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Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(600–1000). Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
may refer also to an idealised vision among later people of what was, in Edgar Allan Poe's words, "the glory that was Greece, and the grandeur that was Rome."[1] The culture of the ancient Greeks, together with some influences from the ancient Near East, was the basis of art,[2] philosophy, society, and educational ideals, until the Roman imperial period. The Romans preserved, imitated and spread over Europe
Europe
these ideals until they were able to competitively rival the Greek culture, as the Latin language became widespread and the classical world became bilingual, Greek and Latin.[3][4] This Greco-Roman cultural foundation has been immensely influential on the language, politics, law, educational systems, philosophy, science, warfare, poetry, historiography, ethics, rhetoric, art and architecture of the modern world. From the surviving fragments of classical antiquity, a revival movement was gradually formed from the 14th century onwards which came to be known later in Europe
Europe
as the Renaissance, and again resurgent during various neo-classical revivals in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Contents

1 Archaic period (c. 8th to c. 6th centuries BC)

1.1 Phoenicians
Phoenicians
and Carthaginians 1.2 Greece

1.2.1 Greek colonies

1.3 Iron Age Italy 1.4 Roman Kingdom

2 Classical Greece
Classical Greece
(5th to 4th centuries BC) 3 Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(323 BC to 146 BC) 4 Roman Republic
Republic
(5th to 1st centuries BC) 5 Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(1st century BC to 5th century AD) 6 Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(4th to 7th centuries AD) 7 Revivalism

7.1 Politics 7.2 Culture

8 Timeline 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 Further reading

Archaic period (c. 8th to c. 6th centuries BC)[edit] Further information: Iron Age Europe The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place before the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze Age collapse. The 8th and 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical, with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century. Homer
Homer
is usually assumed to have lived in the 8th or 7th century BC, and his lifetime is often taken as marking the beginning of classical antiquity. In the same period falls the traditional date for the establishment of the Ancient
Ancient
Olympic Games, in 776 BC. Phoenicians
Phoenicians
and Carthaginians[edit] Main articles: Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Ancient
Ancient
Carthage The Phoenicians
Phoenicians
originally expanded from Canaan
Canaan
ports, by the 8th century dominating trade in the Mediterranean. Carthage
Carthage
was founded in 814 BC, and the Carthaginians by 700 BC had firmly established strongholds in Sicily, Italy
Italy
and Sardinia, which created conflicts of interest with Etruria. Greece[edit] Main article: Archaic period in Greece The Archaic period followed the Greek Dark Ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy, philosophy, theatre, poetry, as well as the revitalisation of the written language (which had been lost during the Dark Ages). In pottery, the Archaic period sees the development of the Orientalizing style, which signals a shift from the Geometric style
Geometric style
of the later Dark Ages and the accumulation of influences derived from Egypt, Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Syria. Pottery styles associated with the later part of the Archaic age are the black-figure pottery, which originated in Corinth
Corinth
during the 7th century BC and its successor, the red-figure style, developed by the Andokides Painter
Andokides Painter
in about 530 BC. Greek colonies[edit] Main articles: Apoikiai
Apoikiai
and Magna Graecia Iron Age Italy[edit]

Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization
in north of Italy, 800 BC.

The Etruscans had established political control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic and monarchial elite. The Etruscans apparently lost power in the area by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the Italic tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power.[5] Roman Kingdom[edit] Main article: Roman kingdom According to legend, Rome
Rome
was founded on April 21, 753 BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas, Romulus and Remus.[6] As the city was bereft of women, legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines
Sabines
to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins and the Sabines.[7] Archaeological evidence indeed shows first traces of settlement at the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
in the mid-8th century BC, though settlements on the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
may date back to the 10th century BC.[8][9] The seventh and final king of Rome
Rome
was Tarquinius Superbus. As the son of Tarquinius Priscus
Tarquinius Priscus
and the son-in-law of Servius
Servius
Tullius, Superbus was of Etruscan birth. It was during his reign that the Etruscans reached their apex of power. Superbus removed and destroyed all the Sabine shrines and altars from the Tarpeian Rock, enraging the people of Rome. The people came to object to his rule when he failed to recognize the rape of Lucretia, a patrician Roman, at the hands of his own son. Lucretia's kinsman, Lucius Junius Brutus
Lucius Junius Brutus
(ancestor to Marcus Brutus), summoned the Senate and had Superbus and the monarchy expelled from Rome
Rome
in 510 BC. After Superbus' expulsion, the Senate voted to never again allow the rule of a king and reformed Rome
Rome
into a republican government in 509 BC. In fact the Latin
Latin
word "Rex" meaning King became a dirty and hated word throughout the Republic
Republic
and later on the Empire.[citation needed] Classical Greece
Classical Greece
(5th to 4th centuries BC)[edit] Main article: Classical Greece

