Classical electromagnetism
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model. The theory provides an excellent description of electromagnetic phenomena whenever the relevant length scales and field strengths are large enough that quantum mechanical effects are negligible. For small distances and low field strengths, such interactions are better described by quantum electrodynamics. Fundamental physical aspects of classical electrodynamics are presented in many texts, such as those by Feynman, Leighton and Sands,[1] Griffiths,[2] Panofsky and Phillips,[3] and Jackson.[4] Contents 1 History 2 Lorentz force 3 The electric field E 4 Electromagnetic waves 5 General field equations 6 Models 7 See also 8 References 9 External links History[edit]
Main article: History of electromagnetism
The physical phenomena that electromagnetism describes have been
studied as separate fields since antiquity. For example, there were
many advances in the field of optics centuries before light was
understood to be an electromagnetic wave. However, the theory of
electromagnetism, as it is currently understood, grew out of Michael
Faraday's experiments suggesting an electromagnetic field and James
Clerk Maxwell's use of differential equations to describe it in his A
Treatise on
F = q E + q v × B displaystyle mathbf F =qmathbf E +qmathbf v times mathbf B where all boldfaced quantities are vectors: F is the force that a
particle with charge q experiences, E is the electric field at the
location of the particle, v is the velocity of the particle, B is the
magnetic field at the location of the particle.
The above equation illustrates that the
F μ ν displaystyle F^ mu nu ) f α = F α β J β . displaystyle f_ alpha =F_ alpha beta J^ beta .! The electric field E[edit] Main article: Electric field The electric field E is defined such that, on a stationary charge: F = q 0 E displaystyle mathbf F =q_ 0 mathbf E where q0 is what is known as a test charge. The size of the charge
doesn't really matter, as long as it is small enough not to influence
the electric field by its mere presence. What is plain from this
definition, though, is that the unit of E is N/C (newtons per
coulomb). This unit is equal to V/m (volts per meter); see below.
In electrostatics, where charges are not moving, around a distribution
of point charges, the forces determined from
E ( r ) = 1 4 π ε 0 ∑ i = 1 n q i ( r − r i )
r − r i
3 displaystyle mathbf E(r) = frac 1 4pi varepsilon _ 0 sum _ i=1 ^ n frac q_ i left(mathbf r -mathbf r _ i right) leftmathbf r -mathbf r _ i right^ 3 where n is the number of charges, qi is the amount of charge associated with the ith charge, ri is the position of the ith charge, r is the position where the electric field is being determined, and ε0 is the electric constant. If the field is instead produced by a continuous distribution of charge, the summation becomes an integral: E ( r ) = 1 4 π ε 0 ∫ ρ ( r ′ ) ( r − r ′ )
r − r ′
3 d 3 r ′ displaystyle mathbf E(r) = frac 1 4pi varepsilon _ 0 int frac rho (mathbf r' )left(mathbf r -mathbf r' right) leftmathbf r -mathbf r' right^ 3 mathrm d^ 3 mathbf r' where ρ ( r ′ ) displaystyle rho (mathbf r' ) is the charge density and r − r ′ displaystyle mathbf r -mathbf r' is the vector that points from the volume element d 3 r ′ displaystyle mathrm d^ 3 mathbf r' to the point in space where E is being determined. Both of the above equations are cumbersome, especially if one wants to determine E as a function of position. A scalar function called the electric potential can help. Electric potential, also called voltage (the units for which are the volt), is defined by the line integral φ ( r ) = − ∫ C E ⋅ d l displaystyle varphi mathbf (r) =-int _ C mathbf E cdot mathrm d mathbf l where φ(r) is the electric potential, and C is the path over which the integral is being taken. Unfortunately, this definition has a caveat. From Maxwell's equations, it is clear that ∇ × E is not always zero, and hence the scalar potential alone is insufficient to define the electric field exactly. As a result, one must add a correction factor, which is generally done by subtracting the time derivative of the A vector potential described below. Whenever the charges are quasistatic, however, this condition will be essentially met. From the definition of charge, one can easily show that the electric potential of a point charge as a function of position is: φ ( r ) = 1 4 π ε 0 ∑ i = 1 n q i
r − r i
displaystyle varphi mathbf (r) = frac 1 4pi varepsilon _ 0 sum _ i=1 ^ n frac q_ i leftmathbf r -mathbf r _ i right where q is the point charge's charge, r is the position at which the potential is being determined, and ri is the position of each point charge. The potential for a continuous distribution of charge is: φ ( r ) = 1 4 π ε 0 ∫ ρ ( r ′ )
r − r ′
d 3 r ′ displaystyle varphi mathbf (r) = frac 1 4pi varepsilon _ 0 int frac rho (mathbf r' ) mathbf r -mathbf r' ,mathrm d^ 3 mathbf r' where ρ ( r ′ ) displaystyle rho (mathbf r' ) is the charge density, and r − r ′ displaystyle mathbf r -mathbf r' is the distance from the volume element d 3 r ′ displaystyle mathrm d^ 3 mathbf r' to point in space where φ is being determined. The scalar φ will add to other potentials as a scalar. This makes it relatively easy to break complex problems down in to simple parts and add their potentials. Taking the definition of φ backwards, we see that the electric field is just the negative gradient (the del operator) of the potential. Or: E ( r ) = − ∇ φ ( r ) . displaystyle mathbf E(r) =-nabla varphi mathbf (r) . From this formula it is clear that E can be expressed in V/m (volts
per meter).
