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Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
(Gaelic: Stiùbhart) is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan is recognised by Court of the Lord Lyon; however, it does not have a clan chief recognised by the Lord Lyon
Lord Lyon
King of Arms. Because the clan has no chief it can be considered an armigerous clan; however, the Earls of Galloway are now considered to be the principal branch of this clan,[2] and the crest and motto of The Earls of Galloway's arms are used in the Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
crest badge. The Court of the Lord Lyon
Lord Lyon
recognises two other 'Stewart' clans, Clan Stuart of Bute and Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
of Appin. Clan Stuart of Bute
Clan Stuart of Bute
is the only 'Stewart' clan at present which has a recognised chief.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins of the clan 1.2 Wars of Scottish Independence 1.3 Royal House of Stewart

1.3.1 Albany Stewarts

2 Main branches of the clan

2.1 Stewarts of Appin 2.2 Stewarts of Atholl 2.3 Stewarts of Balquhidder 2.4 Stuarts of Bute

3 Castles 4 Tartans 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Origins of the clan[edit] The Stewarts who became monarchs of Scotland
Scotland
were descended from a family who were seneschals of Dol in Brittany, France.[4] After the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
the Stewarts acquired estates in England
England
as the FitzAlan
FitzAlan
family, also Earls of Arundel.[4] Walter Flaad or Walter fitz Alan, the Steward came to Scotland
Scotland
when David I of Scotland claimed his throne.[4] It is from their office as Stewards that the surname Stewart came.[5] Walter was created High Steward of Scotland and was granted large estates in Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
and East Lothian.[4] Walter was one of the commanders of the royal army which defeated Somerled
Somerled
of the Isles (ancestor of Clan Donald) at the Battle of Renfrew in 1164.[4] (See: Walter fitz Alan). Wars of Scottish Independence[edit] During the Wars of Scottish Independence, James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland
Scotland
swore fealty to Edward I of England.[4] However, he later sided with Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
and William Wallace
William Wallace
in the struggle for Scottish independence.[4] Royal House of Stewart[edit] Main article: House of Stuart Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland
Scotland
married Marjory, daughter of king Robert the Bruce.[4] When Robert's son, David II of Scotland died, he was succeeded by Walter Stewart's son, Robert II of Scotland.[4] King Robert II had many sons, the eldest, John, succeeded to the throne of Scotland
Scotland
as Robert III of Scotland.[4] The royal line of male Stewarts was uninterrupted until the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots.[4] As a family the Stewarts (Stuarts) held the throne of Scotland
Scotland
and later England
England
until the death of Anne, Queen of Great Britain in 1714.[4] Albany Stewarts[edit] Main article: Duke of Albany The Dukedom of Albany is a peerage title that was bestowed on some younger sons in the Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the House of Stuart. Robert II's third son was Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, who was Regent
Regent
of Scotland
Scotland
during part of the reigns of his father, brother, and nephew James I of Scotland.[4] Robert II's fourth son was Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, who was famed as the Wolf of Badenoch and was responsible for the destruction of Elgin Cathedral.[4]

