The Info List - Classic Of Poetry

The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry (Chinese: 詩; pinyin: Shī) is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC. It is one of the "Five Classics" traditionally said to have been compiled by Confucius, and has been studied and memorized by scholars in China and neighboring countries over two millennia. Since the Qing dynasty, its rhyme patterns have also been analysed in the study of Old Chinese
Old Chinese


1 Name 2 Content 3 Style 4 Authorship 5 Textual history

5.1 Compilation 5.2 Confucius 5.3 Han dynasty

6 Legacy

6.1 Confucian
allegory 6.2 Political influence 6.3 Modern scholarship

7 Contents list 8 Notable translations 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Citations 11.2 Works cited

12 External links

Name[edit] Early references refer to the anthology as the 300 Poems (shi). The Odes first became known as a jīng, or a "classic book", in the canonical sense, as part of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
official adoption of Confucianism
as the guiding principles of Chinese society.[citation needed] The same word shi later became a generic term for poetry.[1] In English, lacking an exact equivalent for the Chinese, the translation of the word shi in this regard is generally as "poem", "song", or "ode". Before its elevation as a canonical classic, the Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
(Shi jing) was known as the Three Hundred Songs or the Songs.[2] Content[edit] The Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
contains the oldest chronologically authenticated Chinese poems.[1] The majority of the Odes date to the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BC). A final section of 5 "Eulogies of Shang" purports to be ritual songs of the Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
as handed down by their descendents in the state of Song, but is generally considered quite late in date.[3][4] According to the Eastern Han scholar Zheng Xuan, the latest material in the Shijing was the song "Tree-stump Grove" (株林) in the "Odes of Chen", dated to the middle of the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
(c. 700 BC).[5]

Ah! Solemn is the clear temple,   reverent and concordant the illustrious assistants. Dignified, dignified are the many officers,   holding fast to the virtue of King Wen. Responding in praise to the one in Heaven,   they hurry swiftly within the temple. Greatly illustrious, greatly honored,   may [King Wen] never be weary of [us] men.

"Eulogies of Zhou – Clear Temple" (Chinese: 清廟; pinyin: Qīng miào)[6]

Part Number and meaning Date (BC)[7][8]

