HOME
The Info List - Clara Barton


--- Advertisement ---



Clarissa "Clara" Harlowe Barton (December 25, 1821 – April 12, 1912) was a pioneering nurse who founded the American Red Cross. She was a hospital nurse in the American Civil War, a teacher, and patent clerk. Nursing education was not very formalized at that time and Clara did not attend nursing school, so she provided self-taught nursing care.[1] Barton is noteworthy for doing humanitarian work at a time when relatively few women worked outside the home.[2]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early professional life 3 American Civil War 4 Post American Civil War 5 American Red Cross 6 Final years 7 Religious beliefs 8 Clara Barton
Clara Barton
National Historic Site 9 Clara Barton's Missing Soldiers Office 10 Fictional depictions 11 Places named for Clara Barton

11.1 Schools 11.2 Streets 11.3 Other

12 Published works 13 Notes 14 Further reading

14.1 Historiography

15 External links

Early life[edit] Barton was born on December 25, 1821, in North Oxford, Massachusetts. Barton's father was Captain Stephen Barton, a member of the local militia and a selectman who inspired his daughter with patriotism and a broad humanitarian interest.[2] He was a soldier under the command of General Anthony Wayne in his crusade against the Indians in the northwest. He was also the leader of progressive thought in the Oxford village area.[3] Barton's mother was Sarah Stone Barton. When she was three years old, Barton was sent to school with her brother Stephen, where she excelled in reading and spelling. At school, she became close friends with Nancy Fitts; she is the only known friend Barton had as a child due to her extreme timidity.[4] When Clara was 10, she assigned herself the task of nursing her brother David back to health after he fell from the roof of a barn and received a severe injury.[4] Clara learned how to distribute the prescribed medication to her brother, as well as how to place leeches on his body to bleed him (a standard treatment at this time). She continued to care for David long after doctors had given up. He made a full recovery.[4] Her parents tried to help cure her timidity by enrolling her to Col. Stones High School, but their strategy turned out to be a catastrophe.[5] Clara became more timid and depressed and would not eat. She was brought back home to regain her health. Upon her return, her family relocated to help a family member: a paternal cousin of Clara's had died and left his wife with four children and a farm. The house that the Barton family was to live in needed to be painted and repaired.[4] Clara was persistent in offering assistance, much to the gratitude of her family. After the work was done, Clara was at a loss because she had nothing else to help with, to not feel like a burden to her family.[5] She began to play with her male cousins and, to their surprise, she was good at keeping up with such activities as horseback riding. It was not until after she had injured herself that Clara's mother began to question her playing with the boys. Clara's mother decided she should focus on more feminine skills. She invited one of Clara's female cousins over to help develop her femininity. From her cousin, she gained proper social skills as well.[6] To assist Clara with overcoming her shyness, her parents persuaded her to become a schoolteacher.[7] She achieved her first teacher's certificate in 1839, at only 17 years old. This profession interested Barton greatly and helped motivate her; she ended up conducting an effective redistricting campaign that allowed the children of workers to receive an education. Successful projects such as this gave Clara the confidence needed when she demanded equal pay for teaching. Early professional life[edit] Clara Barton
Clara Barton
became an educator in 1838 for 12 years in schools in Canada and West Georgia. Barton fared well as a teacher and knew how to handle rambunctious children, particularly the boys, since as a child she enjoyed her male cousins' and brothers' company. She learned how to act like them, making it easier for her to relate to and control the boys in her classroom since they respected her.[5] After her mother's death in 1851, the family home closed down. Barton decided to further her education by pursuing writing and languages at the Clinton Liberal Institute
Clinton Liberal Institute
in New York. In this college town, she developed many friendships that broadened her point of view on many issues concurring at the time. The principal of the institute recognized her tremendous abilities and admired her work. This friendship lasted for many years, eventually turning into a romance.[3] As a writer, her terminology was pristine and easy to understand. Her writings and bodies of work could instruct the local statesmen. No one could exceed her outstanding service to humanity in war and in peace.[3] While teaching in Hightstown, Clara Barton
Clara Barton
learned about the lack of public schools in Bordentown, the neighboring city.[3] In 1852, she was contracted to open a free school in Bordentown, which was the first ever free school in New Jersey.[8] She was successful, and after a year she had hired another woman to help teach over 600 people. Both women were making $250 a year. This accomplishment compelled the town to raise nearly $4,000 for a new school building. Once completed, though, Barton was replaced as principal by a man elected by the school board. They saw the position as head of a large institution to be unfitting for a woman. She was demoted to "female assistant" and worked in a harsh environment until she had a nervous breakdown along with other health ailments, and quit.[9] In 1855, she moved to Washington D.C. and began work as a clerk in the US Patent Office;[10] this was the first time a woman had received a substantial clerkship in the federal government and at a salary equal to a man's salary. For three years, she received much abuse and slander from male clerks.[11] Subsequently, under political opposition to women working in government offices, her position was reduced to that of copyist, and in 1856, under the administration of James Buchanan, she was fired because of her "Black Republicanism."[11] After the election of Abraham Lincoln, having lived with relatives and friends in Massachusetts for three years, she returned to the patent office in the autumn of 1861, now as temporary copyist, in the hope she could make way for more women in government service. American Civil War[edit]

Clara Barton
Clara Barton
circa 1866.