Stewart of Stewart

Stuart of Albany

Stuart, Earl of Buchan

Stewart of Barclye

Stewart of Garlies

Stewart of Minto

Stewart of Physgill

Stewart of Bute

Stuart of Bute

Stuart, Earl of Moray

Stewart of Atholl

Stewart of Rothesay

Stewart, Earl of Carrick

Stewart, Duke of Ross

Stewart, Earl of Strathearn

Stewart, Earl of Galloway

Stuart of Darnley

Stuart of Lennox

Stewart of Ardvorlich

Stuart, Lord Avandale

Stuart, Lord Ochiltree

When James I of Scotland
Scotland
came of age, he curbed the power of his cousins, the Albany Stewarts.[4] He beheaded Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, eldest son of the former regent Robert Stewart.[4] Two of Murdoch's sons, Walter and Alexander (Alasdair), were both executed as well.[6][7] Main branches of the clan[edit] As the Chief of the Stewarts was also the occupant of the Throne, the relationship between the various branches or members of the family differed from the usual ties between clansmen and their Chief.[8] The family did however have their own badge and tartan to distinguish them.[8] Apart from the royal house of Stewart, the three main branches of the clan that settled in the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
during the 14th and 15th centuries were the Stewarts of Appin, Stewarts of Atholl and Stewarts of Balquhidder.[4] Today the Earls of Galloway are considered the senior line of the Clan Stewart.[4] Stewarts of Appin[edit] Main article: Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
of Appin The Stewarts of Appin descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland.[4] Sir John's younger son, James Stewart, was killed in 1333 at the Battle of Halidon Hill.[4] His grandson married the heiress of the Lord of Lorne
Lord of Lorne
(chief of Clan MacDougall).[4] He was the first Stewart Lord of Lorne.[4] The Stewarts of Appin supported the royalist cause during the Civil War of the 17th century and also supported the deposed Stuart monarchs during the Jacobite rising of 1715
Jacobite rising of 1715
and Jacobite rising of 1745.[4] Stewarts of Atholl[edit] The Stewarts of Atholl
Atholl
are descended from a son of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan (the Wolf of Badenoch).[4] James Stewart built a strong castle at Garth where he settled at the end of the 14th century.[4] Queen Joanna, widow of James I of Scotland
Scotland
married the Black Knight of Lorne who was descended from the fourth High Steward.[4] Their son was John Stewart of Balveny who was granted the Earldom of Atholl
Atholl
by his half-brother, James II of Scotland.[4] He supported his brother, commanding the royal forces that opposed the rebellion by the Lord of the Isles.[4] The fifth Stewart Earl of Atholl
Earl of Atholl
died with no male issue and his daughter married William Murray, second Earl of Tullibardine, who succeeded as Earl of Atholl.[4] Many Stewarts continued to live in the Atholl
Atholl
area with many claiming descent from the Wolf of Badenoch.[4] They were mainly transferred by allegiance to the Murray Earls of Atholl
Atholl
and were known as Atholl
Atholl
men.[4] This is maintained today with the Atholl
Atholl
Highlanders, Europe's only legal private army.[4] General David Stewart of Garth, an Athollman, was an officer in the Black Watch regiment and his book, Sketches of the Highlanders and Highland Regiments, popularized his homeland in Victorian England.[4] Stewarts of Balquhidder[edit] Main article: Stewart of Balquhidder Stewarts came to Balqhidder in about 1490 when William Stewart, grandson of the only son of the Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
to escape the persecution of James I, was appointed ballie of the Crown lands of Balquhidder.[4] Stuarts of Bute[edit] Main article: Clan Stuart of Bute The chiefs of the Clan Stuart of Bute
Clan Stuart of Bute
are descended from John, younger son of Robert Stewart who reigned as Robert II of Scotland.[9] Castles[edit]