國風 Guó fēng 160 "Airs of the States" 8th to 7th century

小雅 Xiǎo yǎ 74 "Lesser Court Hymns" 9th to 8th century

大雅 Dà yǎ 31 "Major Court Hymns" 10th to 9th century

周頌 Zhōu sòng 31 "Eulogies of Zhou" 11th to 10th century

魯頌 Lǔ sòng 4 "Eulogies of Lu" 7th century

商頌 Shāng sòng 5 "Eulogies of Shang" 7th century

The content of the Poetry can be divided into two main sections: the "Airs of the States", and the eulogies and hymns.[9] The "Airs of the States" are shorter lyrics in simple language that are generally ancient folk songs which record the voice of the common people.[9] They often speak of love and courtship, longing for an absent lover, soldiers on campaign, farming and housework, and political satire and protest.[9] On the other hand, songs in the two "Hymns" sections and the "Eulogies" section tend to be longer ritual or sacrificial songs, usually in the forms of courtly panegyrics and dynastic hymns which praise the founders of the Zhou dynasty.[9] They also include hymns used in sacrificial rites and songs used by the aristocracy in their sacrificial ceremonies or at banquets.[10][11] "Court Hymns", contains "Lesser Court Hymns" and "Major Court Hymns". Most of the poems were used by the aristocracies to pray for Harvey year, worship Gods and their ancestors. The author of "Major Court Hymns" are nobilities who were dissatisfied with the political reality. Therefore, they wrote poems not only related to the feast, worship, and epic but also to reflect the public feelings.[12] Style[edit] Whatever the origin of the various Shijing poems as folk songs or not, they "all seem to have passed through the hands of men of letters at the royal Zhou court".[13] In other words, they show an overall literary polish together with some general stylistic consistency. About 95% of lines in the Poetry are written in a four-syllable meter, with a slight caesura between the second and third syllables.[9] Lines tend to occur in syntactically related couplets, with occasional parallelism, and longer poems are generally divided into similarly structured stanzas.[14] All but six of the "Eulogies" consist of a single stanza, and the "Court Hymns" exhibit wide variation in the number of stanzas and their lengths. Almost all of the "Airs", however, consist of three stanzas, with four-line stanzas being most common.[15][16] Although a few rhyming couplets occur, the standard pattern in such four-line stanzas required a rhyme between the second and fourth lines. Often the first or third lines would rhyme with these, or with each other.[17] This style later became known as the "shi" style for much of Chinese history. One of the characteristics of the poems in the Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
is that they tend to possess "elements of repetition and variation".[14] This results in an "alteration of similarities and differences in the formal structure: in successive stanzas, some lines and phrases are repeated verbatim, while others vary from stanza to stanza".[18] Characteristically, the parallel or syntactically matched lines within a specific poem share the same, identical words (or characters) to a large degree, as opposed to confining the parallelism between lines to using grammatical category matching of the words in one line with the other word in the same position in the corresponding line; but, not by using the same, identical word(s).[14] Disallowing verbal repetition within a poem would by the time of Tang poetry
Tang poetry
be one of the rules to distinguish the old style poetry from the new, regulated style. The works in the Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
vary in their lyrical qualities, which relates to the musical accompaniment with which they were in their early days performed. The songs from the "Hymns" and "Eulogies", which are the oldest material in the Poetry, were performed to slow, heavy accompaniment from bells, drums, and stone chimes.[9] However, these and the later actual musical scores or choreography which accompanied the Shijing poems have been lost. Nearly all of the songs in the Poetry are rhyming, with end rhyme, as well as frequent internal rhyming.[14] While some of these verses still rhyme in modern varieties of Chinese, others had ceased to rhyme by the Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
period. For example, the eighth song (芣苢 Fú Yǐ)[b] has a tightly constrained structure implying rhymes between the penultimate words (here shown in bold) of each pair of lines:[19]

采采芣苢、薄言采之。   Cǎi cǎi fú yǐ, báo yán cǎi zhī. 采采芣苢、薄言有之。   Cǎi cǎi fú yǐ, báo yán yǒu zhī.

采采芣苢、薄言掇之。   Cǎi cǎi fú yǐ, báo yán duó zhī. 采采芣苢、薄言捋之。   Cǎi cǎi fú yǐ, báo yán luó zhī.

采采芣苢、薄言袺之。   Cǎi cǎi fú yǐ, báo yán jié zhī. 采采芣苢、薄言襭之。   Cǎi cǎi fú yǐ, báo yán xié zhī.

The second and third stanzas still rhyme in Standard Chinese, with the rhyme words even having the same tone, but the first stanza does not rhyme in Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
or any modern variety. This was attributed to lax rhyming practice until the late- Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
scholar Chen Di argued that the original rhymes had been obscured by sound change. Since Chen, scholars have analyzed the rhyming patterns of the Poetry as crucial evidence for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology.[20] Traditional scholarship of the Poetry identified three major literary devices employed in the songs: straightforward narrative (fù 賦), explicit comparisons (bǐ 比) and implied comparisons (xìng 興). The poems of the Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
tend to have certain typical patterns in both rhyme and rhythm, to make much use of imagery, often derived from nature. Authorship[edit] Although the Shijing does not specify the names of authors in association with the contained works, both traditional commentaries and modern scholarship have put forth hypotheses on authorship. The "Golden Coffer" chapter of the Book of Documents
Book of Documents
says that the poem "Owl" (Chinese: 鴟鴞) in the "Odes of Bin" was written by the Duke of Zhou. Many of the songs appear to be folk songs and other compositions used in the court ceremonies of the aristocracy.[10] Furthermore, many of the songs, based on internal evidence, appear to be written either by women, or from the perspective of a female persona. The repeated emphasis on female authorship of poetry in the Shijing was made much of in the process of attempting to give the poems of the women poets of the Ming-Qing period canonical status.[21] Despite the impersonality of the poetic voice characteristic of the Songs,[22] many of the poems are written from the perspective of various generic personalities. Textual history[edit]

