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CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is a term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome
Rome
, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe
Europe
, North Africa
North Africa
and Southwestern Asia .

Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000). Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. "Classical antiquity" may refer also to an idealised vision among later people of what was, in Edgar Allan Poe 's words, "the glory that was Greece, and the grandeur that was Rome."

The culture of the ancient Greeks
Greeks
, together with some influences from the ancient Near East , was the basis of art, philosophy, society, and educational ideals, until the Roman imperial period . The Romans preserved, imitated and spread over Europe
Europe
these ideals until they were able to competitively rival the Greek culture, as the Latin language became widespread and the classical world became bilingual, Greek and Latin. This Greco-Roman cultural foundation has been immensely influential on the language, politics, law, educational systems, philosophy , science, warfare, poetry, historiography, ethics, rhetoric, art and architecture of the modern world. From the surviving fragments of classical antiquity, a revival movement was gradually formed from the 14th century onwards which came to be known later in Europe
Europe
as the Renaissance
Renaissance
, and again resurgent during various neo-classical revivals in the 18th and 19th centuries.

CONTENTS

* 1 Archaic period (c.8th to c.6th centuries BC)

* 1.1 Phoenicians
Phoenicians
and Carthaginians

* 1.2 Greece

* 1.2.1 Greek colonies

* 1.3 Iron Age Italy
Italy
* 1.4 Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom

* 2 Classical Greece
Classical Greece
(5th to 4th centuries BC) * 3 Hellenistic period (323 BC to 146 BC) * 4 Roman Republic
Republic
(5th to 1st centuries BC) * 5 Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(1st century BC to 5th century AD) * 6 Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(4th to 7th centuries AD)

* 7 Revivalism

* 7.1 Politics * 7.2 Culture
Culture

* 8 Timeline * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References

ARCHAIC PERIOD (C.8TH TO C.6TH CENTURIES BC)

Further information: Iron Age Europe
Europe

The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place before the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze Age collapse
Bronze Age collapse
. The 8th and 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical , with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century. Homer
Homer
is usually assumed to have lived in the 8th or 7th century BC, and his lifetime is often taken as marking the beginning of classical antiquity. In the same period falls the traditional date for the establishment of the Ancient
Ancient
Olympic Games , in 776 BC.

PHOENICIANS AND CARTHAGINIANS

Main articles: Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Ancient
Ancient
Carthage
Carthage

The Phoenicians
Phoenicians
originally expanded from Canaan
Canaan
ports , by the 8th century dominating trade in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
. Carthage
Carthage
was founded in 814 BC, and the Carthaginians by 700 BC had firmly established strongholds in Sicily
Sicily
, Italy
Italy
and Sardinia , which created conflicts of interest with Etruria
Etruria
.

GREECE

Main article: Archaic period in Greece
Archaic period in Greece

The Archaic period followed the Greek Dark Ages , and saw significant advancements in political theory , and the rise of democracy , philosophy , theatre , poetry , as well as the revitalisation of the written language (which had been lost during the Dark Ages).

In pottery, the Archaic period sees the development of the Orientalizing style , which signals a shift from the Geometric style of the later Dark Ages and the accumulation of influences derived from Egypt, Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Syria
Syria
.

Pottery styles associated with the later part of the Archaic age are the black-figure pottery , which originated in Corinth
Corinth
during the 7th century BC and its successor, the red-figure style , developed by the Andokides Painter
Andokides Painter
in about 530 BC.

Greek Colonies

Main articles: Apoikiai and Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia

IRON AGE ITALY

Etruscan civilization in north of Italy
Italy
, 800 BC.

The Etruscans had established political control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic and monarchial elite. The Etruscans apparently lost power in the area by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the Italic tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic , with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power.

ROMAN KINGDOM

Main article: Roman kingdom
Roman kingdom

According to legend, Rome
Rome
was founded on April 21, 753 BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas , Romulus and Remus . As the city was bereft of women, legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines
Sabines
to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins and the Sabines.

Archaeological evidence indeed shows first traces of settlement at the Roman Forum in the mid-8th century BC, though settlements on the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
may date back to the 10th century BC.

The seventh and final king of Rome
Rome
was Tarquinius Superbus . As the son of Tarquinius Priscus
Tarquinius Priscus
and the son-in-law of Servius Tullius , Superbus was of Etruscan birth. It was during his reign that the Etruscans reached their apex of power.

