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Clément Ader
Clément Ader
(2 April 1841 – 3 May 1925)[1][2] was a French inventor and engineer who was born in Muret, Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne
(a distant suburb of Toulouse), and died in Toulouse. He is remembered primarily for his pioneering work in aviation.

Contents

1 Electrical and mechanical inventions 2 Aircraft
Aircraft
prototypes 3 Book on aviation 4 Influence 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External links

Electrical and mechanical inventions[edit] Ader was an innovator in both electrical and mechanical engineering. He originally studied electrical engineering, and in 1878 improved on the telephone invented by Alexander Graham Bell. After this he established the telephone network in Paris in 1880. In 1881, he invented the théâtrophone, a system of telephonic transmission where listeners received a separate channel for each ear, enabling stereophonic perception of the actors on a set; it was this invention which gave the first stereo transmission of opera performances, over a distance of 2 miles (3 km) in 1881.[3] In 1903, he devised a V8 engine for the Paris–Madrid race, but although three or four were produced, none were sold.[4] Aircraft
Aircraft
prototypes[edit]

Patent drawings of Clement Ader's Éole.

Clement Ader Avion III
Avion III
(1897 photograph).

Following this, he turned to the problem of mechanical flight and until the end of his life gave much time and money to this. Using the studies of Louis Pierre Mouillard
Louis Pierre Mouillard
(1834–1897) on the flight of birds, he constructed his first flying machine in 1886, the Éole. It was a bat-like design run by a lightweight steam engine of his own invention, with 4 cylinders developing 20 horsepower (15 kW), driving a four-blade propeller. The engine weighed no more than 4 kg/kW (7 pounds per horsepower). The wings had a span of 14 m (46 ft). All-up weight was 300 kg (650 lb). On 9 October 1890 Ader attempted to fly the Éole. Aviation
Aviation
historians give credit to this effort as a powered take-off and uncontrolled hop of approximately 50 m (160 ft) at a height of approximately 20 cm, (8 in).[5][6][7][8] Ader also claimed credit for getting off the ground in the Éole.[9] Ader began construction of a second aircraft he called the Avion II, also referred to as the Zephyr or Éole
Éole
II. Most sources agree that work on this aircraft was never completed, and it was abandoned in favour of the Avion III. Ader's later claim that he flew the Avion II in August 1892 for a distance of 100 m (330 ft) in Satory near Paris,[10] was never widely accepted.[6]

Clement Ader's Eole French patent 205155, 19 April 1890.

Ader's progress attracted the interest of the minister of war, Charles de Freycinet. With the backing of the French War Office, Ader developed and constructed the Avion III. It resembled an enormous bat made of linen and wood, with a 15 m (48 ft) wingspan, equipped with two four bladed tractor propellers, each powered by a steam engine of 30 hp (22 kW). Using a circular track at Satory, Ader carried out taxiing trials on 12 October 1897 and two days later attempted a flight. After a short run the machine was caught by a gust of wind, slewed off the track, and came to a stop. After this the French army withdrew its funding, but kept the results secret. The commission released in November 1910 the official reports on Ader's attempted flights, stating that they were unsuccessful.[11] Book on aviation[edit] Clément Ader
Clément Ader
remained an active proponent of the development of aviation. In 1909 he published L' Aviation
Aviation
Militaire, a very popular book which went through 10 editions in the five years before the First World War. It is notable for its vision of aerial warfare and for its foreseeing the form of the modern aircraft carrier, with a flat flight deck, an island superstructure, deck elevators and a hangar bay. His idea for an aircraft carrier was relayed by the US Naval Attaché in Paris[12] and was followed by the first trials in the United States in November 1910.

An airplane-carrying vessel is indispensable. These vessels will be constructed on a plan very different from what is currently used. First of all the deck will be cleared of all obstacles. It will be flat, as wide as possible without jeopardizing the nautical lines of the hull, and it will look like a landing field. — Clément Ader, L' Aviation
Aviation
Militaire, 1909

Influence[edit]

Clément Ader's Avion III
Avion III
is still displayed at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris.

Avion III.

Ader is still admired for his early powered flight efforts, and his aircraft gave the French language the word avion for a heavier-than-air aircraft. In 1938, France issued a postage stamp honoring him. Airbus
Airbus
named one of its aircraft assembly sites in Toulouse
Toulouse
after him. Clément Ader
Clément Ader
has been referred to as "the father of aviation".[13][14] See also[edit]

Early flying machines

Notes[edit]

^ Zahm, Albert Francis (1950). Aeronautical Papers, 1885-1945. University of Notre Dame. p. 994. Retrieved 2 April 2018.  ^ "Les Obsèquies de Clément Ader". l'Aérophile: 301. 1 May 1925.  ^ Crook, Tim (2 November 1999). Radio drama: Theory and practice. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-415-21603-6.  ^ G. N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985). ^ Gibbs-Smith, Charles H. (3 April 1959). "Hops and Flights: A roll call of early powered take-offs". Flight. 75 (2619): 468. Retrieved 24 August 2013.  ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica: Clément Ader ^ Carroll Gray, "Clement Ader 1841–1925" ^ "European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V.: Eole/Clément Ader"". Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ La première étape de l'aviation militaire en France Bibliothèque numérique en histoire des sciences et des techniques. Retrieved 29 March 2016. ^ Gibbs-Smith2003 p.75 ^ Gibbs-Smith 2003, p. 75. ^ "Sandcastle V.I. - Carriers: Airpower at Sea - The Early Years / Part 2". www.sandcastlevi.com. Retrieved 17 September 2008.  ^ "Clement Ader and the Aeroplane". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 61 (1586): 533. 22 May 1925. doi:10.1126/science.61.1586.533. JSTOR 1648968.  ^ Zahm, Albert F. (1944/1945). "Conspectus of Early Powerplane Development". Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 46/47: 325–358. JSTOR 40067638.  Check date values in: date= (help)

Further reading[edit]

Lissarague, Pierre, Ader, Inventor of Aeroplanes. Tolouse, France: Editions Privat, 1990 Lissarague, Pierre, Pegasus,the magazine of Musee de l'Air, Nos. 52, 56, 58, . (Articles on restoration of Ader's Aeroplane 3 and on the testing of engines and propellers.) Pierre Lissarague and J. Forestier, Icarus an article on restoration of Ader's Avion 3, No. 134 (October 1990). Gibbs-Smith, Charles Harvard (1968). Clément Ader: His Flight-Claims and His Place in History. Aeronautical engineers. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. p. 214.  Gibbs-Smith C.H., Aviation: An Historical Survey. London, NMSI, 2008. ISBN 1-900747-52-9

External links[edit] Media related to Clément Ader
Clément Ader
at Wikimedia Commons

Works by or about Clément Ader
Clément Ader
at Internet Archive Clement Ader Clement Ader's flying machines Clement Ader's first flight in 1879 ?

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 61575214 LCCN: n91009761 ISNI: 0000 0000 3405 1544 GND: 119011689 SUDOC: 029361443 BNF: cb121004310 (data) Léonore: LH/8

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