Map of states during Western Zhou period

According to tradition, the method of collection of the various Shijing poems involved the appointment of officials, whose duties included documenting verses current from the various states which constituting the empire. Out of these many collected pieces, also according to tradition, Confucius
made a final editorial round of decisions for elimination or inclusion in the received version of the Poetry. As with all great literary works of ancient China, the Poetry has been annotated and commented on numerous times throughout history, as well as in this case providing a model to inspire future poetic works. Various traditions concern the gathering of the compiled songs and the editorial selection from these make up the classic text of the Odes: "Royal Officials' Collecting Songs" (Chinese: 王官采詩) is recorded in the Book of Han,[c] and "Master Confucius
Deletes Songs" (Chinese: 孔子刪詩) refers to Confucius
and his mention in the Records of the Grand Historian, where it says from originally some 3,000 songs and poems in a previously extant "Odes" that Confucius personally selected the "300" which he felt best conformed to traditional ritual propriety, thus producing the Classic of Poetry. Compilation[edit] The Confucian
school eventually came to consider the verses of the "Airs of the States" to have been collected in the course of activities of officers dispatched by the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
court, whose duties included the field collection of the songs local to the territorial states of Zhou.[1] This territory was roughly the Yellow River Plain, Shandong, southwestern Hebei, eastern Gansu, and the Han River region. Perhaps during the harvest. After the officials returned from their missions, the king was said to have observed them himself in an effort to understand the current condition of the common people.[1] The well-being of the people was of special concern to the Zhou because of their ideological position that the right to rule was based on the benignity of the rulers to the people in accordance with the will of Heaven, and that this Heavenly Mandate would be withdrawn upon the failure of the ruling dynasty to ensure the prosperity of their subjects.[23] The people's folksongs were deemed to be the best gauge of their feelings and conditions, and thus indicative of whether the nobility was ruling according to the mandate of Heaven or not, accordingly the songs were collected from the various regions, converted from their diverse regional dialects into standard literary language, and presented accompanied with music at the royal courts.[24] Confucius[edit]

Image of a bronze figure of Confucius

The Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
historically has a major place in the Four Books and Five Classics, the canonical works associated with Confucianism.[25] Some pre-Qin dynasty texts, such as the Analects
and a recently excavated manuscript from 300 BC entitled "Confucius' Discussion of the Odes", mention Confucius' involvement with the Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
but Han dynasty
Han dynasty
historian Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian was the first work to directly attribute the work to Confucius.[26] Subsequent Confucian
tradition held that the Shijing collection was edited by Confucius
from a larger 3,000-piece collection to its traditional 305-piece form.[27] This claim is believed to reflect an early Chinese tendency to relate all of the Five Classics in some way or another to Confucius, who by the 1st century BC had become the model of sages and was believed to have maintained a cultural connection to the early Zhou dynasty.[26] This view is now generally discredited, as the Zuo zhuan
Zuo zhuan
records that the Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
already existed in a definitive form when Confucius was just a young child.[10] In works attributed to him, Confucius
comments upon the Classic of Poetry in such a way as to indicate that he holds it in great esteem. A story in the Analects
recounts that Confucius' son Kong Li told the story: "The Master once stood by himself, and I hurried to seek teaching from him. He asked me, 'You've studied the Odes?' I answered, 'Not yet.' He replied, 'If you study the Odes not, then I have nothing to speak.'"[28] Han dynasty[edit] According to Han tradition, the Poetry and other classics were targets of the burning of books in 213 BC under Qin Shi Huang, and the songs had to be reconstructed largely from memory in the subsequent Han period. However the discovery of pre-Qin copies showing the same variation as Han texts, as well as evidence of Qin patronage of the Poetry, have led modern scholars to doubt this account.[29] During the Han period there were three different versions of the Poetry which each belonged to different hermeneutic traditions.[30] The Lu Poetry (魯詩 Lǔ shī), the Qi Poetry (齊詩 Qí shī) and the Han Poetry (韓詩 Hán shī) were officially recognized with chairs at the Imperial Academy during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (156–87 BC).[30] Until the later years of the Eastern Han period, the dominant version of the Poetry was the Lu Poetry, named after the state of Lu, and founded by Shen Pei, a student of a disciple of the Warring States period
Warring States period
philosopher Xunzi.[30] The Mao Tradition of the Poetry (毛詩傳 Máo shī zhuàn), attributed to an obscure scholar named Máo Hēng (毛亨) who lived during the 2nd or 3rd centuries BC,[30] was not officially recognized until the reign of Emperor Ping (1 BC to 6 AD).[31] However, during the Eastern Han period, the Mao Poetry gradually became the primary version.[30] Proponents of the Mao Poetry said that its text was descended from the first generation of Confucius' students, and as such should be the authoritative version.[30] Xu Shen's influential dictionary Shuowen Jiezi, written in the 2nd century AD, quotes almost exclusively from the Mao Poetry.[30] Finally, the renowned Eastern Han scholar Zheng Xuan used the Mao Poetry as the basis for his annotated edition of the Poetry.[30] By the 5th century, the Lu, Qi and Han traditions had died out, leaving only the Mao Poetry, which has become the received text in use today.[29] Only isolated fragments of the Lu text survive, among the remains of the Xiping Stone Classics.[31] Zheng Xuan's edition of the Mao text became the imperially authorized text and commentary on the Poetry in 653 AD.[30] Legacy[edit] Confucian