Superbus removed and destroyed all the Sabine shrines and altars from the Tarpeian Rock , enraging the people of Rome. The people came to object to his rule when he failed to recognize the rape of Lucretia
Lucretia
, a patrician Roman, at the hands of his own son. Lucretia's kinsman, Lucius Junius Brutus (ancestor to Marcus Brutus ), summoned the Senate and had Superbus and the monarchy expelled from Rome
Rome
in 510 BC. After Superbus' expulsion, the Senate voted to never again allow the rule of a king and reformed Rome
Rome
into a republican government in 509 BC. In fact the Latin
Latin
word "Rex" meaning King became a dirty and hated word throughout the Republic
Republic
and later on the Empire.

CLASSICAL GREECE (5TH TO 4TH CENTURIES BC)

Main article: Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Delian League ("Athenian Empire"), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC

The classical period of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC, in particular, from the fall of the Athenian tyranny in 510 BC to the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC. In 510, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow the tyrant Hippias , son of Peisistratos . Cleomenes I , king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy conducted by Isagoras .

The Greco-Persian Wars (499–449 BC), concluded by the Peace of Callias gave not only way to the liberation of Greece, Macedon , Thrace
Thrace
, and Ionia
Ionia
from Persian rule , but also resulted in giving the dominant position of Athens
Athens
in the Delian League , which led to conflict with Sparta
Sparta
and the Peloponnesian League , resulting in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which ended in a Spartan victory.

Greece entered the 4th century under Spartan hegemony . But by 395 BC the Spartan rulers removed Lysander from office, and Sparta
Sparta
lost her naval supremacy. Athens
Athens
, Argos
Argos
, Thebes and Corinth
Corinth
, the latter two of which were formerly Spartan allies, challenged Spartan dominance in the Corinthian War
Corinthian War
, which ended inconclusively in 387 BC. Later, in 371 BC, the Theban generals Epaminondas and Pelopidas won a victory at the Battle of Leuctra
Battle of Leuctra
. The result of this battle was the end of Spartan supremacy and the establishment of Theban hegemony . Thebes sought to maintain its position until it was finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon in 346 BC.

Under Philip II , (359–336 BC), Macedon expanded into the territory of the Paeonians
Paeonians
, the Thracians and the Illyrians
Illyrians
. Philip's son, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, (356–323 BC) managed to briefly extend Macedonian power not only over the central Greek city-states, but also to the Persian Empire , including Egypt
Egypt
and lands as far east as the fringes of India
India
. The classical period conventionally ends at the death of Alexander in 323 BC and the fragmentation of his empire, which was at this time divided among the Diadochi
Diadochi
.

HELLENISTIC PERIOD (323 BC TO 146 BC)

Main article: Hellenistic period Further information: Hellenistic philosophy and Hellenistic religion
Hellenistic religion

Classical Greece
Classical Greece
entered the Hellenistic period with the rise of Macedon and the conquests of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. Greek became the lingua franca far beyond Greece itself, and Hellenistic culture interacted with the cultures of Persia , Central Asia , India
India
and Egypt
Egypt
. Significant advances were made in the sciences (geography , astronomy , mathematics etc.), notably with the followers of Aristotle ( Aristotelianism ).

The Hellenistic period ended with the rise of the Roman Republic
Republic
to a super-regional power in the 2nd century BC and the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC.

ROMAN REPUBLIC (5TH TO 1ST CENTURIES BC)

The extent of the Roman Republic
Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 218 BC (dark red), 133 BC (light red), 44 BC (orange), 14 AD (yellow), after 14 AD (green), and maximum extension under Trajan
Trajan
117 (light green) Main article: Roman Republic
Republic
Further information: culture of ancient Rome
Rome

The republican period of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
began with the overthrow of the Monarchy c. 509 BC and lasted over 450 years until its subversion , through a series of civil wars , into the Principate form of government and the Imperial period. During the half millennium of the Republic, Rome
Rome
rose from a regional power of the Latium
Latium
to the dominant force in Italy
Italy
and beyond. The unification of Italy
Italy
under Roman hegemony was a gradual process, brought about in a series of conflicts of the 4th and 3rd centuries, the Samnite Wars
Samnite Wars
, Latin
Latin
War , and Pyrrhic War . Roman victory in the Punic Wars and Macedonian Wars established Rome
Rome
as a super-regional power by the 2nd century BC, followed up by the acquisition of Greece and Asia Minor . This tremendous increase of power was accompanied by economic instability and social unrest, leading to the Catiline conspiracy , the Social War and the First Triumvirate , and finally the transformation to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the latter half of the 1st century BC.

ROMAN EMPIRE (1ST CENTURY BC TO 5TH CENTURY AD)

Main article: Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The extent of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
under Trajan, AD 117

Determining the precise end of the Republic
Republic
is a task of dispute by modern historians; Roman citizens of the time did not recognize that the Republic
Republic
had ceased to exist. The early Julio-Claudian "Emperors " maintained that the res publica still existed, albeit under the protection of their extraordinary powers, and would eventually return to its full Republican form. The Roman state continued to call itself a res publica as long as it continued to use Latin
Latin
as its official language.