On April 19, 1861, the Baltimore Riot resulted in the first bloodshed of the American Civil War. Victims within the Massachusetts regiment were transported to Washington D.C. after the violence, which happened to be Clara Barton's home at the time. Wanting to serve her country, Barton went to the railroad station when the victims arrived and nursed 40 men.[11] Barton provided crucial, personal assistance to the men in uniform, many of whom were wounded, hungry and without any supplies besides what they carried on their backs. She began helping them by personally taking supplies to the unfinished Capitol Building where the young men of the 6th Massachusetts Militia, who had been attacked in Baltimore, Maryland, were housed. Barton quickly recognized them, as she had grown up with some of them, and some she had even taught. Barton, along with several other women, personally provided clothing, food, and supplies for the sick and wounded soldiers. She learned how to store and distribute medical supplies and offered emotional support to the soldiers by keeping their spirits high. She would read books to them, write letters to their families for them, talk to them, and support them.[12] It was on that day that she identified herself with army work and began her efforts towards collecting medical supplies for the Union soldiers. Prior to distributing provisions directly onto the battlefield and gaining further support, Barton used her own living quarters as a storeroom and distributed supplies with the help of a few friends in early 1862, despite opposition in the War Department and among field surgeons.[2] Ladies' Aid societies helped in sending bandages, food, and clothing that would later be distributed during the Civil War. In August 1862, Barton finally gained permission from Quartermaster
Quartermaster
Daniel Rucker to work on the front lines. She gained support from other people who believed in her cause. These people became her patrons, her most supportive being Senator Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson
of Massachusetts.[13] After the First Battle of Bull Run, Barton placed an ad in a Massachusetts newspaper for supplies; the response was a profound influx of supplies.[14] She worked to distribute stores, clean field hospitals, apply dressings, and serve food to wounded soldiers in close proximity to several battles, including Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg.[15] Barton helped both Union and Confederate soldiers.[14] Supplies were not always readily available though. At the battle of Antietam, for example, Barton used corn-husks in place of bandages [16] In 1863 she began a romantic relationship with an officer, Colonel John J. Elwell.[17] In 1864, she was appointed by Union General Benjamin Butler as the "lady in charge" of the hospitals at the front of the Army of the James. Among her more harrowing experiences was an incident in which a bullet tore through the sleeve of her dress without striking her and killed a man to whom she was tending. She was known as the "American Nightingale." She was also known as the "Angel of the Battlefield[12]" after she came to the aid of the overwhelmed surgeon on duty following the battle of Cedar Mountain in Northern Virginia in August 1862. She arrived at a field hospital at midnight with a large amount of supplies to help the severely wounded soldiers. This naming came from her frequent timely assistance as she served troops at the battles of Fairfax Station, Chantilly, Harpers Ferry, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Charleston, Petersburg and Cold Harbor.[8][18] Post American Civil War[edit] After the end of the American Civil War, Clara Barton
Clara Barton
discovered that thousands of letters from distraught relatives to the War Department were going unanswered because the soldiers they were questioning about were buried in unmarked graves. Many of these soldiers were labeled just as "missing". Motivated to do more about the situation, Miss Barton contacted President Lincoln in hopes that she would be allowed to respond officially to these unanswered inquiries. She was given permission, and "The Search for the Missing Men" commenced.[19] After the war, she ran the Office of Missing Soldiers, at 437 ½ Seventh Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C.
Northwest, Washington, D.C.
in the Gallery Place neighborhood.[20] The office's purpose was to find or identify soldiers killed or missing in action.[21] Barton and her assistants wrote 41,855 replies to inquiries and helped locate more than twenty-two thousand missing men. Barton spent the summer of 1865 helping find, identify, and properly bury 13,000 individuals who died in Andersonville prison camp, a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in Georgia.[22] She continued this task over the next four years, burying 20,000 more Union soldiers and marking their graves.[19] Congress eventually appropriated $15,000 toward her project.[23] American Red Cross[edit]

Detail of Clara Barton
Clara Barton
monument at Antietam National Battlefield, with red cross formed of a brick from the home where she was born.

Barton achieved widespread recognition by delivering lectures around the country about her war experiences in 1865–1868. During this time she met Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
and began a long association with the woman's suffrage movement. She also became acquainted with Frederick Douglass and became an activist for civil rights. After her country wide tour she was both mentally and physically exhausted and under doctor's orders to go somewhere that would take her far from her current work. She closed the Missing Soldiers Office in 1868 and traveled to Europe. In 1869, during her trip to Geneva, Switzerland, Barton was introduced to the Red Cross and Dr. Appia; who later would invite her to be the representative for the American branch of the Red Cross and even help her find financial beneficiaries for the start of the American Red Cross. She was also introduced to Henry Dunant's book A Memory of Solferino, which called for the formation of national societies to provide relief voluntarily on a neutral basis. At the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War, in 1870, she assisted the Grand Duchess of Baden
Baden
in the preparation of military hospitals, and gave the Red Cross society much aid during the war. At the joint request of the German authorities and the Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Comité de Secours, she superintended the supplying of work to the poor of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
in 1871, after the Siege of Paris, and in 1871 had charge of the public distribution of supplies to the destitute people of Paris. At the close of the war, she received honorable decorations of the Golden Cross of Baden
Baden
and the Prussian Iron Cross.[24] When Barton returned to the United States, she inaugurated a movement to gain recognition for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) by the United States government.[25] In 1873, she began work on this project. In 1878, she met with President Rutherford B. Hayes, who expressed the opinion of most Americans at that time which was the U.S. would never again face a calamity like the Civil War. Barton finally succeeded during the administration of President Chester Arthur, using the argument that the new American Red Cross
American Red Cross
could respond to crises other than war such as natural disasters like earthquakes, forest fires, and hurricanes. Barton became President of the American branch of the society, which held its first official meeting at her I Street apartment in Washington, DC, May 21, 1881. The first local society was founded August 22, 1882 in Dansville, Livingston County, New York, where she maintained a country home.[26][27]