Part of the Kǒngzǐ Shīlùn (孔子詩論), an early discussion of the Classic of Poetry

The Book of Odes has been a revered Confucian
classic since the Han Dynasty, and has been studied and memorized by centuries of scholars in China.[11] The individual songs of the Odes, though frequently on simple, rustic subjects, have traditionally been saddled with extensive, elaborate allegorical meanings that assigned moral or political meaning to the smallest details of each line.[32] The popular songs were seen as good keys to understanding the troubles of the common people, and were often read as allegories; complaints against lovers were seen as complaints against faithless rulers,[11] "if a maiden warns her lover not to be too rash... commentators promptly discover that the piece refers to a feudal noble whose brother had been plotting against him...".[32] The extensive allegorical traditions associated with the Odes were theorized by Herbert Giles
Herbert Giles
to have begun in the Warring States period as a justification for Confucius' focus upon such a seemingly simple and ordinary collection of verses.[33] These elaborate, far-fetched interpretations seem to have gone completely unquestioned until the 12th century, when scholar Zheng Qiao (鄭樵, 1104–1162) first wrote his skepticism of them.[34] European sinologists like Giles and Marcel Granet
Marcel Granet
ignored these traditional interpretations in their analysis of the original meanings of the Odes. Granet, in his list of rules for properly reading the Odes, wrote that readers should "take no account of the standard interpretation", "reject in no uncertain terms the distinction drawn between songs evicting a good state of morals and songs attesting to perverted morality", and "[discard] all symbolic interpretations, and likewise any interpretation that supposes a refined technique on the part of the poets".[35] These traditional allegories of politics and morality are no longer seriously followed by any modern readers in China or elsewhere.[34] Political influence[edit] The Odes became an important and controversial force, influencing political, social and educational phenomena.[36] During the struggle between Confucian, Legalist, and other schools of thought, the Confucians used the Shijing to bolster their viewpoint.[36] On the Confucian
side, the Shijing became a foundational text which informed and validated literature, education, and political affairs.[37] The Legalists, on their side, attempted to suppress the Shijing by violence, after the Legalist philosophy was endorsed by the Qin Dynasty, prior to their final triumph over the neighboring states: the suppression of Confucian
and other thought and literature after the Qin victories and the start of Burning of Books and Burying of Scholars era, starting in 213 BC, extended to attempt to prohibit the Shijing.[36] As the idea of allegorical expression grew, when kingdoms or feudal leaders wished to express or validate their own positions, they would sometimes couch the message within a poem, or by allusion. This practice became common among educated Chinese in their personal correspondences and spread to Japan
and Korea
as well. Modern scholarship[edit] Modern scholarship on the Classic of Poetry
Classic of Poetry
often focuses on doing linguistic reconstruction and research in Old Chinese
Old Chinese
by analyzing the rhyme schemes in the Odes, which show vast differences when read in modern Mandarin Chinese.[19] Although preserving more Old Chinese syllable endings than Mandarin, Modern Cantonese
and Min Nan
Min Nan
are also quite different from the Old Chinese
Old Chinese
language represented in the Odes.[38] C.H. Wang refers to the account of King Wu's victory over the Shang dynasty in the "Major Court Hymns" as the "Weniad" (a name that parallels The Iliad), seeing it as part of a greater narrative discourse in China that extols the virtues of wén (文 "literature, culture") over more military interests.[39] Contents list[edit] Summary of groupings of poems from the Classic of Poetry