Rome
Rome
acquired imperial character de facto from the 130s BC with the acquisition of Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
, Illyria , Greece and Hispania
Hispania
, and definitely with the addition of Iudaea , Asia Minor and Gaul
Gaul
in the 1st century BC. At the time of the empire's maximal extension under Trajan
Trajan
(AD 117), Rome
Rome
controlled the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
as well as Gaul, parts of Germania and Britannia , the Balkans
Balkans
, Dacia , Asia Minor, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
.

Culturally, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was significantly hellenized , but also saw the rise of syncratic "eastern" traditions, such as Mithraism
Mithraism
, Gnosticism , and most notably Christianity
Christianity
. The empire began to decline in the crisis of the third century

LATE ANTIQUITY (4TH TO 7TH CENTURIES AD)

The Western and Eastern Roman Empires by 476 Main articles: Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and Migration period

Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
saw the rise of Christianity
Christianity
under Constantine I , finally ousting the Roman imperial cult with the Theodosian decrees of 393. Successive invasions of Germanic tribes finalized the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century, while the Eastern Roman Empire persisted throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, in a state called the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by its citizens, and labelled the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by later historians. Hellenistic philosophy was succeeded by continued developments in Platonism and Epicureanism , with Neoplatonism in due course influencing the theology of the Church Fathers
Church Fathers
.

Many individuals have attempted to put a specific date on the symbolic "end" of antiquity with the most prominent dates being the deposing of the last Western Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
in 476, the closing of the last Platonic Academy
Platonic Academy
in Athens
Athens
by the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
in 529, and the conquest of much of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
by the new Muslim
Muslim
faith from 634-718. These Muslim
Muslim
conquests, of Syria (637), Egypt
Egypt
(639), Cyprus
Cyprus
(654), North Africa
North Africa
(665), Hispania
Hispania
(718), Southern Gaul
Gaul
(720), Crete
Crete
(820), and Sicily
Sicily
(827), Malta (870) (and the sieges of the Eastern Roman capital, First Arab Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
(674–78) and Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717–18) ) severed the economic, cultural, and political links that had traditionally united the classical cultures around the Mediterranean, ending antiquity, see ( Pirenne Thesis ).

The original Roman Senate continued to express decrees into the late 6th century, and the last Eastern Roman emperor
Roman emperor
to use Latin
Latin
as the language of his court in Constantinople
Constantinople
was emperor Maurice , who reigned until 602. The overthrow of Maurice by his mutinying Danube army under Phocas resulted in the Slavic invasion of the Balkans
Balkans
and the decline of Balkan and Greek urban culture (leading to the flight of Balkan Latin
Latin
speakers to the mountains, see Origin of the Romanians ), and also provoked the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 in which all the great eastern cities except Constantinople
Constantinople
were lost. The resulting turmoil did not end until the Muslim
Muslim
conquests of the 7th century finalized the irreversible loss of all the largest Eastern Roman imperial cities besides the capital itself. The emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
in Constantinople
Constantinople
, who emerged during this period, conducted his court in Greek, not Latin, though Greek had always been an administrative language of the eastern Roman regions. Eastern-Western links weakened with the ending of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Papacy .

The Eastern Roman empire's capital city of Constantinople
Constantinople
was left as the only unconquered large urban center of the original Roman empire, as well as being the largest city in Europe. Over the next millennium the Roman culture of that city would slowly change, leading modern historians to refer to it by a new name, Byzantine
Byzantine
, though many classical books, sculptures, and technologies survived there along with classical Roman cuisine and scholarly traditions, well into the Middle Ages, when much of it was "rediscovered" by visiting Western crusaders. Indeed, the inhabitants of Constantinople
Constantinople
continued to refer to themselves as Romans, as did their eventual conquerors in 1453, the Ottomans . (See Rûm and Romaioi
Romaioi
.) The classical scholarship and culture that was still preserved in Constantinople
Constantinople
was brought by refugees fleeing its conquest in 1453 and helped to spark the Renaissance
Renaissance
, see Greek scholars in the Renaissance
Renaissance
.

Ultimately, it was a slow, complex, and graduated change in the socioeconomic structure in European history
European history
that led to the changeover between Classical Antiquity and Medieval society and no specific date can truly exemplify that.

REVIVALISM

Further information: Carolingian Renaissance
Renaissance
, Ottonian Renaissance
Renaissance
, Renaissance
Renaissance
, Classical studies , Classicism , and Legacy of the Roman Empire

Respect for the ancients of Greece and Rome
Rome
affected politics , philosophy , sculpture , literature, theater , education , architecture, and even sexuality .