Clara Barton
Clara Barton
was honored with a U.S. commemorative stamp, issued in 1948

The society's role changed with the advent of the Spanish–American War during which it aided refugees and prisoners of the civil war. Once the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
was over the great people of Santiago built a statue in honor of Clara Barton
Clara Barton
in the town square. The statue of Clara Barton
Clara Barton
still stands there today. Domestically in 1884 she helped in the floods on the Ohio river, provided Texas with food and supplies during the famine of 1887 and took workers to Illinois in 1888 after a tornado and that same year to Florida for the yellow fever epidemic.[28] Within days after the Johnstown Flood
Johnstown Flood
in 1889, she led her delegation of 50 doctors and nurses in response.[28] In 1897, responding to the humanitarian crisis in the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the Hamidian Massacres, Barton sailed to Constantinople
Constantinople
and after long negotiations with Abdul Hamid II, opened the first American International Red Cross headquarters in the heart of Turkey. Barton herself traveled along with five other Red Cross expeditions to the Armenian provinces in the spring of 1896, providing relief and humanitarian aid. Barton also worked in hospitals in Cuba in 1898 at the age of seventy-seven.[29] Barton's last field operation as President of the American Red Cross was helping victims of the Galveston hurricane in 1900. The operation established an orphanage for children. As criticism arose of her mixing professional and personal resources, Barton was forced to resign as president of the American Red Cross
American Red Cross
in 1904, at the age of 83 because of her egocentric leadership style fitting poorly into the formal structure of organizational charity.[8] She had been forced out of office by a new generation of all-male scientific experts who reflected the realistic efficiency of the Progressive Era rather than her idealistic humanitarianism.[30] In memory of the courageous women of the civil war, the Red Cross Headquarters was founded. During the dedication, not one person said a word. This was done in order to honor the women and their services.[31] After resigning, Barton founded the National First Aid Society. Final years[edit] She continued to live in her Glen Echo, Maryland
Glen Echo, Maryland
home which also served as the Red Cross Headquarters upon her arrival to the house in 1897. Barton published her autobiography in 1907, titled The Story of My Childhood.[18] On April 12, 1912 at the age of 90, she died in her home. The cause of death was pneumonia. Religious beliefs[edit] Although not formally a member of the Universalist Church of America,[32] in a 1905 letter to the widow of Carl Norman Thrasher, she identified herself with her parents' church as a "Universalist".[33] While she was not an active member of her parents' church, Clara wrote about how well known her family was in her hometown and how many relationships her father formed with others in their town through their church and religion.[5] Clara Barton
Clara Barton
National Historic Site[edit]

 

In 1975, the Clara Barton
Clara Barton
National Historic Site, located at 5801 Oxford Road, Glen Echo, Maryland, was established as a unit of the National Park Service
National Park Service
at Barton's home, where she spent the last 15 years of her life. As the first National Historic Site dedicated to the accomplishments of a woman, it preserves the early history of the American Red Cross, since the home also served as an early headquarters of the organization. The North Oxford, Massachusetts, house in which she was born is now also a museum. The National Park Service
National Park Service
has restored eleven rooms, including the Red Cross offices, the parlors and Barton's bedroom. Visitors to Clara Barton National Historic Site can gain a sense of how Barton lived and worked. Guides lead tourists through the three levels, emphasizing Barton's use of her unusual home. Modern visitors can come to appreciate the site in the same way visitors did in Clara Barton's lifetime.[34] Clara Barton's Missing Soldiers Office[edit] In 1869, Clara Barton
Clara Barton
closed the Missing Soldiers Office and headed to Europe.[35] The third floor of her old boardinghouse was boarded up in 1913, and the site forgotten. The site was "lost" in part because the city realigned its addressing system in the 1870s. The boardinghouse became 437 ½ Seventh Street Northwest (formerly 488-1/2 Seventh Street West). In 1997, General Services Administration carpenter Richard Lyons was hired to check out the building for its demolition. He found a treasure trove of Clara Barton
Clara Barton
items in the attic, including signs, clothing, Civil War soldier's socks, an army tent, Civil War-era newspapers, and many documents relating to the Office of Missing Soldiers.[36] This discovery led to the NPS saving the building from demolition. It took years, however, for the site to be restored.[37] The Clara Barton's Missing Soldiers Office Museum, run by the National Museum of Civil War Medicine, opened in 2015.[38][39] Fictional depictions[edit]

Numbering All the Bones by Ann Rinaldi features Clara Barton
Clara Barton
and Andersonville Prison, a Civil War prison with terrible conditions. Angel of Mercy (MGM, 1939) is a biographical short film directed by Edward L. Cahn, starring Sara Haden
Sara Haden
as Clara Barton
Clara Barton
and Ann Rutherford as a woman whose brother's death in a Civil War battle inspires her to join Barton in her work.[40] In the NBC TV series Voyagers!
Voyagers!
(1982–1983), Phineas Bogg and Jeffrey Jones travel through time to make sure history proceeds correctly. In the episode "The Travels of Marco ... and Friends", season 1, episode 9, original airdate December 3, 1982, Phineas and Jeffrey rescue Clara Barton
Clara Barton
(Patricia Donahue) from a burning wagon, but she is on the verge of succumbing to smoke inhalation. Jeffrey (a young boy from 1982) applies mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (a technique unknown in Barton's time) and saves her life, thus enabling her to go on to found the American Red Cross. Season 5 of Drunk History
Drunk History
(Comedy Central, 2013-) features a summary of Clara Barton's accomplishments during and after the Civil War as narrated by Amber Ruffin.

