The Info List - Civil Cooperation Bureau

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The South African Civil Cooperation Bureau
Civil Cooperation Bureau
(CCB) was a government-sponsored death squad[1] during the apartheid era that operated under the authority of Defence Minister General Magnus Malan. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee pronounced the CCB guilty of numerous killings, and suspected more killings.[2][3][4][5]


1 Forerunners and contemporaries 2 Establishment 3 Structure

3.1 Executive 3.2 Management board 3.3 Staff functions 3.4 Operational sections

4 Blue plans and red plans 5 Known and suspected operations 6 Operations planned but not executed 7 Known associates

7.1 Senior military decision-makers 7.2 Operatives and associates

8 Associates who died mysteriously 9 Truth and Reconciliation Commission 10 Negative outcomes 11 See also 12 References

Forerunners and contemporaries[edit] When South African newspapers first revealed its existence in the late 1980s, the CCB appeared to be a unique and unorthodox security operation: its members wore civilian clothing; it operated within the borders of the country; it used private companies as fronts; and it mostly targeted civilians. However, as the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) discovered a decade later, the CCB's methods were neither new nor unique. Instead, they had evolved from precedents set in the 1960s and 70s by Eschel Rhoodie's Department of Information (see Muldergate Scandal[6]), the Bureau of State Security (B.O.S.S.)[7] and Project Barnacle (a top-secret project to eliminate SWAPO detainees and other "dangerous" operators).[8] From information given to the TRC by former agents seeking amnesty for crimes committed during the apartheid era, it became clear that there were many other covert operations similar to the CCB, which Nelson Mandela would label the Third Force. These operations included Wouter Basson's 7 Medical Battalion Group,[9] the Askaris, Witdoeke, Experimental Group Program (also called "Clandestine Cooperation Bureau") and C1/C10 or Vlakplaas. Besides these, there were also political front organisations like the International Freedom Foundation, Marthinus van Schalkwyk's Jeugkrag (Youth for South Africa),[10] and Russel Crystal's National Student Federation[11] which would demonstrate that while the tactics of the South African government varied, the logic remained the same: Total onslaught demanded a total strategy.[12] Establishment[edit] Inaugurated in 1986 with the approval of Minister of Defense General Magnus Malan[13][14] and Chief of SADF General Jannie Geldenhuys, the CCB became fully functional by 1988. As a reformulation of Project Barnacle, the nature of its operations were disguised, and it disassociated itself from all other Special
Forces and DMI (Directorate Military Intelligence) structures. The CCB formed the third arm of the Third Force, alongside Vlakplaas C1 and the Special Tasks projects.[15] In his 1997 submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission,[16] General Malan described the CCB as follows:

15.1 Let me now deal with the matter of the CCB. The CCB-organisation as a component of Special
Forces was approved in principle by me. Special
Forces was an integral and supportive part of the South African Defence Force. The role envisaged for the CCB was the infiltration and penetration of the enemy, the gathering of information and the disruption of the enemy. The CCB was approved as an organisation consisting of ten divisions, or as expressed in military jargon, regions. Eight of these divisions or regions were intended to refer to geographical areas. The area of one of these regions, Region Six, referred to the Republic of South Africa. The fact that the organisation in Region Six was activated, came to my knowledge for the first time in November 1989. The CCB provided the South African Defence Force
South African Defence Force
with good covert capabilities. 15.2 During my term of office as Head of the South African Defence Force and as Minister of Defence instructions to members of the South African Defence Force were clear: destroy the terrorists, their bases and their capabilities. This was also government policy. As a professional soldier, I issued orders and later as Minister of Defence I authorised orders which led to the death of innocent civilians in cross-fire. I sincerely regret the civilian casualties, but unfortunately this is part of the ugly reality of war. However, I never issued an order or authorised an order for the assassination of anybody, nor was I ever approached for such authorisation by any member of the South African Defence Force. The killing of political opponents of the government, such as the slaying of Dr Webster, never formed part of the brief of the South African Defence Force.

Reports about the CCB were first published in 1990 by the now-defunct weekly Vrye Weekblad, and more detailed information emerged later in the 1990s at a number of TRC amnesty hearings. General Joep Joubert, in his testimony before the TRC, revealed that the CCB was a long-term special forces project in the South African Defence Force. It had evolved from the 'offensive defence' philosophy prevalent in P.W. Botha's security establishment.[17] Nominally a civilian organisation that could be plausibly disowned by the apartheid government, the CCB drew its operatives from the SADF itself or the South African Police. According to Joubert, many operatives did not know that they were members of an entity called the CCB.[18] In the wake of the National Party government's Harms Commission, whose proceedings were considered seriously flawed by analysts and the official opposition, the CCB was disbanded in August 1990.[19] Some members were transferred to other security organs.[20] No prosecutions resulted.