POLITICS

In politics, the late Roman conception of the Empire as a universal state, headed by one supreme divinely-appointed ruler, united with Christianity
Christianity
as a universal religion likewise headed by a supreme patriarch , proved very influential, even after the disappearance of imperial authority in the west.

That model continued to exist in Constantinople
Constantinople
for the entirety of the Middle Ages; the Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor was considered the sovereign of the entire Christian world. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
was the Empire's highest-ranked cleric, but even he was subordinate to the Emperor, who was "God's Vicegerent on Earth". The Greek-speaking Byzantines and their descendants continued to call themselves "Romans" until the creation of a new Greek state in 1832.

After the fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453, the Russian Czars (a title derived from Caesar) claimed the Byzantine
Byzantine
mantle as the champion of Orthodoxy ; Moscow
Moscow
was described as the " Third Rome
Third Rome
" and the Czars ruled as divinely-appointed Emperors into the 20th century.

Despite the fact that the Western Roman secular authority disappeared entirely in Europe, it still left traces. The Papacy and the Catholic Church in particular maintained Latin
Latin
language, culture and literacy for centuries; to this day the popes are called Pontifex Maximus
Pontifex Maximus
which in the classical period was a title belonging to the Emperor, and the ideal of Christendom carried on the legacy of a united European civilisation even after its political unity had disappeared.

The political idea of an Emperor in the West to match the Emperor in the East continued after the Western Roman Empire's collapse; it was revived by the coronation of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 800; the self-described Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
ruled over central Europe
Europe
until 1806.

The Renaissance
Renaissance
idea that the classical Roman virtues had been lost under medievalism was especially powerful in European politics of the 18th and 19th centuries. Reverence for Roman republicanism was strong among the Founding Fathers of the United States and the Latin
Latin
American revolutionaries ; the Americans described their new government as a republic (from res publica ) and gave it a Senate and a President (another Latin
Latin
term), rather than make use of available English terms like commonwealth or parliament.

Similarly in Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, republicanism and Roman martial virtues were upheld by the state, as can be seen in the architecture of the Panthéon , the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
, and the paintings of Jacques-Louis David . During the revolution France
France
itself followed the transition from kingdom to republic to dictatorship to Empire (complete with Imperial Eagles) that Rome
Rome
had undergone centuries earlier.

CULTURE

Epic poetry in Latin
Latin
continued to be written and circulated well into the 19th century. John Milton and even Arthur Rimbaud got their first poetic education in Latin. Genres like epic poetry, pastoral verse, and the endless use of characters and themes from Greek mythology
Greek mythology
left a deep mark on literature of the Western World .

In architecture, there have been several Greek Revivals , which seem more inspired in retrospect by Roman architecture than Greek. Washington, DC
Washington, DC
is filled with large marble buildings with facades made out to look like Roman temples , with columns constructed in the classical orders of architecture.

In philosophy, the efforts of St Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
were derived largely from the thought of Aristotle
Aristotle
, despite the intervening change in religion from Hellenic Polytheism to Christianity
Christianity
. Greek and Roman authorities such as Hippocrates
Hippocrates
and Galen
Galen
formed the foundation of the practice of medicine even longer than Greek thought prevailed in philosophy. In the French theater , tragedians such as Molière
Molière
and Racine wrote plays on mythological or classical historical subjects and subjected them to the strict rules of the classical unities derived from Aristotle's Poetics . The desire to dance like a latter-day vision of how the ancient Greeks
Greeks
did it moved Isadora Duncan to create her brand of ballet .

TIMELINE

Main article: Timeline of classical antiquity

* v * t * e

Timeline of classical antiquity

SEE ALSO

* Classical Civilisation portal

* Classical architecture
Classical architecture
* Classical tradition * Classics
Classics
(Classical education)

* Outline of classical studies

* Outline of ancient Egypt
Egypt
* Outline of ancient Greece * Outline of ancient Rome

* Postclassical Era (the next period)

Regions during classical antiquity

* Ancient history
Ancient history
of Cyprus
Cyprus
* Gaul
Gaul
* Hellenistic Greece * History
History
of the Balkans
Balkans
* Roman Britain
Roman Britain
* Roman Dacia * Troy
Troy