Places named for Clara Barton[edit]

Clara Barton
Clara Barton
– steel engraving by John Sartain

Schools[edit]

Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Levittown, Pennsylvania Barton Hall at Montclair State University
Montclair State University
in Upper Montclair, New Jersey Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary on Del Amo Boulevard in Long Beach, California Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Alton, Illinois Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Redmond, Washington Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Anaheim, California Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in The Bronx Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Cherry Hill, New Jersey Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Chicago Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Corona, California Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Oxford, Massachusetts Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in San Diego
San Diego
(now San Diego
San Diego
Cooperative Charter School) Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in Rochester NY[41] Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Elementary School in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Junior High School in Royal Oak, Michigan Clara Barton High School
Clara Barton High School
in Brooklyn Clara Barton
Clara Barton
House, a residence hall at Towson University, Towson, Maryland Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Open School in Minneapolis Clara Barton
Clara Barton
School, in Cabin John, Maryland, now the Clara Barton Community Center Clara Barton
Clara Barton
School in Bordentown, New Jersey Clara Barton
Clara Barton
School in Fargo, North Dakota Clara Barton
Clara Barton
School in Philadelphia

Streets[edit]

Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Road in Oxford, Massachusetts Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Lane in Galveston, Texas Barton Boulevard in Rockledge, Florida Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Drive in Albany, New York Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Drive in Fairfax Station, Virginia Clara Barton Parkway
Clara Barton Parkway
in Maryland Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Street in Dansville, NY Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Boulevard in Garland, TX Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Circle in Sylacauga, AL

Other[edit]

Barton, a crater on Venus Barton Center for Diabetes Education, North Oxford, Massachusetts Barton County, Kansas Barton Towers, in Royal Oak, Michigan, on the former site of Clara Barton Junior High School Barton Hall, Iowa State University Barton's Crossing, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, a homeless shelter[42] Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Community Center, Cabin John, Maryland Clara Barton
Clara Barton
District, a regional association of Unitarian Universalist Association member congregations Clara Barton
Clara Barton
First Aid Squad, Edison, New Jersey Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Hospital and Clinics, Hoisington, Kansas Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Service Area, on the New Jersey Turnpike
New Jersey Turnpike
in Oldmans Township, New Jersey Clara Barton, New Jersey Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Tree, a giant sequoia tree in the Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park[43] Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Memorial Forest in Lake Clear, New York, planted in 1925 Lake Barton in Burke, Virginia Barton House in Towson University

Published works[edit]

Barton, Clara H. The Red Cross-In Peace and War. Washington, D.C.: American Historical Press, 1898. OCLC 1187508. Barton, Clara H. Story of the Red Cross-Glimpses of Field Work. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1904. OCLC 5807882. Barton, Clara H. The Story of My Childhood. New York: Baker & Taylor Company, 1907. Reprinted by Arno Press in 1980. OCLC 6015444.

Notes[edit]