Delian League
Delian League
("Athenian Empire"), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC

The classical period of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC, in particular, from the fall of the Athenian tyranny in 510 BC to the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC. In 510, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos. Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy conducted by Isagoras. The Greco-Persian Wars
Greco-Persian Wars
(499–449 BC), concluded by the Peace of Callias gave way not only to the liberation of Greece, Macedon, Thrace, and Ionia
Ionia
from Persian rule, but also resulted in giving the dominant position of Athens
Athens
in the Delian League, which led to conflict with Sparta
Sparta
and the Peloponnesian League, resulting in the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC), which ended in a Spartan victory. Greece entered the 4th century under Spartan hegemony. But by 395 BC the Spartan rulers removed Lysander
Lysander
from office, and Sparta
Sparta
lost her naval supremacy. Athens, Argos, Thebes and Corinth, the latter two of which were formerly Spartan allies, challenged Spartan dominance in the Corinthian War, which ended inconclusively in 387 BC. Later, in 371 BC, the Theban generals Epaminondas and Pelopidas
Pelopidas
won a victory at the Battle of Leuctra. The result of this battle was the end of Spartan supremacy and the establishment of Theban hegemony. Thebes sought to maintain its position until it was finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon
Macedon
in 346 BC. Under Philip II, (359–336 BC), Macedon
Macedon
expanded into the territory of the Paeonians, the Thracians
Thracians
and the Illyrians. Philip's son, Alexander the Great, (356–323 BC) managed to briefly extend Macedonian power not only over the central Greek city-states, but also to the Persian Empire, including Egypt
Egypt
and lands as far east as the fringes of India. The classical period conventionally ends at the death of Alexander in 323 BC and the fragmentation of his empire, which was at this time divided among the Diadochi. Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(323 BC to 146 BC)[edit] Main article: Hellenistic period Further information: Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
and Hellenistic religion Classical Greece
Classical Greece
entered the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
with the rise of Macedon
Macedon
and the conquests of Alexander the Great. Greek became the lingua franca far beyond Greece itself, and Hellenistic culture interacted with the cultures of Persia, Central Asia, India
India
and Egypt. Significant advances were made in the sciences (geography, astronomy, mathematics etc.), notably with the followers of Aristotle (Aristotelianism). The Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
ended with the rise of the Roman Republic
Republic
to a super-regional power in the 2nd century BC and the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC. Roman Republic
Republic
(5th to 1st centuries BC)[edit]

The extent of the Roman Republic
Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 218 BC (dark red), 133 BC (light red), 44 BC (orange), 14 AD (yellow), after 14 AD (green), and maximum extension under Trajan 117 (light green)

Main article: Roman Republic Further information: culture of ancient Rome The republican period of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
began with the overthrow of the Monarchy c. 509 BC and lasted over 450 years until its subversion, through a series of civil wars, into the Principate
Principate
form of government and the Imperial period. During the half millennium of the Republic, Rome
Rome
rose from a regional power of the Latium
Latium
to the dominant force in Italy
Italy
and beyond. The unification of Italy
Italy
under Roman hegemony was a gradual process, brought about in a series of conflicts of the 4th and 3rd centuries, the Samnite Wars, Latin
Latin
War, and Pyrrhic War. Roman victory in the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
and Macedonian Wars established Rome
Rome
as a super-regional power by the 2nd century BC, followed up by the acquisition of Greece and Asia Minor. This tremendous increase of power was accompanied by economic instability and social unrest, leading to the Catiline conspiracy, the Social War and the First Triumvirate, and finally the transformation to the Roman Empire in the latter half of the 1st century BC. Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(1st century BC to 5th century AD)[edit] Main article: Roman Empire

The extent of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
under Trajan, AD 117