NOTES

* ^ Poe EA (1831). " To Helen ". * ^ Helga von Heintze : Römische Kunst (Roman art). In: Walter-Herwig Schuchhardt (1960): Bildende Kunst I (Archäologie) (Visual arts I — archaeology). Das Fischer Lexikon . S. Fischer Verlag . p. 192. "Bestimmend blieb (...) der italisch-römische Geist, der sich der entlehnten Formen nur bediente. (...) Ohne Begegnung hätte der italisch-römische Geist sich wohl kaum in künstlerischen Schöpfungen ausdrücken können und wäre nicht über die Ansätze, die wir in den Kanopen von Chiusi (...), der kapitolinischen Wölfin (...), dem Krieger von Capestrano (...) erhalten haben, hinausgekommen. Auch die gleichermaßen realistische wie unkünstlerische Auffassung der Porträts im 2. und 1. Jh v Chr konnte sich nur unter dem Einfluß griechischer Formen ändern." ("Determinant remained the Italic-Roman spirit, that just availed itself of the borrowed forms. (...) Without having come across , the Italic-Roman spirit would hardly have been able to express itself in works of art and would not have got beyond the starts that are preserved in the canopic jars of Chiusi, the Capitoline Wolf, the Warrior of Capestrano. Also the likewise realistic and inartistic conception and production of the portraits in the second and the first centuries BC could only change under the influence of Greek forms.") * ^ Der Große Brockhaus . 1. vol.: A-Beo. Eberhard Brockhaus, Wiesbaden 1953, p. 315. "Ihre dankbarsten und verständnisvollsten Schüler aber fand die hellenistische Kultur in den Römern; sie wurden Mäzene, Nachahmer und schließlich Konkurrenten, indem sie die eigene Sprache wetteifernd neben die griechische setzten: so wurde die antike Kultur zweisprachig, griechisch und lateinisch. Das System dieser griechisch-hellenistisch-römischen Kultur, das sich in der römischen Kaiserzeit abschließend gestaltete, enthielt, neben Elementen des Orients, die griechische Wissenschaft und Philosophie, Dichtung, Geschichtsschreibung, Rhetorik und bildende Kunst." ("The Hellenistic culture but found its most thankful and its most understanding disciples in the Romans; they became patrons, imitators, and finally rivals, when they competitively set the own language beside the Greek: thus, the antique culture became bilingual, Greek and Latin. The system of this Greco- Latin
Latin
culture, that assumed its definitive shape in the Roman imperial period, contained, amongst elements of the Orient, the Greek science and philosophy, poetry, historiography, rhetoric and visual arts.") * ^ Veit Valentin : Weltgeschichte — Völker, Männer, Ideen ( History of the world — peoples, men, ideas). Allert de Lange , Amsterdam 1939, p. 113. "Es ist ein merkwürdiges Schauspiel — dieser Kampf eines bewussten Römertums gegen die geriebene Gewandtheit des Hellenismus: der römische Geschmack wehrt sich und verbohrt sich trotzig in sich selbst, aber es fällt ihm nicht genug ein, er kann nicht über seine Grenzen weg; was die Griechen bieten, hat soviel Reiz und Bequemlichkeit. In der bildenden Kunst und in der Philosophie gab das Römertum zuerst den Kampf um seine Selbständigkeit auf — Bilden um des Bildes willen, Forschen und Grübeln, theoretische Wahrheitssuche und Spekulation lagen ihm durchaus nicht." ("It is a strange spectacle: this fight of a conscious Roman striving against the wily ingenuity of Hellenism. The Roman taste offers resistance, defiantly goes mad about itself, but there does not come enough into its mind, it is not able to overcome its limits; there is so much charm and so much comfort in what the Greeks
Greeks
afford. In visual arts and philosophy, Romanism first abandoned the struggle for its independence — forming for the sake of the form, poring and investigation, theoretical speculation and hunt for truth were by no means in its line.") * ^ Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
and the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by Michael Kerrigan. Dorling Kindersley, London: 2001. ISBN 0-7894-8153-7 . page 12. * ^ Adkins, 1998. page 3. * ^ Myths and Legends – Rome, the Wolf, and Mars. Accessed 2007-3-8. * ^ Matyszak, 2003. page 19. * ^ Duiker, 2001. page 129. * ^ The precise event which signaled the transition of the Roman Republic
Republic
into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
is a matter of interpretation. Historians have proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
(September 2, 31 BC), and the Roman Senate 's grant of Octavian 's extraordinary powers under the first settlement (January 16, 27 BC), as candidates for the defining pivotal event . * ^ Clare, I. S. (1906). Library of universal history: containing a record of the human race from the earliest historical period to the present time; embracing a general survey of the progress of mankind in national and social life, civil government, religion, literature, science and art. New York: Union Book. Page 1519 (cf., Ancient history, as we have already seen, ended with the fall of the Western Roman Empire; ) * ^ United Center for Research and Training in History. (1973). Bulgarian historical review. Sofia: Pub. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences]. Page 43. (cf. ... in the history of Europe, which marks both the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages, is the fall of the Western Roman Empire.) * ^ Hadas, Moses (1950). A History
History
of Greek Literature. Columbia University Press. p. 273 of 331. ISBN 0-231-01767-7 . * ^ Henry Pirenne (1937). Mohammed and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
English translation by Bernard Miall, 1939. From Internet Archive
Internet Archive
. The thesis was originally laid out in an article published in Revue Belge de Philologie et d\'Histoire 1 (1922), pp. 77-86. * ^ Henry Pirenne (1937). Mohammed and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
English translation by Bernard Miall, 1939. From Internet Archive
Internet Archive
. The thesis was originally laid out in an article published in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 1 (1922), pp. 77-86.