^ Summers, Cole. "Clara Barton- Founder of the American Red Cross". Truth About Nursing. Retrieved 5 May 2017.  ^ a b c Edward, James; Wilson James, Janet; S. Boyer, Paul (1971). Notable American Women 1607–1950: A Biographical Dictionary, Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Pr. pp. 103–107.  ^ a b c d Bacon-Foster, Corra. Clara Barton, Humanitarian. Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C. 21 (1918): 278-356. Print. ^ a b c d Barton, Clara. The Story of My Childhood New York: Arno Press Inc, (1980) ^ a b c d Pryor, Elizabeth Brown. Clara Barton: Professional Angel Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, (1987) ^ Pryor, Elizabeth Brown (1988). Clara Barton: professional angel (1st pbk. print. ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. ISBN 978-0-8122-1273-0.  ^ Pryor, Elizabeth Brown. Barton, Clara. American National Biography, (2000) ^ a b c Howard, Angela; M. Kavenik, Frances (1990). Handbook of American Women's History, Vol. 696. NY: Garland. pp. 61–62.  ^ Spiegel, Allen D. "The Role of Gender, Phrenology, Discrimination and Nervous Prostration in Clara Barton's Career". Journal of Community Health 20.6 (1995): 501–526. ^ Clara Barton, Dictionary of Unitarian & Universalist Biography ^ a b c E. Willard, Frances; A. Livermore, Mary (2005). Great American Women of the 19th Century: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books. pp. 81–82.  ^ a b " Clara Barton
Clara Barton
American Red Cross
American Red Cross
Founder Who is Clara Barton". American Red Cross. Retrieved 2016-12-09.  ^ Oates, Stephen B. (1994). A Woman of Valor. Macmillan. pp. 13, 51–52. ISBN 0-02-923405-0.  ^ a b Tsui, Bonnie (2006). She Went to the Field: Women Soldiers of the Civil War. Guilford: Two Dot. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-7627-4384-1.  ^ Oates, Stephen B. (1994). A Woman of Valor. Macmillan. pp. 58–64, 67–77, 83–91, 106–120. ISBN 0-02-923405-0.  ^ Hall, Richard H. (2006). Women on the Civil War Battlefront. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7006-1437-0.  ^ Oates, Stephen B. (1994). A Woman of Valor. Macmillan. pp. 145–146, 148–157. ISBN 0-02-923405-0.  ^ a b "The Story of My Childhood". World Digital Library. 1907. Retrieved 2013-10-09.  ^ a b Harper, Ida H. "The Life and Work of Clara Barton". The North American Review 195.678 (1912): 701–712. ^ Clara Barton. dcwriters.poetrymutual.org ^ " Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Missing Soldiers Office". National Museum of Civil War Medicine. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2014.  ^ " Clara Barton
Clara Barton
and Andersonville". National Park Service. Retrieved 2016-01-30.  ^ Peck, Garrett (2015). Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman
in Washington, D.C.: The Civil War and America's Great Poet. Charleston, SC: The History Press. pp. 76–79. ISBN 978-1-62619-973-6.  ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1900). "Barton, Clara". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.  ^ Epler, Percy Harold (1915). The Life of Clara Barton. Macmillan. Retrieved 2010-09-28.  ^ Marks, Mary Jo. "History - Founder Clara Barton". American Red Cross. Retrieved 2014-05-21.  ^ McCullough, David (1968). The Johnstown Flood. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-671-39530-8.  ^ a b McCullough, David (1968). The Johnstown Flood. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-39530-8.  ^ Christine Ardalan, "Clara Barton's 1898 battles in Cuba: a reexamination of her nursing contributions." Florida Atlantic Comparative Studies Journal 12.1 (2010). ^ David Henry Burton, Clara Barton: In the Service of Humanity (Greenwood, 1995) ^ Downing, Margaret Brent. "The Centenary of Clara Barton
Clara Barton
and Recent Biographical Sketches of Her Life and Achievements." Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C. 26 (1924): 121-8. Print. ^ Russell E. Miller, The Larger Hope: The First Century of the Universalist Church in America 1386 "Although not formally a Universalist by church membership, she had come of a Universalist family, was sympathetic to the tenets of the denomination, and has always been claimed by it.124 Known as "the Florence Nightingale of our war", ^ "Positive Atheism website". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2007-05-25.  Source taken from The Universalist Leader 120/49 1938.

My dear friend and sister: Your belief that I am a Universalist is as correct as your greater belief that you are one yourself, a belief in which all who are privileged to possess it rejoice. In my case, it was a great gift, like St. Paul, I 'was born free', and saved the pain of reaching it through years of struggle and doubt. My father was a leader in the building of the church in which Hosea Ballow preached his first dedication sermon. Your historic records will show that the old Huguenot town of Oxford, Mass. erected one of, if not the first Universalist Church in America. In this town I was born; in this church I was reared. In all its reconstructions and remodelings I have taken a part, and I look anxiously for a time in the near future when the busy world will let me once more become a living part of its people, praising God for the advance in the liberal faith of the religions of the world today, so largely due to the teachings of this belief. Give, I pray you, dear sister, my warmest congratulations to the members of your society. My best wishes for the success of your annual meeting, and accept my thanks most sincerely for having written me. Fraternally yours, (Signed) Clara Barton.

^ " Clara Barton
Clara Barton
NHS – The House". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-05-25.  ^ " Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Chronology 1861–1869". National Park Service. Retrieved 8 June 2015.  ^ "Clara Barton's Missing Soldiers Office: An Historic Rediscovery on 7th Street". Smithsonian Associates. July 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2015.  ^ "Clara Barton's D.C. Office To Be Civil War Missing Soldiers Museum". Huffington Post. April 12, 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2015.  ^ " Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Missing Soldiers Office". Retrieved 12 June 2017.  ^ Peck, Garrett (2015). Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman
in Washington, D.C.: The Civil War and America's Great Poet. Charleston, SC: The History Press. pp. 76–80. ISBN 978-1-62619-973-6.  ^ Angel of Mercy on IMDb ^ " Clara Barton
Clara Barton
School No. 2 / Overview". rcsdk12.org.  ^ Michael. "Bartons Crossing Emergency (BCAC)". homelessshelterdirectory.org.  ^ "Trail Map of Big Trees Trail". Retrieved 22 December 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Ardalan, Christine. "Clara Barton's 1898 battles in Cuba: a reexamination of her nursing contributions." Florida Atlantic Comparative Studies Journal 12.1 (2010). online Barton, William E. The Life of Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Founder of the American Red Cross. (1922) OCLC 164624867. Burton, David Henry. Clara Barton: in the service of humanity (Greenwood, 1995); Major scholarly study online Crompton, Samuel Etinde. Clara Barton: Humanitarian. New York: Chelsea House, 2009. ISBN 978-1-60413-492-6. OCLC 290489234. Deady, Kathleen W. Clara Barton. Mankato: Capstone Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7368-1604-6. OCLC 50022907. Dulles Foster R. The American Red Cross: A History (1950) Henle, Ellen Langenheim. "Clara Barton, Soldier or Pacifist?." Civil War History 24.2 (1978): 152–160. online Hutchinson, John F. Champions of Charity: War and the Rise of the Red Cross. Boulder: Westview Press, Inc., 1996. ISBN 0-8133-2526-9 OCLC 33948775. Jones, Marian Moser. The American Red Cross
American Red Cross
from Clara Barton
Clara Barton
to the New Deal. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-4214-0738-8 OCLC 786245443 Joyce, James Avery. Red Cross International and the Strategy of Peace. New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1959. OCLC 263367. Oates, Stephen B. A Woman of Valor: Clara Barton
Clara Barton
and the Civil War. New York: Free Press, 1994. ISBN 0-02-923405-0 OCLC 29259364 Pryor, Elizabeth Brown. Clara Barton: Professional Angel. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8122-8060-1 OCLC 15792319. Ross, Ishbel. Angel of the Battlefield: The Life of Clara Barton. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1956. OCLC 420062. Safranski, Debby Burnett. Angel of Andersonville, Prince of Tahiti: The Extraordinary Life of Dorence Atwater. Alling-Porterfield Publishing House, 2008. ISBN 0-9749767-1-7 OCLC 613558868 Holder, Victoria L (Oct 2003). "From hand maiden to right hand-the birth of nursing in America". Association of Operations Room Nurses. 78 (4): 618–32. 