Determining the precise end of the Republic
Republic
is a task of dispute by modern historians;[10] Roman citizens of the time did not recognize that the Republic
Republic
had ceased to exist. The early Julio-Claudian "Emperors" maintained that the res publica still existed, albeit under the protection of their extraordinary powers, and would eventually return to its full Republican form. The Roman state continued to call itself a res publica as long as it continued to use Latin
Latin
as its official language. Rome
Rome
acquired imperial character de facto from the 130s BC with the acquisition of Cisalpine Gaul, Illyria, Greece and Hispania, and definitely with the addition of Iudaea, Asia Minor and Gaul
Gaul
in the 1st century BC. At the time of the empire's maximal extension under Trajan
Trajan
(AD 117), Rome
Rome
controlled the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
as well as Gaul, parts of Germania
Germania
and Britannia, the Balkans, Dacia, Asia Minor, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Mesopotamia. Culturally, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was significantly hellenized, but also saw the rise of syncratic "eastern" traditions, such as Mithraism, Gnosticism, and most notably Christianity. The empire began to decline in the crisis of the third century While sometimes compared with classical Greece, classical Rome
Rome
had vast differences within their family life. Fathers had great power over their children, and husbands over their wives, and these acts were commonly compared with slave-owners and slaves. In fact the word family, "famiglia" in Italian, actually referred to those who were under authority of a male head of household. This included non-related members such as slaves and servants. Somewhat contradictory, marriage was viewed as something where both man and woman were loyal to one another and shared little things such as interests, and more intense as properties. Divorce was first allowed starting in the first century BC and could be done by either man or woman.[11] Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(4th to 7th centuries AD)[edit]

