligula's "madness and lack of understanding." * ^ See Momigliano (1934) Chap. 1, note 20 (p. 83). Pliny credits him by name in Book VII 35. * ^ Levick (1978). * ^ Ryan (1993) refers to the historian Varro
Varro
's account of the introduction * ^ cf. Tac. _Ann._ XII 66-67. * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 43 * ^ Accounts of his death: Suet. _Claud._ 43, 44. Tac. _Ann._ XII 64, 66–67. Josephus
Josephus
_Ant. Iud._ XX 148, 151. Dio _Rom. Hist._ LX 34. Pliny _Natural History_ II xxiii 92, XI lxxiii 189, XXII xlvi 92. * ^ Suet. _Claud._ 44 * ^ Flavius Josephus
Josephus
Antiquities of the Jews 19:67; 20:148 * ^ Scramuzza (1940) pp. 92–93 says that tradition makes every emperor the victim of foul play, so we can't know if Claudius
Claudius
was truly murdered. Indeed, the Emperor appears to have been seriously ill since at least 53 AD. Levick (1990) pp. 76–77. raises the possibility that Claudius
Claudius
was killed by the stress of fighting with Agrippina over the succession, but concludes that the timing makes murder the most likely cause. * ^ Levick (1990); also as opposed to the murder of Augustus, which is only found in Tacitus
Tacitus
and Dio where he quotes Tacitus. Suetonius, an inveterate gossip, doesn't mention it at all. * ^ Gradel I. Emperor worship and Roman religion. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-927548-9 * ^ Suet. _Nero_ 9 * ^ Suet. _Nero_ 33 * ^ _A_ _B_ Levick (1990) * ^ Gradel I. Emperor worship and Roman religion. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-927548-9 p. 356–341 * ^ Hekster, Olivier (2008). " Rome
Rome
and Its Empire, AD 193-284". ISBN 978-0-7486-2304-4 . * ^ Gradel I. Emperor worship and Roman religion. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-927548-9 p.367 * ^ Scramuzza, p. 29 * ^ Vessey (1971) * ^ Griffin (1990). _Ann._ XI 14 is often thought to be a good example: the digression on the history of writing is actually Claudius' own argument for his new letters, and fits in with his personality and extant writings. Tacitus
Tacitus
makes no explicit attribution - and so there exists the possibility that the digression is Tacitus' own work or derivative of another source * ^ Levick. _Claudius_ p. 194 * ^ " I, Claudius (2009) – Synopsis". Retrieved 21 January 2011. * ^ _I, Claudius_, 1977-11-06, retrieved 2016-04-14

REFERENCES

* Baldwin, B. (1964). "Executions under Claudius: Seneca's Ludus de Morte Claudii". _Phoenix_ 18 (1): 39–48. JSTOR 1086911 * Griffin, M. (1990). " Claudius
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