Historiography[edit]

Amico, Eleanor B., ed. Reader's Guide to Women's Studies ( Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998) pg.56–57

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Clara Barton

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clara Barton.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Barton, Clara.

Clara Barton
Clara Barton
National Historic Site Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Birthplace Museum Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Missing Soldiers Office The Barton Center For Diabetes Education, Inc. Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Passport Application – 1869 (Original document image) Clara Barton, A Register of Her Papers in the Library of Congress Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Papers, Sophia Smith
Sophia Smith
Collection Michals, Debra. "Clara Barton". National Women's History Museum. 2015. The personal papers of Clara Barton
Clara Barton
are in the Andover-Harvard Theological Library at Harvard Divinity School
Harvard Divinity School
in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Works by Clara Barton
Clara Barton
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Clara Barton
Clara Barton
at Internet Archive Works by Clara Barton
Clara Barton
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Clara Barton
Clara Barton
at Find a Grave

Links to related articles

v t e

Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame

1970–1979

1973

Jane Addams Marian Anderson Susan B. Anthony Clara Barton Mary McLeod Bethune Elizabeth Blackwell Pearl S. Buck Rachel Carson Mary Cassatt Emily Dickinson Amelia Earhart Alice Hamilton Helen Hayes Helen Keller Eleanor Roosevelt Florence Sabin Margaret Chase Smith Elizabeth Cady Stanton Helen Brooke Taussig Harriet Tubman

1976

Abigail Adams Margaret Mead Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias

1979

Dorothea Dix Juliette Gordon Low Alice Paul Elizabeth Bayley Seton

1980–1989

1981

Margaret Sanger Sojourner Truth

1982

Carrie Chapman Catt Frances Perkins

1983

Belva Lockwood Lucretia Mott

1984

Mary "Mother" Harris Jones Bessie Smith

1986

Barbara McClintock Lucy Stone Harriet Beecher Stowe

1988

Gwendolyn Brooks Willa Cather Sally Ride Ida B. Wells-Barnett

1990–1999

1990

Margaret Bourke-White Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Florence B. Seibert

1991

Gertrude Belle Elion

1993

Ethel Percy Andrus Antoinette Blackwell Emily Blackwell Shirley Chisholm Jacqueline Cochran Ruth Colvin Marian Wright Edelman Alice Evans Betty Friedan Ella Grasso Martha Wright Griffiths Fannie Lou Hamer Dorothy Height Dolores Huerta Mary Jacobi Mae Jemison Mary Lyon Mary Mahoney Wilma Mankiller Constance Baker Motley Georgia O'Keeffe Annie Oakley Rosa Parks Esther Peterson Jeannette Rankin Ellen Swallow Richards Elaine Roulet Katherine Siva Saubel Gloria Steinem Helen Stephens Lillian Wald Madam C. J. Walker Faye Wattleton Rosalyn S. Yalow Gloria Yerkovich

1994

Bella Abzug Ella Baker Myra Bradwell Annie Jump Cannon Jane Cunningham Croly Catherine East Geraldine Ferraro Charlotte Perkins Gilman Grace Hopper Helen LaKelly Hunt Zora Neale Hurston Anne Hutchinson Frances Wisebart Jacobs Susette La Flesche Louise McManus Maria Mitchell Antonia Novello Linda Richards Wilma Rudolph Betty Bone Schiess Muriel Siebert Nettie Stevens Oprah Winfrey Sarah Winnemucca Fanny Wright

1995

Virginia Apgar Ann Bancroft Amelia Bloomer Mary Breckinridge Eileen Collins Elizabeth Hanford Dole Anne Dallas Dudley Mary Baker Eddy Ella Fitzgerald Margaret Fuller Matilda Joslyn Gage Lillian Moller Gilbreth Nannerl O. Keohane Maggie Kuhn Sandra Day O'Connor Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin Pat Schroeder Hannah Greenebaum Solomon

1996

Louisa May Alcott Charlotte Anne Bunch Frances Xavier Cabrini Mary A. Hallaren Oveta Culp Hobby Wilhelmina Cole Holladay Anne Morrow Lindbergh Maria Goeppert-Mayer Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose Maria Tallchief Edith Wharton