Guofeng (simplified Chinese: 国风; traditional Chinese: 國風; pinyin: Guófēng) "Airs of the States", poems 001–160

group char group name poem #s

01 周南 Odes of Zhou & South 001–011

02 召南 Odes of Shao & South 012–025

03 邶風 Odes of Bei 026–044

04 鄘風 Odes of Yong 045–054

05 衛風 Odes of Wei 055–064

06 王風 Odes of Wang 065–074

07 鄭風 Odes of Zheng 075–095

08 齊風 Odes of Qi 096–106

09 魏風 Odes of Wei 107–113

10 唐風 Odes of Tang 114–125

11 秦風 Odes of Qin 126–135

12 陳風 Odes of Chen 136–145

13 檜風 Odes of Kuai 146–149

14 曹風 Odes of Cao 150–153

15 豳風 Odes of Bin 154–160

Xiao Ya (Chinese: 小雅; pinyin: Xiǎoyǎ) "Lesser Court Hymns" poems 161–234

group char group name poem #s

01 鹿鳴 之什 Decade of Lu Ming 161–169

02 白華 之什 Decade of Baihua 170–174

03 彤弓 之什 Decade of Tong Gong 175–184

04 祈父 之什 Decade of Qi Fu 185–194

05 小旻 之什 Decade of Xiao Min 195–204

06 北山 之什 Decade of Bei Shan 205–214

07 桑扈 之什 Decade of Sang Hu 215–224

08 都人士 之什 Decade of Du Ren Shi 225–234

Da Ya (Chinese: 大雅; pinyin: Dàyǎ) "Major Court Hymns" poems 235–265; 31 total major festal songs (Chinese: 湮捇) for solemn court ceremonies

group char group name poem #s

01 文王之什 Decade of Wen Wang 235–244

02 生民之什 Decade of Sheng Min 245–254

03 蕩之什 Decade of Dang 255–265

Song (simplified Chinese: 颂; traditional Chinese: 頌; pinyin: Sòng) "Eulogies" poems 266–305; 40 total praises, hymns, or eulogies sung at spirit sacrifices

group char group name poem #s

01 周頌 Sacrificial Odes of Zhou 266–296

01a 清廟之什 Decade of Qing Miao 266–275

01b 臣工之什 Decade of Chen Gong 276–285

01c 閔予小子之什 Decade of Min You Xiao Zi 286–296

02 魯頌 Praise Odes of Lu 297–300

03 商頌 Sacrificial Odes of Shang 301–305

Note: alternative divisions may be topical or chronological (Legges): Song, Daya, Xiaoya, Guofeng

Notable translations[edit]

Legge, James (1871). The She king, or the Lessons from the States. The Chinese Classics. 4.  Part 1, Part 2. rpt. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press (1960). —— (1876). The She king, or The Book of Ancient Poetry (PDF). London: Trübner. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-12.  —— (1879). The Shû king. The religious portions of the Shih king. The Hsiâo king. The Sacred Books of China. 3.  Jennings, William (1891). The Shi King: The Old "Poetry Classic" of the Chinese. ; rpt. New York: Paragon (1969). (in French) (in Latin) Couvreur, Séraphin (1892). Cheu-king; Texte chinois avec une double traduction en français et en Latin [Shijing; Chinese Text With a Double Translation in French and Latin]. Hokkien: Mission Catholique.  Granet, Marcel (1929). Fêtes et chansons anciennes de la Chine (in French). Paris.  Translated into English by E. D. Edwards (1932), Festivals and Songs of Ancient China, New York: E.P. Dutton. Waley, Arthur (1937). The Book of Songs. London: Allen & Unwin.  Rpt. New York: Grove Press, 1996, with a Preface by Joseph Allen. ISBN 0802134777. Karlgren, Bernhard (1950). The Book of Odes. Stockholm: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities.  Pound, Ezra (1954). The Confucian
Odes: The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.  Takada, Shinji 高田真治 (1966). Shikyō 詩経 (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shūeisha.  (in Mandarin) Cheng, Junying 程俊英 (1985). Shijing yizhu 诗经译注 [Shijing, Translated and Annotated]. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe. (in Japanese) Mekada, Makoto 目加田誠 (1991). Shikyō 詩経. Tokyo: Kōbansha.