The Western and Eastern Roman Empires by 476

Main articles: Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and Migration period Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
saw the rise of Christianity
Christianity
under Constantine I, finally ousting the Roman imperial cult
Roman imperial cult
with the Theodosian decrees of 393. Successive invasions of Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
finalized the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century, while the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
persisted throughout the Middle Ages, in a state called the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by its citizens, and labelled the Byzantine Empire by later historians. Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
was succeeded by continued developments in Platonism
Platonism
and Epicureanism, with Neoplatonism in due course influencing the theology of the Church Fathers. Many individuals have attempted to put a specific date on the symbolic "end" of antiquity with the most prominent dates being the deposing of the last Western Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
in 476,[12][13] the closing of the last Platonic Academy
Platonic Academy
in Athens
Athens
by the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I in 529,[14] and the conquest of much of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
by the new Muslim
Muslim
faith from 634-718.[15] These Muslim conquests, of Syria
Syria
(637), Egypt
Egypt
(639), Cyprus
Cyprus
(654), North Africa (665), Hispania
Hispania
(718), Southern Gaul
Gaul
(720), Crete
Crete
(820), and Sicily (827), Malta (870) (and the sieges of the Eastern Roman capital, First Arab Siege of Constantinople (674–78)
Siege of Constantinople (674–78)
and Second Arab Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
(717–18)) severed the economic, cultural, and political links that had traditionally united the classical cultures around the Mediterranean, ending antiquity (see Pirenne Thesis).[16] The original Roman Senate
Roman Senate
continued to express decrees into the late 6th century, and the last Eastern Roman emperor
Roman emperor
to use Latin
Latin
as the language of his court in Constantinople
Constantinople
was emperor Maurice, who reigned until 602. The overthrow of Maurice by his mutinying Danube army under Phocas
Phocas
resulted in the Slavic invasion of the Balkans
Balkans
and the decline of Balkan and Greek urban culture (leading to the flight of Balkan Latin
Latin
speakers to the mountains, see Origin of the Romanians), and also provoked the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 in which all the great eastern cities except Constantinople were lost. The resulting turmoil did not end until the Muslim conquests of the 7th century finalized the irreversible loss of all the largest Eastern Roman imperial cities besides the capital itself. The emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
in Constantinople, who emerged during this period, conducted his court in Greek, not Latin, though Greek had always been an administrative language of the eastern Roman regions. Eastern-Western links weakened with the ending of the Byzantine Papacy. The Eastern Roman empire's capital city of Constantinople
Constantinople
was left as the only unconquered large urban center of the original Roman empire, as well as being the largest city in Europe. Over the next millennium the Roman culture of that city would slowly change, leading modern historians to refer to it by a new name, Byzantine, though many classical books, sculptures, and technologies survived there along with classical Roman cuisine and scholarly traditions, well into the Middle Ages, when much of it was "rediscovered" by visiting Western crusaders. Indeed, the inhabitants of Constantinople
Constantinople
continued to refer to themselves as Romans, as did their eventual conquerors in 1453, the Ottomans. (See Rûm and Romaioi.) The classical scholarship and culture that was still preserved in Constantinople
Constantinople
was brought by refugees fleeing its conquest in 1453 and helped to spark the Renaissance, see Greek scholars in the Renaissance. Ultimately, it was a slow, complex, and graduated change in the socioeconomic structure in European history
European history
that led to the changeover between Classical Antiquity and Medieval society and no specific date can truly exemplify that. Revivalism[edit] Further information: Carolingian Renaissance, Ottonian Renaissance, Renaissance, Classical studies, Classicism, and Legacy of the Roman Empire Respect for the ancients of Greece and Rome
Rome
affected politics, philosophy, sculpture, literature, theater, education, architecture, and even sexuality. Politics[edit] In politics, the late Roman conception of the Empire as a universal state, headed by one supreme divinely-appointed ruler, united with Christianity
Christianity
as a universal religion likewise headed by a supreme patriarch, proved very influential, even after the disappearance of imperial authority in the west. That model continued to exist in Constantinople
Constantinople
for the entirety of the Middle Ages; the Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor was considered the sovereign of the entire Christian world. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
was the Empire's highest-ranked cleric, but even he was subordinate to the Emperor, who was "God's Vicegerent on Earth". The Greek-speaking Byzantines and their descendants continued to call themselves "Romans" until the creation of a new Greek state in 1832. After the fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453, the Russian Czars (a title derived from Caesar) claimed the Byzantine
Byzantine
mantle as the champion of Orthodoxy; Moscow
Moscow
was described as the "Third Rome" and the Czars ruled as divinely-appointed Emperors into the 20th century. Despite the fact that the Western Roman secular authority disappeared entirely in Europe, it still left traces. The Papacy
Papacy
and the Catholic Church in particular maintained Latin
Latin
language, culture and literacy for centuries; to this day the popes are called Pontifex Maximus
Pontifex Maximus
which in the classical period was a title belonging to the Emperor, and the ideal of Christendom
Christendom
carried on the legacy of a united European civilisation even after its political unity had disappeared. The political idea of an Emperor in the West to match the Emperor in the East continued after the Western Roman Empire's collapse; it was revived by the coronation of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 800; the self-described Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
ruled over central Europe
Europe
until 1806. The Renaissance
Renaissance
idea that the classical Roman virtues had been lost under medievalism was especially powerful in European politics of the 18th and 19th centuries. Reverence for Roman republicanism was strong among the Founding Fathers of the United States
Founding Fathers of the United States
and the Latin
Latin
American revolutionaries; the Americans described their new government as a republic (from res publica) and gave it a Senate and a President (another Latin
Latin
term), rather than make use of available English terms like commonwealth or parliament. Similarly in Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, republicanism and Roman martial virtues were upheld by the state, as can be seen in the architecture of the Panthéon, the Arc de Triomphe, and the paintings of Jacques-Louis David. During the revolution France
France
itself followed the transition from kingdom to republic to dictatorship to Empire (complete with Imperial Eagles) that Rome
Rome
had undergone centuries earlier. Culture[edit] Epic poetry
Epic poetry
in Latin
Latin
continued to be written and circulated well into the 19th century. John Milton
John Milton
and even Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud
got their first poetic education in Latin. Genres like epic poetry, pastoral verse, and the endless use of characters and themes from Greek mythology
Greek mythology
left a deep mark on literature of the Western World. In architecture, there have been several Greek Revivals, which seem more inspired in retrospect by Roman architecture than Greek. Washington, DC is filled with large marble buildings with facades made out to look like Roman temples, with columns constructed in the classical orders of architecture. In philosophy, the efforts of St Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
were derived largely from the thought of Aristotle, despite the intervening change in religion from Hellenic Polytheism to Christianity. Greek and Roman authorities such as Hippocrates
Hippocrates
and Galen
Galen
formed the foundation of the practice of medicine even longer than Greek thought prevailed in philosophy. In the French theater, tragedians such as Molière
Molière
and Racine wrote plays on mythological or classical historical subjects and subjected them to the strict rules of the classical unities derived from Aristotle's Poetics. The desire to dance like a latter-day vision of how the ancient Greeks
Greeks
did it moved Isadora Duncan to create her brand of ballet. Timeline[edit] Main article: Timeline of classical antiquity

v t e

Timeline of classical antiquity

See also[edit]