Castle Stalker, a seat of the Stewarts of Appin

Doune Castle, seat of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany

Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh Castle
one of the most notable castles owned by the Stewarts as the royal family. Stirling Castle
Stirling Castle
one of the most notable castles owned by the Stewarts as the royal family. Linlithgow Palace
Linlithgow Palace
was one of the principal residences of the Stewart and Stuart monarchs of Scotland. Falkland Palace
Falkland Palace
was acquired by the Stewart family in the 14th century and was owned by Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany. It was a royal palace of the Scottish kings. Castle Stuart
Castle Stuart
was the home of the line of Stuarts who held the title Earl of Moray. Castle Stalker
Castle Stalker
was a seat of the Stewarts of Appin. Lochranza Castle
Lochranza Castle
was granted to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland
Scotland
in 1262 by Alexander III of Scotland. Dundonald Castle
Dundonald Castle
built in the 13th century by Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland. Used by the Stewart monarchs. Craigmillar Castle, Edinburgh, castle of the royal Stuarts. Doune Castle
Doune Castle
built in the 14th century by Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany. Earl's Palace, Kirkwall
Earl's Palace, Kirkwall
built by Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney. Bishop's Palace, Kirkwall
Bishop's Palace, Kirkwall
originally a Norwegian fort, ownership later passed to Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney. Scalloway Castle
Scalloway Castle
built by Patrick Stewart, 2nd Earl of Orkney. Earl's Palace, Birsay
Earl's Palace, Birsay
built by Patrick Stewart, 2nd Earl of Orkney. Crookston Castle
Crookston Castle
has been owned by various branches of the Clan Stewart. Rothesay Castle
Rothesay Castle
was built by the Stewarts at the beginning of the 13th century. Drumin Castle
Drumin Castle
was the home of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan
Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan
(the Wolf of Badenoch). Ardvorlich Castle, stronghold of the Stuarts of Balquhidder Garth Castle, stronghold of the Clan Stewart. Grandtully Castle, stronghold of the Clan Stewart. Garlies Castle, stronghold of the Clan Stewart. Castle Campbell, originally called Castle Gloom, it passed by right of marriage to the Campbells who changed the name to Castle Campbell
Castle Campbell
by an Act of Parliament in 1489.

Tartans[edit] The usual tartan for the Stewarts or Stuarts is a red coloured pattern known as the Royal Stuart Tartan.[8] According to historian Henry James Lee the effect of a large body of men crossing a hill in the red Stuart tartan, contrasting with the dark coloured heath has been described "as if the hill were on fire".[8]

Tartan
Tartan
image Notes

Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum.

A Victorian era, romanticised depiction of a member of the clan by R. R. McIan, from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, published in 1845.

See also[edit]

Scottish clan Armigerous clan High Steward of Scotland House of Stuart Earl of Galloway
Earl of Galloway
Stewart of Galloway Earl of Moray
Earl of Moray
Stuart of Moray Earl of Traquair
Earl of Traquair
Stewart of Traquair Marquess of Bute
Marquess of Bute
Crichton-Stuart of Bute Earl Castle Stewart
Earl Castle Stewart
Stewart in County Tyrone Duke of Albany Duke of Monmouth
Duke of Monmouth
Eldest illegitimate son of Charles II Duke of Buccleuch
Duke of Buccleuch
Descendants of the Duke of Monmouth Duke of Grafton
Duke of Grafton
Descendants of Henry FitzRoy an illegitimate son of Charles II Duke of St Albans
Duke of St Albans
Descendants of Charles Beauclerk an illegitimate son of Charles II. Duke of Richmond, Duke of Lennox
Duke of Lennox
and Duke of Gordon
Duke of Gordon
Descendants of Charles Lennox an illegitimate son of Charles II Duke of Berwick
Duke of Berwick
Descendants of James FitzJames the illegitimate son of King James II

References[edit]

^ a b c d Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
Profile scotclans.com. Retrieved 13 December 2013. ^ myclan.com ^ Nelker, Gladys P., The Clan Steuart, 1970 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Way, George and Squire, Romily. Collins Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopedia. (Foreword by The Rt Hon. The Earl of Elgin KT, Convenor, The Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs). Published in 1994. Pages 459 - 461. ^ Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
rampantscotland.com. Retrieved 11 November 2013. ^ Walter Stewart familysearch.org. Retrieved 16 June 2013. ^ Alexander Stewart familysearch.org. Retrieved 16 June 2013. ^ a b c d Lee, Henry James. (1920). History of the Stewart or Stuart Family. p. 35. ^ Way, George and Squire, Romily. Collins Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopedia. (Foreword by The Rt Hon. The Earl of Elgin KT, Convenor, The Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs). Published in 1994. Pages 330 - 331.

External links[edit]

Stewart Society Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
Society in America, Incorporated The Stewart/Stuart Association of Nova Scotia http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/stoz/stewart2.html Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
at ScotClans.com http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~peistewart/index.html Stewarts of Balquhidder webpage Stewarts of Campbeltown, Kintyre

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