See also[edit]

Poetry portal Books portal China portal Culture portal

Chinese classics Classical Chinese poetry Geese in Chinese poetry "Guan ju" Chengyu Chinese art


^ a b c The *k-lˤeng (jing 經) appellation would not have been used until the Han dynasty, after the core Old Chinese
Old Chinese
period. ^ The variant character 苡 may sometimes be used in place of 苢, in which case the title is 芣苡, with corresponding substitutions for the fourth character of each line within the body of the poem. ^ In the Shi Huo Zhi 食貨志.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c d Davis (1970), p. xliii. ^ Hawkes (2011), p. 25. ^ Baxter (1992), p. 356. ^ Allan (1991), p. 39. ^ Zheng Xuan 鄭玄 (AD 127–200), Shipu xu 詩譜序. ^ Kern (2010), p. 23. ^ Dobson (1964). ^ Baxter (1992), pp. 355–356. ^ a b c d e f Kern (2010), p. 20. ^ a b c de Bary & Chan (1960), p. 3. ^ a b c Ebrey (1993), pp. 11-13. ^ Shi&Hu (2011). ^ Frankel (1978), p. 215–216. ^ a b c d Frankel (1978), p. 216. ^ Riegel (2001), p. 107. ^ Nylan (2001), pp. 73–74. ^ Riegel (2001), pp. 107–108. ^ Frankel (1978), p. 51–52. ^ a b Baxter (1992), pp. 150–151. ^ Baxter (1992), pp. 150–155. ^ Chang (2001), p. 2. ^ Yip (1997), p. 54. ^ Hinton (2008), pp. 7–8. ^ Hinton (2008), p. 8. ^ Frankel (1978), p. 215. ^ a b Kern (2010), p. 19. ^ Idema & Haft (1997), p. 94. ^ Analects
16.13. ^ a b Kern (2010), p. 22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kern (2010), p. 21. ^ a b Loewe (1993), p. 416. ^ a b Giles (1928), pp. 12-14. ^ Cited in Saussy (1993), p. 19. ^ a b Saussy (1993), p. 20. ^ Granet (1929), cited in Saussy (1993), p. 20. ^ a b c Davis (1970), p. xlv. ^ Davis (1970), p. xliv. ^ Baxter (1992), pp. 1–12. ^ Wang (1975), pp. 26–29.

Works cited[edit]

Allan, Sarah (1991), The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art, and Cosmos in Early China, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-0460-7.  de Bary, William Theodore; Chan, Wing-Tsit (1960), Sources of Chinese Tradition: Volume I, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-10939-0.  Baxter, William H. (1992), A Handbook of Old Chinese
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External links[edit]

Chinese Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 詩經

has original text related to this article: Classic of Poetry

Bilingual Chinese-English searchable edition at Chinese Text Project Shi Ji Zhuan from the Chinese Text Initiative, University of Virginia: Chinese text based on Zhu Xi's edition; English translation from James Legge, with Chinese names updated to pinyin. The Book of Odes at Wengu zhixin. Chinese text with James Legge
James Legge
and Marcel Granet
Marcel Granet
(partial) translations. Legge translation of the Book of Odes at the Internet Sacred Text Archive. Shijing and collated commentaries (Chinese text)

v t e

Chinese poetry

Major eras

Classical Chinese poetry Modern Chinese poetry

Poetry by dynasty

Han poetry Jian'an poetry Six Dynasties poetry Tang poetry Song poetry Yuan poetry Ming poetry Qing poetry

Poetry works and collections

Classic of Poetry Chu Ci New Songs from the Jade Terrace Nineteen Old Poems Quan Tangshi Three Hundred Tang Poems Wangchuan ji Wen Xuan Zhuying ji

Major forms

ci fu shi qu yuefu

Individual poems list

Chinese poems (category list) List of poems (article)

Modern compilations

Sunflower Splendor: Three Thousand Years of Chinese Poetry The Columbia Anthology of Modern Chinese Literature

Regional styles


v t e


Four Books

Great Learning Doctrine of the Mean Analects Mencius

Five Classics

Classic of Poetry Book of Documents Book of Rites I Ching Spring and Autumn Annals

Three Commentaries

Commentary of Zuo Commentary of Gongyang Commentary of Guliang

Thirteen Classics

Classic of Poetry Book of Documents Rites of Zhou Etiquette and Rites Book of Rites I Ching Commentary of Zuo Commentary of Gongyang Commentary of Guliang Analects Erya Classic of Filial Piety Mencius


Classic of Music School Sayings of Con