Classical Civilisation portal

Classical architecture Classical tradition Classics
Classics
(Classical education) Outline of classical studies

Outline of ancient Egypt Outline of ancient Greece Outline of ancient Rome

Postclassical Era
Postclassical Era
(the next period)

Regions during classical antiquity

Ancient history
Ancient history
of Cyprus Gaul Hellenistic Greece History
History
of the Balkans Roman Britain Roman Dacia Troy

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Poe EA (1831). "To Helen". ^ Helga von Heintze[de]: Römische Kunst (Roman art). In: Walter-Herwig Schuchhardt (1960): Bildende Kunst I (Archäologie) (Visual arts I — archaeology). Das Fischer Lexikon[de]. S. Fischer Verlag. p. 192. "Bestimmend blieb (...) der italisch-römische Geist, der sich der entlehnten Formen nur bediente. (...) Ohne [die] Begegnung [mit der griechischen Formenwelt, author's note] hätte der italisch-römische Geist sich wohl kaum in künstlerischen Schöpfungen ausdrücken können und wäre nicht über die Ansätze, die wir in den Kanopen von Chiusi (...), der kapitolinischen Wölfin (...), dem Krieger von Capestrano (...) erhalten haben, hinausgekommen. Auch die gleichermaßen realistische wie unkünstlerische Auffassung der Porträts im 2. und 1. J[ahr]h[undert] v[or] Chr[istus] konnte sich nur unter dem Einfluß griechischer Formen ändern." ("Determinant remained the Italic-Roman spirit, that just availed itself of the borrowed forms. (...) Without having come across [the world of the Greek forms], the Italic-Roman spirit would hardly have been able to express itself in works of art and would not have got beyond the starts that are preserved in the canopic jars of Chiusi, the Capitoline Wolf, the Warrior of Capestrano. Also the likewise realistic and inartistic conception and production of the portraits in the second and the first centuries BC could only change under the influence of Greek forms.") ^ Der Große Brockhaus. 1. vol.: A-Beo. Eberhard Brockhaus, Wiesbaden 1953, p. 315. "Ihre dankbarsten und verständnisvollsten Schüler aber fand die hellenistische Kultur in den Römern; sie wurden Mäzene, Nachahmer und schließlich Konkurrenten, indem sie die eigene Sprache wetteifernd neben die griechische setzten: so wurde die antike Kultur zweisprachig, griechisch und lateinisch. Das System dieser griechisch-hellenistisch-römischen Kultur, das sich in der römischen Kaiserzeit abschließend gestaltete, enthielt, neben Elementen des Orients, die griechische Wissenschaft und Philosophie, Dichtung, Geschichtsschreibung, Rhetorik und bildende Kunst." ("The Hellenistic culture but found its most thankful and its most understanding disciples in the Romans; they became patrons, imitators, and finally rivals, when they competitively set the own language beside the Greek: thus, the antique culture became bilingual, Greek and Latin. The system of this Greco- Latin
Latin
culture, that assumed its definitive shape in the Roman imperial period, contained, amongst elements of the Orient, the Greek science and philosophy, poetry, historiography, rhetoric and visual arts.") ^ Veit Valentin[de]: Weltgeschichte — Völker, Männer, Ideen ( History of the world
History of the world
— peoples, men, ideas). Allert de Lange[de], Amsterdam 1939, p. 113. "Es ist ein merkwürdiges Schauspiel — dieser Kampf eines bewussten Römertums gegen die geriebene Gewandtheit des Hellenismus: der römische Geschmack wehrt sich und verbohrt sich trotzig in sich selbst, aber es fällt ihm nicht genug ein, er kann nicht über seine Grenzen weg; was die Griechen bieten, hat soviel Reiz und Bequemlichkeit. In der bildenden Kunst und in der Philosophie gab das Römertum zuerst den Kampf um seine Selbständigkeit auf — Bilden um des Bildes willen, Forschen und Grübeln, theoretische Wahrheitssuche und Spekulation lagen ihm durchaus nicht." ("It is a strange spectacle: this fight of a conscious Roman striving against the wily ingenuity of Hellenism. The Roman taste offers resistance, defiantly goes mad about itself, but there does not come enough into its mind, it is not able to overcome its limits; there is so much charm and so much comfort in what the Greeks
Greeks
afford. In visual arts and philosophy, Romanism first abandoned the struggle for its independence — forming for the sake of the form, poring and investigation, theoretical speculation and hunt for truth were by no means in its line.") ^ Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
and the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by Michael Kerrigan. Dorling Kindersley, London: 2001. ISBN 0-7894-8153-7. page 12. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 3. ^ Myths and Legends – Rome, the Wolf, and Mars Archived 2007-05-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed 2007-3-8. ^ Matyszak, 2003. page 19. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 129. ^ The precise event which signaled the transition of the Roman Republic
Republic
into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
is a matter of interpretation. Historians have proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
(September 2, 31 BC), and the Roman Senate's grant of Octavian's extraordinary powers under the first settlement (January 16, 27 BC), as candidates for the defining pivotal event. ^ Wiesner-Hanks, Merry E. Gender in History
History
Global Perspectives (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8995-8.  ^ Clare, I. S. (1906). Library of universal history: containing a record of the human race from the earliest historical period to the present time; embracing a general survey of the progress of mankind in national and social life, civil government, religion, literature, science and art. New York: Union Book. Page 1519 (cf., Ancient history, as we have already seen, ended with the fall of the Western Roman Empire; [...]) ^ United Center for Research and Training in History. (1973). Bulgarian historical review. Sofia: Pub. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences]. Page 43. (cf. ... in the history of Europe, which marks both the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages, is the fall of the Western Roman Empire.) ^ Hadas, Moses (1950). A History
History
of Greek Literature. Columbia University Press. p. 273 of 331. ISBN 0-231-01767-7.  ^ Henry Pirenne (1937). Mohammed and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Archived 2015-04-08 at the Wayback Machine. English translation by Bernard Miall, 1939. From Internet Archive. The thesis was originally laid out in an article published in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 1 (1922), pp. 77-86. ^ Henry Pirenne (1937). Mohammed and Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Archived 2015-04-08 at the Wayback Machine. English translation by Bernard Miall, 1939. From Internet Archive. The thesis was originally laid out in an article published in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 1 (1922), pp. 77-86.