REFERENCES

* Grinin L. E. Early State in the Classical World: Statehood and Ancient
Ancient
Democracy
Democracy
. In Grinin L. E. et al. (eds.)Hierarchy and Power in the History
History
of civilizations: Ancient
Ancient
and Medieval Cultures 9pp.31–84). Moscow: URSS, 2008.Early State in the Classical World

* v * t * e

Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
by region

EUROPA

* Graecia * Italia * Gallia * Dacia * Thracia * Illyria * Hispania
Hispania
* Britannia * Germania

ASIA

* Scythia
Scythia
* Anatolia * Syria
Syria
* Arabia

AFRICA

* Libya * Aegyptus * Carthage
Carthage
* Igbo-Ukwu

* v * t * e

Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece

* Outline * Timeline

* History
History
* Geography

PERIODS

* Cycladic civilization * Minoan civilization * Mycenaean civilization * Greek Dark Ages * Archaic period * Classical Greece
Classical Greece
* Hellenistic Greece * Roman Greece

GEOGRAPHY

* Aegean Sea * Aeolis
Aeolis
* Alexandria
Alexandria
* Antioch
Antioch
* Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Crete
Crete
* Cyprus
Cyprus
* Doris * Ephesus * Epirus * Hellespont * Ionia
Ionia
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Macedonia * Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
* Miletus * Peloponnesus * Pergamon
Pergamon
* Pontus * Taurica * Ancient
Ancient
Greek colonies

* City states * Politics * Military

CITY STATES

* Argos
Argos
* Athens
Athens
* Byzantion * Chalcis * Corinth
Corinth
* Eretria
Eretria
* Kerkyra * Larissa * Megalopolis * Megara
Megara
* Rhodes
Rhodes
* Samos
Samos
* Sparta
Sparta
* Syracuse * Thebes

POLITICS

* Boeotarch * Boule * Koinon * Proxeny * Strategos * Tagus * Tyrant * Amphictyonic League

ATHENIAN

* Agora * Areopagus
Areopagus
* Ecclesia * Graphē paranómōn * Heliaia * Ostracism
Ostracism

SPARTAN

* Apella * Ephor * Gerousia * Harmost

MACEDON

* Synedrion * Koinon

MILITARY

* Wars * Athenian military * Antigonid Macedonian army
Antigonid Macedonian army
* Army of Macedon * Ballista
Ballista
* Cretan archers * Hellenistic armies * Hippeis * Hoplite
Hoplite
* Hetairoi * Macedonian phalanx * Phalanx * Peltast * Pezhetairos * Sarissa * Sacred Band of Thebes
Sacred Band of Thebes
* Sciritae * Seleucid army * Spartan army * Toxotai
Toxotai
* Xiphos * Xyston

PEOPLE

List of ancient Greeks
Greeks

RULERS

* Kings of Argos
Argos
* Archons of Athens
Athens
* Kings of Athens
Athens
* Kings of Commagene * Diadochi
Diadochi
* Kings of Lydia * Kings of Macedonia * Kings of Paionia * Attalid kings of Pergamon
Pergamon
* Kings of Pontus * Kings of Sparta
Sparta
* Tyrants of Syracuse

PHILOSOPHERS

* Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras
* Anaximander
Anaximander
* Anaximenes * Antisthenes * Aristotle
Aristotle
* Democritus
Democritus
* Diogenes of Sinope * Empedocles
Empedocles
* Epicurus
Epicurus
* Gorgias
Gorgias
* Heraclitus * Hypatia * Leucippus
Leucippus
* Parmenides * Plato
Plato
* Protagoras * Pythagoras
Pythagoras
* Socrates
Socrates
* Thales
Thales
* Zeno

AUTHORS

* Aeschylus
Aeschylus
* Aesop * Alcaeus * Archilochus * Aristophanes * Bacchylides * Euripides * Herodotus * Hesiod * Hipponax * Homer
Homer
* Ibycus * Lucian * Menander
Menander
* Mimnermus * Panyassis * Philocles * Pindar * Plutarch
Plutarch
* Polybius
Polybius
* Sappho
Sappho
* Simonides * Sophocles * Stesichorus
Stesichorus
* Theognis * Thucydides
Thucydides
* Timocreon * Tyrtaeus * Xenophon
Xenophon