Electromagnetic waves[edit]
Main article: Electromagnetic waves
A changing electromagnetic field propagates away from its origin in
the form of a wave. These waves travel in vacuum at the speed of light
and exist in a wide spectrum of wavelengths. Examples of the dynamic
fields of electromagnetic radiation (in order of increasing
frequency): radio waves, microwaves, light (infrared, visible light
and ultraviolet), x-rays and gamma rays. In the field of particle
physics this electromagnetic radiation is the manifestation of the
electromagnetic interaction between charged particles.
General field equations[edit]
Main articles:
φ = 1 4 π ε 0 q
r − r q ( t r e t )
− v q ( t r e t ) c ⋅ ( r − r q ( t r e t ) ) displaystyle varphi = frac 1 4pi varepsilon _ 0 frac q leftmathbf r -mathbf r _ q (t_ ret )right- frac mathbf v _ q (t_ ret ) c cdot (mathbf r -mathbf r _ q (t_ ret )) where q is the point charge's charge and r is the position. rq and vq are the position and velocity of the charge, respectively, as a function of retarded time. The vector potential is similar: A = μ 0 4 π q v q ( t r e t )
r − r q ( t r e t )
− v q ( t r e t ) c ⋅ ( r − r q ( t r e t ) ) . displaystyle mathbf A = frac mu _ 0 4pi frac qmathbf v _ q (t_ ret ) leftmathbf r -mathbf r _ q (t_ ret )right- frac mathbf v _ q (t_ ret ) c cdot (mathbf r -mathbf r _ q (t_ ret )) . These can then be differentiated accordingly to obtain the complete field equations for a moving point particle. Models[edit] Branches of classical electromagnetism such as optics, electrical and electronic engineering consist of a collection of relevant mathematical models of different degrees of simplification and idealization to enhance the understanding of specific electrodynamics phenomena, cf.[9] An electrodynamics phenomenon is determined by the particular fields, specific densities of electric charges and currents, and the particular transmission medium. Since there are infinitely many of them, in modeling there is a need for some typical, representative (a) electrical charges and currents, e.g. moving pointlike charges and electric and magnetic dipoles, electric currents in a conductor etc.; (b) electromagnetic fields, e.g. voltages, the Liénard–Wiechert potentials, the monochromatic plane waves, optical rays; radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, gamma rays etc.; (c) transmission media, e.g. electronic components, antennas, electromagnetic waveguides, flat mirrors, mirrors with curved surfaces convex lenses, concave lenses; resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches; wires, electric and optical cables, transmission lines, integrated circuits etc.; all of which have only few variable characteristics. See also[edit] Electromagnetism Maxwell's equations Weber electrodynamics Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory References[edit] ^ Feynman, R. P., R .B. Leighton, and M. Sands, 1965, The Feynman
Lectures on Physics, Vol. II: the Electromagnetic Field,
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts
^ Griffiths, David J. (2013). Introduction to Electrodynamics (4th
ed.). Boston, Mas.: Pearson. ISBN 0321856562.
^ Panofsky, W. K., and M. Phillips, 1969, Classical
External links[edit] Electromagnetic Field Theory by Bo Thidé v t e Branches of physics Divisions Applied Experimental Theoretical Energy Motion Thermodynamics Mechanics Classical Ballistics Lagrangian Hamiltonian Continuum Celestial Statistical Solid Fluid Quantum Waves Fields Gravitation Electromagnetism Optics Geometrical Physical Nonlinear Quantum Quantum field theory Relativity Special General By speciality Accelerator Acoustics Astrophysics Nuclear Stellar Heliophysics Solar Space Astroparticle Atomic–molecular–optical (AMO) Communication Computational Condensed matter Mesoscopic Solid-state Soft Digital Engineering Material Mathematical Molecular Nuclear Particle Phenomenology Plasma Polymer Statistical
Biophysics Virophysics Biomechanics Medical physics Cardiophysics Health physics Laser medicine Medical imaging Nuclear medicine Neurophysics Psychophysics
Agrophysics Soil Atmospheric Cloud Chemical Econophysics Geophysics Physical chemistry Authority control GN |