1998

Madeleine Albright Maya Angelou Nellie Bly Lydia Moss Bradley Mary Steichen Calderone Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary Joan Ganz Cooney Gerty Cori Sarah Grimké Julia Ward Howe Shirley Ann Jackson Shannon Lucid Katharine Dexter McCormick Rozanne L. Ridgway Edith Nourse Rogers Felice Schwartz Eunice Kennedy Shriver Beverly Sills Florence Wald Angelina Grimké
Angelina Grimké
Weld Chien-Shiung Wu

2000–2009

2000

Faye Glenn Abdellah Emma Smith DeVoe Marjory Stoneman Douglas Mary Dyer Sylvia A. Earle Crystal Eastman Jeanne Holm Leontine T. Kelly Frances Oldham Kelsey Kate Mullany Janet Reno Anna Howard Shaw Sophia Smith Ida Tarbell Wilma L. Vaught Mary Edwards Walker Annie Dodge Wauneka Eudora Welty Frances E. Willard

2001

Dorothy H. Andersen Lucille Ball Rosalynn Carter Lydia Maria Child Bessie Coleman Dorothy Day Marian de Forest Althea Gibson Beatrice A. Hicks Barbara Holdridge Harriet Williams Russell Strong Emily Howell Warner Victoria Woodhull

2002

Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis Ruth Bader Ginsburg Katharine Graham Bertha Holt Mary Engle Pennington Mercy Otis Warren

2003

Linda G. Alvarado Donna de Varona Gertrude Ederle Martha Matilda Harper Patricia Roberts Harris Stephanie L. Kwolek Dorothea Lange Mildred Robbins Leet Patsy Takemoto Mink Sacagawea Anne Sullivan Sheila E. Widnall

2005

Florence Ellinwood Allen Ruth Fulton Benedict Betty Bumpers Hillary Clinton Rita Rossi Colwell Mother Marianne Cope Maya Y. Lin Patricia A. Locke Blanche Stuart Scott Mary Burnett Talbert

2007

Eleanor K. Baum Julia Child Martha Coffin Pelham Wright Swanee Hunt Winona LaDuke Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Judith L. Pipher Catherine Filene Shouse Henrietta Szold

2009

Louise Bourgeois Mildred Cohn Karen DeCrow Susan Kelly-Dreiss Allie B. Latimer Emma Lazarus Ruth Patrick Rebecca Talbot Perkins Susan Solomon Kate Stoneman

2010–2019

2011

St. Katharine Drexel Dorothy Harrison Eustis Loretta C. Ford Abby Kelley
Abby Kelley
Foster Helen Murray Free Billie Holiday Coretta Scott King Lilly Ledbetter Barbara A. Mikulski Donna E. Shalala Kathrine Switzer

2013

Betty Ford Ina May Gaskin Julie Krone Kate Millett Nancy Pelosi Mary Joseph Rogers Bernice Sandler Anna Schwartz Emma Willard

2015

Tenley Albright Nancy Brinker Martha Graham Marcia Greenberger Barbara Iglewski Jean Kilbourne Carlotta Walls LaNier Philippa Marrack Mary Harriman Rumsey Eleanor Smeal

2017

Matilda Cuomo Temple Grandin Lorraine Hansberry Victoria Jackson Sherry Lansing Clare Boothe Luce Aimee Mullins Carol Mutter Janet Rowley Alice Waters

v t e

Maryland Women's Hall of Fame

1985

Margaret Brent Rachel Carson Rita C. Davidson Gladys Spellman Harriet Tubman

1986

Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson Elizabeth Ann Seton Henrietta Szold Jeanette Rosner Wolman Hiltgunt Zassenhaus

1987

Clara Barton Frances Harper Juanita Jackson Mitchell Mary Shaw Shorb Helen B. Taussig

1988

Barbara Mikulski Sadie Kneller Miller Mary Eliza Risteau Martha Carey Thomas Verda Welcome

1989

Bertha Adkins Eugenie Clark Lavinia Engle Lena King Lee Estelle R. Ramey

1990

Lucille Maurer Enolia McMillan Pauli Murray Adele Hagner Stamp Mary Lemist Titcomb

1991

Rita R. Colwell Mary Elizabeth Lange Claire McCardell Bessie Moses Alta Schrock

1992

Annie Armstrong Anna Ella Carroll Rose Kushner Margaret Collins Schweinhaut Carmen Delgado Votaw

1993

Rosalyn Blake Bell Lucille Clifton Elizabeth King Ellicott Jean Spencer Martha Ellicott Tyson

1994

Rosalie Silber Abrams Mary Elizabeth Banning Harriet Elizabeth Brown Connie Morella Mary Adelaide Nutting

1995

Jill Moss Greenberg Mary L. Nock Amanda Taylor Norris Nettie Barcroft Taylor Euphemia Mary Goldsborough Willson

1996

Madeleine L. Ellicott Ethel Ennis Mary Digges Lee Brigid G. Leventhal Barbara A. Robinson

1997

Diane L. Adams Sol del Ande Mendez Eaton Catherine R. Gira Helen L. Koss Rosa Ponselle

1998

Constance Ross Beims Mary Katherine Goddard Elaine Ryan Hedges Mary Carter Smith

1999

Florence Riefle Bahr Lillian C. Compton Edith Houghton Hooker Elizabeth Fran Johnson Bernice Smith White

2000

Constance Uriolo Battle Lois Green Carr Sonia Pressman Fuentes Josephine Jacobsen Rosetta Stith