OTHERS

* Agesilaus II * Agis II * Alcibiades
Alcibiades
* Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
* Aratus * Archimedes
Archimedes
* Aspasia
Aspasia
* Demosthenes * Epaminondas * Euclid
Euclid
* Hipparchus
Hipparchus
* Hippocrates
Hippocrates
* Leonidas * Lycurgus * Lysander * Milo of Croton
Milo of Croton
* Miltiades
Miltiades
* Pausanias * Pericles * Philip of Macedon * Philopoemen * Praxiteles
Praxiteles
* Ptolemy
Ptolemy
* Pyrrhus * Solon * Themistocles

GROUPS

* Philosophers * Playwrights * Poets * Tyrants

BY CULTURE

* Ancient
Ancient
Greek tribes * Thracian Greeks
Greeks
* Ancient
Ancient
Macedonians

* Society * Culture
Culture

SOCIETY

* Agriculture * Calendar * Clothing * Coinage * Cuisine * Economy * Education
Education
* Festivals * Funeral and burial practices * Homosexuality * Law * Olympic Games * Pederasty * Philosophy
Philosophy
* Prostitution * Religion
Religion
* Slavery * Warfare * Wedding customs * Wine

* Arts * Sciences

* Architecture ( Greek Revival architecture ) * Astronomy * Literature * Mathematics * Medicine
Medicine
* Music (Musical system ) * Pottery * Sculpture
Sculpture
* Technology * Theatre
Theatre

RELIGION

* Funeral and burial practices

* Mythology

* mythological figures

* Temple * Twelve Olympians * Underworld

SACRED PLACES

* Eleusis
Eleusis
* Delphi
Delphi
* Delos
Delos
* Dodona * Mount Olympus * Olympia

STRUCTURES

* Athenian Treasury
Athenian Treasury
* Lion Gate * Long Walls
Long Walls
* Philippeion
Philippeion
* Theatre
Theatre
of Dionysus * Tunnel of Eupalinos

TEMPLES

* Aphaea * Artemis * Athena Nike * Erechtheion
Erechtheion
* Hephaestus * Hera (Olympia) * Parthenon
Parthenon
* Samothrace * Zeus (Olympia)

LANGUAGE

* Proto-Greek * Mycenaean * Homeric

* Dialects

* Aeolic * Arcadocypriot * Attic * Doric * Ionic * Locrian * Macedonian * Pamphylian

* Koine

WRITING

* Linear A * Linear B
Linear B
* Cypriot syllabary * Greek alphabet * Greek numerals
Greek numerals
* Attic numerals
Attic numerals

LISTS

* Cities

* in Epirus

* People * Place names * Stoae * Temples * Theatres

* Category
Category
* Portal

* v * t * e

Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
topics

* Outline * Timeline

EPOCHS

* Foundation * Kingdom (overthrow ) * Republic
Republic

EMPIRE

* ( Pax Romana
Pax Romana
* Principate * Dominate ) * Western Empire (fall * historiography of the fall ) * Eastern (Byzantine) Empire (decline * fall )

CONSTITUTION

* History
History
* Kingdom * Republic
Republic
* Empire * Late Empire * Senate * Legislative assemblies (Curiate * Centuriate * Tribal * Plebeian ) * Executive magistrates * SPQR

GOVERNMENT

* Curia * Forum * Cursus honorum * Collegiality * Emperor * Legatus
Legatus
* Dux
Dux
* Officium * Praefectus * Vicarius * Vigintisexviri
Vigintisexviri
* Lictor
Lictor
* Magister militum
Magister militum
* Imperator
Imperator
* Princeps senatus
Princeps senatus
* Pontifex Maximus
Pontifex Maximus
* Augustus
Augustus
* Caesar * Tetrarch * Optimates * Populares * Province

MAGISTRATES

ORDINARY

* Tribune
Tribune
* Quaestor
Quaestor
* Aedile
Aedile
* Praetor
Praetor
* Consul * Censor * Promagistrate
Promagistrate
* Governor

EXTRAORDINARY

* Dictator * Magister Equitum * Decemviri
Decemviri
* Consular Tribune
Tribune
* Triumvir * Rex * Interrex

LAW

* Twelve Tables * Mos maiorum
Mos maiorum
* Citizenship * Auctoritas * Imperium * Status * Litigation

MILITARY

* Borders * Establishment * Structure * Campaigns * Political control * Strategy * Engineering * Frontiers and fortifications (castra ) * Technology * Army (Legion * Infantry tactics * Personal equipment * Siege engines ) * Navy (fleets ) * Auxiliaries * Decorations and punishments * Hippika gymnasia

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Deforestation * Commerce * Finance * Currency * Republican currency * Imperial currency