Sources[edit]

Grinin L. E. Early State in the Classical World: Statehood and Ancient Democracy. In Grinin L. E. et al. (eds.) Hierarchy and Power in the History
History
of civilizations: Ancient
Ancient
and Medieval Cultures 9pp.31–84). Moscow: URSS, 2008.Early State in the Classical World

Library resources about Classical antiquity

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola, and Richard J. A. Talbert. 2004. The Romans: From village to empire. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press Bugh, Glenn. R., ed. 2006. The Cambridge companion to the Hellenistic world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Burkert, Walter. 1992. The Orientalizing revolution: The Near Eastern influence on Greek culture in the early Archaic age. Translated by Margaret E. Pinder and Walter Burkert. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Erskine, Andrew, ed. 2003. A companion to the Hellenistic world. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell. Flower, Harriet I. 2004. The Cambridge companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Green, Peter. 1990. Alexander to Actium: The historical evolution of the Hellenistic age. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Hornblower, Simon. 1983. The Greek world 479–323 BC. London and New York: Methuen. Kallendorf, Craig W., ed. 2007. A Companion to the Classical Tradition. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Kinzl, Konrad, ed. 2006. A companion to the Classical Greek world. Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell. Murray, Oswyn. 1993. Early Greece. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Potter, David S. 2006. A companion to the Roman Empire. Malden, MA: Blackwell Rhodes, Peter J. 2006. A history of the Classical Greek world: 478–323 BC. Blackwell History
History
of the Ancient
Ancient
World. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Rosenstein, Nathan S., and Robert Morstein-Marx, eds. 2006. A companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford: Blackwell. Shapiro, H. Alan, ed. 2007. The Cambridge companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge Companions to the Ancient
Ancient
World. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Shipley, Graham. 2000. The Greek world after Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge. Walbank, Frank W. 1993. The Hellenistic world. Revised ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
by region

Europa

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List of ancient Greeks

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v t e

Ancient
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Roman Empire

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v t e

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v t e

History
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of Europe

Prehistory

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Classical antiquity

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See also

Art of Europe Genetic history of Europe History
History
of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region History
History
of the European Union History
History
of Western civilization Maritime history of Europe Military history
Military history
of Europe

Authority control

.