2001

Kathleen Feeley Misbah Khan (pediatrician) Charmaine Krohe Eunice Kennedy Shriver Sandra W. Tomlinson

2002

Mabel Houze Hubbard Florence P Kendall Mary Young Pickersgill Lorraine Sheehan

2003

Virginia Walcott Beauchamp Edith Clarke Kathryn J. DuFour Ruth L. Kirschstein Etta H. Maddox Debbie Yow

2004

Edmonson sisters Nancy Grasmick Esther McCready Margaret Byrd Rawson Vivian V. Simpson

2005

Shoshanna Shoubin Cardin Bessie Olive Cole Susan R. Panny Edyth H. Schoenrich

2006

Susan P. Baker Liebe Sokol Diamond Bea Gaddy Marilyn Hughes Gaston Rebecca Alban Hoffberger Grace Snively

2007

Annette M.Deener Sally T. Grant Prasanna Nair Karen H. Rothenberg Audrey E. Scott

2008

Ramona McCarthy Hawkins Ellen Moses Heller Billie Holiday Pauline Menes Toby Orenstein Emily Wilson Walker

2009

Ilia Fehrer Diane E. Griffin Harriet Legum Allyson R. Solomon Anne St. Clair Wright

2010

Claire M. Fraser Anne Catherine Hoof Green Irene Morgan Kirkaldy Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps Bernice R. Sandler Lillie D. Shockney

2011

Carol W. Greider Barbara Holdridge Ligia Peralta Gertrude Poe Lucy Diggs Slowe June A. Willenz

2012

Maureen Black Margaret Dunkle Nancy Kopp Alice Manicur Diana Gribbon Motz Gwendolyn Rooks

2013

Helen Delich Bentley Jean B. Cryor Charlene Mickens Dukes Ellen Sauerbrey Linda A. Shevitz Beatrice P. Tignor

2014

Dorothy F. Bailey Agnes Kane Callum Renee E. Fox Susan K. Goering Henrietta Lacks Ann Cipriano Rees

2015

Beverly B. Byron E. Gail de Planque Mary S. Feik Katherine O'Brien Linda L. Singh Sue Fryer Ward

2016

Sophia Arabatzis Balis Oretha Bridgwaters-Simms Mary C. Goodwillie Elaine Danforth Harmon Joanne Katz Lizette Woodworth Reese

2017

Marsha Coleman-Adebayo Carolyn W. Colvin Donna F. Edwards Mary Elizabeth Garrett Katharine Blodgett Gebbie Kathleen Ledecky Helen Maroulis Lilian Welsh

v t e

Hall of Fame for Great Americans

John Adams John Quincy Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Ward Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington
George Washington
Carver William Ellery Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan
James Buchanan
Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W. Gibbs William C. Gorgas Ulysses S. Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A. Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. B. Morse William T. G. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Barack Obama Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T. Washington George Washington Daniel Webster George Westinghouse James McNeill Whistler Walt Whitman Eli Whitney John Greenleaf Whittier Emma Willard Frances E. Willard Roger Williams Woodrow Wilson Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

v t e

Fairfax County in the American Civil War

Battles

Battle of Blackburn's Ford Battle of Chantilly Battle of Dranesville Battle of Fairfax Court House (June 1861) Battle of Fairfax Court House (June 1863) First Battle of Bull Run Second Battle of Bull Run Battle of Vienna, Virginia

Skirmishes

Bog Wallow Ambush

Raids

Burke's Station Raid Mosby's Raids

Units

8th Virginia Infantry 17th Virginia Infantry 1st Virginia Cavalry 43rd Battalion of Virginia Cavalry Georgia Hussars (later Jeff Davis Cavalry Legion, Company F) 3rd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry 3rd Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment 45th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment 16th Regiment New York Volunteer Cavalry First New Jersey Brigade 2nd Vermont Brigade XXII Corps (Union Army) Union Army Balloon Corps

People

Clara Barton Michael Corcoran Antonia Ford Thaddeus Lowe John Quincy Marr John S. Mosby Edwin H. Stoughton Robert H. Anderson

Sites

Clarens (Alexandria, Virginia) Centreville Military Railroad Colvin Run Mill Fort Lyon (Virginia) Fort Marcy Park Hope Park Huntley (plantation) Fort O'Rourke Oak Hill (Annandale, Virginia) Okeley Manor Ossian Hall (plantation) Ox Hill Battlefield Park Ravensworth (plantation) St. Mary's Church (Fairfax Station, Virginia) Taylor's Tavern William Gunnell House (Fairfax, Virginia) Mason's Hill Minor's Hill Munson's Hill Upton's Hill Bailey's Crossroads

v t e

Hall of Fame for Great Americans

John Adams John Quincy Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Ward Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington
George Washington
Carver William Ellery Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan
James Buchanan
Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W. Gibbs William C. Gorgas Ulysses S. Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A. Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. B. Morse William T. G. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Barack Obama Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T. Washington George Washington Daniel Webster George Westinghouse James McNeill Whistler Walt Whitman Eli Whitney John Greenleaf Whittier Emma Willard Frances E. Willard Roger Williams Woodrow Wilson Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

Biography portal American Civil War
American Civil War
portal Nursing portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15145857779823020486 LCCN: n80009727 ISNI: 0000 0000 2037 4078 GND: 118849557 SUDOC: 034034161 BNF: cb12483105h (data) NDL: 00620

.