TECHNOLOGY

* Abacus * Numerals * Civil engineering * Military engineering * Military technology * Aqueducts * Bridges * Circus * Concrete * Domes * Forum * Metallurgy * Roads * Sanitation * Thermae

CULTURE

* Architecture * Art * Bathing * Calendar * Clothing * Cosmetics * Cuisine * Hairstyles * Education
Education
* Literature * Music * Mythology * Religion
Religion
* Romanization * Sexuality * Theatre
Theatre
* Wine

SOCIETY

* Patricians * Plebs * Conflict of the Orders * Secessio plebis
Secessio plebis
* Equites * Gens * Tribes * Naming conventions * Demography * Women * Marriage * Adoption * Slavery * Bagaudae

LANGUAGE (LATIN)

* History
History
* Alphabet * Versions (Old * Classical * Vulgar * Late * Medieval * Renaissance
Renaissance
* New * Contemporary * Ecclesiastical ) * Romance languages
Romance languages

WRITERS

* Apuleius * Caesar * Catullus
Catullus
* Cicero
Cicero
* Ennius * Horace
Horace
* Juvenal
Juvenal
* Livy * Lucan
Lucan
* Lucretius
Lucretius
* Martial
Martial
* Ovid
Ovid
* Petronius
Petronius
* Phaedrus * Plautus
Plautus
* Pliny the Elder * Pliny the Younger * Propertius
Propertius
* Quintilian
Quintilian
* Quintus Curtius Rufus * Sallust
Sallust
* Seneca * Statius
Statius
* Suetonius
Suetonius
* Tacitus
Tacitus
* Terence
Terence
* Tibullus
Tibullus
* Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
* Virgil
Virgil
* Vitruvius
Vitruvius

MAJOR CITIES

* Alexandria
Alexandria
* Antioch
Antioch
* Aquileia * Berytus * Bononia * Carthage
Carthage
* Constantinopolis * Eboracum
Eboracum
* Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
* Londinium
Londinium
* Lutetia * Mediolanum * Pompeii
Pompeii
* Ravenna
Ravenna
* Roma * Smyrna
Smyrna
* Vindobona * Volubilis
Volubilis

Lists and other topics

* Wars and battles * Generals * Legions * Emperors * Geographers * Cities and towns * Institutions * Laws * Consuls * Tribunes * Distinguished women * Nomina * Gentes * Climate * Legacy

* Fiction / Films

ANCIENT ROME PORTAL

* v * t * e

Ancient
Ancient
Greek and Roman wars

ANCIENT GREECE

* Trojan War * First Messenian War * Second Messenian War * Lelantine War * Greek– Punic Wars (Sicilian Wars) * Greco-Persian Wars * Aeginetan War * Wars of the Delian League * Samian War * Peloponnesian War * Corinthian War
Corinthian War
* First / Second / Third Sacred War * Social War (357–355 BC) * Rise of Macedon * Wars of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
* Wars of the Diadochi
Diadochi
* Lamian War
Lamian War
* Chremonidean War * Cleomenean War * Social War (220–217 BC) * Cretan War * Aetolian War * War against Nabis * Maccabean Revolt

ROMAN REPUBLIC

* Roman– Latin
Latin
wars (First Latin
Latin
War ( Battle of Lake Regillus ) * Second Latin
Latin
War ) * Samnite Wars
Samnite Wars
* Pyrrhic War * Punic Wars (First * Second * Third ) * Macedonian Wars (Illyrian * First Macedonian * Second Macedonian * Seleucid * Third Macedonian * Fourth Macedonian ) * Jugurthine War * Cimbrian War * Roman Servile Wars (First * Second * Third ) * Social War (90–88 BC)
Social War (90–88 BC)
* Sulla's civil wars (First * Second ) * Mithridatic Wars (First * Second * Third ) * Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
* Julius Caesar\'s civil war * Augustus\' rise to power ( Battle of Mutina * Liberators\' civil war * Sicilian revolt * Perusine War (Fulvia\'s civil war) * Final War of the Roman Republic
Republic
)

ROMAN EMPIRE

* Germanic Wars
Germanic Wars
(Marcomannic * Alemannic * Gothic * Visigothic ) * Conquest of Britain * Wars of Boudica
Boudica
* Armenian War * Four Emperors * Jewish wars * Domitian\'s Dacian War * Trajan\'s Dacian Wars * Parthian Wars * Wars against Persia * Third-century civil wars * Decline and fall of the Western Empire

* MILITARY HISTORY

* v * t * e

Periods of the history of Europe
Europe

* Prehistoric Europe
Europe
* Classical antiquity * Late antiquity
Late antiquity
* Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Renaissance
Renaissance
* Early modern * Modern

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND :

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