The Assassin's Web[citation needed]

Structure[edit] The CCB consisted of four groups with different functions:[21] an executive, a management board, two staff functions, eight operational sections known as regions, and an ad hoc collection of contractors. The overall size of the CCB never exceeded 250-300 full-time personnel.[22] Executive[edit] There is much dispute about what senior military officers knew when. However it is common cause that the CCB was a unit of special forces at first controlled by the General Officer Commanding Special
Forces, Major-General Eddie Webb[23]:53[24] who reported to the Chief of the SADF. Management board[edit] The CCB operated as a civilian entity, so it had a chairman of the board and a group of 'directors'. The GOC Special
Forces – Major General Joep Joubert (1985–89) followed by Major General Eddie Webb from the beginning of 1989 - was the chairman. The rest of the board included Joe Verster (managing director), Dawid Fourie (deputy MD), WJ Basson, Theuns Kruger, and Lafras Luitingh. Staff functions[edit] Although there is consistent evidence that the CCB had two staff functions[23]:53 it is not clear what the names of these groups were and whether these remained the same over the life of the CCB. Region 9, is sometimes referred to as Intelligence or Psychological Warfare and elsewhere as Logistics. Region 10 is known as Finance and Administration or simply Administration.[25] Operational sections[edit] Each region had an area manager and its own co-ordinator who reported to the managing director.

Region 1: Botswana - regional manager up to 1988 was Commandant Charl Naudé and thereafter Dawid Fourie, while Christoffel Nel handled the intelligence function. Region 2: Mozambique and Swaziland - the manager was Commandant Corrie Meerholtz until the end of 1988. He was replaced by the operational co-ordinator, Captain Pieter Botes. while the intelligence function was performed by Peter Stanton, one of the few remaining ex-Rhodesians from the D40 and Barnacle eras. Region 3: Lesotho - Fourie was also the manager in region 3. Region 4: Angola, Zambia and Tanzania - Dawid Fourie was also responsible, taking it over in 1988 from Meerholtz. Christoffel Nel handled the intelligence function while Ian Strange was also involved in this region. Region 5: International/Europe – Johan Niemoller appears to have been coordinator. In 1987, he was suddenly withdrawn following the arrest of a number of individuals living in England on charges of plotting to kill ANC leaders. Eeben Barlow, the founder of the private military company, Executive Outcomes, then took command of Region 5.[26] Region 6: South Africa
South Africa
- formed on 1 June 1988; Staal Burger was regional manager; operatives included 'Slang' Van Zyl, Chappies Maree and Calla Botha. The TRC later receives eight amnesty applications related to four operations: 1) the attempted killing of Abdullah Omar, 2) the planned killing of Gavin Evans, 3) bombing of the Early Learning Centre in Athlone Cape Town
Cape Town
on 31 August 1989, 4) the harassment of Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
in Cape Town
Cape Town
in 1989. Region 7: Zimbabwe - Various CCB members co-ordinated this region including WJ Basson and Lafras Luitingh. Others involved in sub-management were Ferdi Barnard (for a brief period) and Alan Trowsdale. Kevin Woods and three members of a CCB cell, Barry Bawden, Philip Conjwayo and Michael Smith conducted a Bulawayo bombing action. Region 8: South West Africa - headed by Roelf van Heerden.

▪Pseudo Unit: Operated by ex S.A.D.F. members. Members named: John McCloud (ex Rhodesian) (aka:Ausie), Willem Schalk Van Der Merwe,aka:( William Reid,William Bennet). Blue plans and red plans[edit] Operatives were required to have a 'blue plan'. This referred to a front operation (mostly a business) funded by the CCB. Slang Van Zyl, for instance, started a private investigation business while Chappies Maree ran an electronic goods export company called Lema. Operatives were allowed to keep the proceeds of their activities.[27] Proceeds from all blue plan activities vastly exceeded the funding CCB received from the state. A large private sector was created, which employing tens of thousands of people. Former security officers not in the CCB ran these companies alongside CCB officers.[22] In the December 1993 Goldstone Commission, the task group found that ex CCB members were involved in various illegal activities including gun and drug smuggling Red plans, on the other hand, detailed the activities they would undertake against the enemy. Operations could be of a criminal nature as long as they had prior approval from the CCB bureaucracy. These mostly began with a feasibility study. If the report showed merit it was verified, then reviewed by a panel of five: the operative, the manager or handler, the coordinator, the managing director and in the case of violent operations, the chairman. Where loss of life was anticipated the chairman was required to obtain approval from the Chief of the Army or the Chief of Staff.[27] The 'red plan' targeted victims and detailed action to be taken against them. The scenario, as described by Max Coleman in A Crime Against Humanity: Analysing the Repression of the Apartheid
State, was as follows:

Step 1: A person or a target would be identified as an enemy of the State. A cell member would then be instructed to monitor the 'target'. Step 2: A project - i.e. the elimination of a target would be registered with the co-ordinator. The co-ordinator would then have the project authorised by the regional manager and the managing director. Step 3: The CCB member would then do a reconnaissance to study the target's movements with a view to eliminating him or her. Step 4: The operative would propose the most practical method to the managing director. If the director felt this method was efficient, he would sign the proposal at what was called an 'in-house' meeting. There adjustments could be made to the plan before it was approved. The budget would be considered and finance would be made available for the project. The finance would come from the budget the Defence Force allocated to CCB activities. Indications are that money was always paid in cash. Step 5: The co-ordinator would be requested to make available the necessary arms and ammunition such as limpet mines, poison and/or live ammunition or other logistical support such as transport, etc. Step 6: The project would be carried out and the target would be eliminated. To do this the cell member could engage the assistance of what were termed 'unconscious members'. These were essentially underworld criminals who would, for money, kill as instructed. These 'unconscious' members were never told of the motive or the SADF connection - a false motive was usually supplied.[28]

Known and suspected operations[edit] To date there is no published record covering all operations conducted during the CCB's five-year existence. Some of the active operations conducted included:

Alleged harassment of

Afrikaner dissident and Vrye Weekblad editor Max du Preez
Max du Preez
by pointing an RPG7
at him while forcing him to consume a large amount of mampoer or moonshine[29] actor and playwright Hannes Muller for his role in Somewhere on the Border, a play banned by the authorities for its criticism of the South African Border War[30]

Alleged shooting of Danger Nyoni – 12 December 1986 Attempted contamination of drinking water in a Namibian refugee camp, by introducing cholera bacterium into it, in an effort to disrupt that country's independence from South Africa[31] – August 1989[32] Attempted assault on UN Special
Representative, Martti Ahtisaari, in Namibia
– 1989. According to a hearing in September 2000 of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, two CCB operatives (Kobus le Roux and Ferdinand Barnard) were tasked not to kill Ahtisaari, but to give him "a good hiding". To carry out the assault, Barnard had planned to use the grip handle of a metal saw as a knuckleduster. In the event, Ahtisaari did not attend the meeting at the Keetmanshoop Hotel, where Le Roux and Barnard lay in wait for him, and thus escaped injury.[33] Attempted killing of

Jeremy Brickhill in Harare
– 13 October 1987[34] Reverend Frank Chikane
Frank Chikane
by poisoning – 1989 Father Michael Lapsley,[35] who lost both hands and an eye in a letter bomb attack in Harare
– 28 April 1990 Godfrey Motsepe in Brussels
– 4 February 1988 January Masilela — known as "Che O'Gara", his Umkhonto we Sizwe nom-de-guerre.[36] On 30 September 2002, Masilela wrote to the South African Special
Forces League conferring the Defence Minister's recognition of the SFL as being "legally representative of the interests of military veterans." Dullah Omar[37] – 1989 Anton Roskam – incorrectly spelled Rosskam in TRC transcripts, received threatening letters, car was set alight[38] Albie Sachs
Albie Sachs
– by bombing in Maputo
in which he lost an arm and sight in one eye while in a car borrowed from Indres Naidoo thought to have been[39] the actual target – 7 April 1988

Bombing of a Western Cape
Western Cape
kindergarten – the Early Learning Centre – on the evening of 31 August 1989[40] Harassment of Archbishop Desmond Tutu, by hanging a baboon foetus in the garden of his Cape Town
Cape Town
home in 1989 in the hope that it would bewitch him[41] Killing of

Tsitsi Chiliza, the wife of an ANC member killed in an operation targeted at Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma
– 11 May 1987 SWAPO activist Anton Lubowski[42] Jacob 'Boy' Molekwane ANC activist, Gibson Ncube (also known by the surname Mondlane) by poisoning Matsela Polokela[43] – some TRC documents misspell the surname 'Pokolela'[44] Dulcie September
Dulcie September
in Paris
– 29 March 1988. French Secret Service involvement is alleged.[3] David Webster – Wits University
Wits University
academic and anti-apartheid activist killed by Ferdi Barnard 1 May 1989, outside the Eleanor Street, Troyeville, Johannesburg
home he shared with partner Maggie Friedman[4]

Supplying materials to SAP members for the 1986 killing of KwaNdebele cabinet minister Piet Ntuli[5]

Operations planned but not executed[edit] According to TRC records,[45][46][47] CCB operatives were tasked to seriously injure Martti Ahtisaari, UN Special
Representative in Namibia,[48] and to eliminate the following:

Gavin Evans Theo-Ben Gurirab (SWAPO) Hidipo Hamutenya (SWAPO) Pallo Jordan and Ronnie Kasrils[49] Gwen Lister (SWAPO) Winnie Mandela Kwenza Mhlaba Jay Naidoo Joe Slovo Stompie Sepei Oliver Tambo Daniel Tjongarero (SWAPO) Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (SWAPO) Roland White

Known associates[edit] While the CCB was a section of the SADF's Special
Forces they were joined on many operations by individuals from other parts of the state's broad security apparatus,[50] sometimes making it difficult to ascertain whether a specific person was part of the CCB or not. Of the estimated one hundred covert members, evidence exists that the following individuals were deployed as administrators or operatives:[51] Senior military decision-makers[edit]

Magnus Malan
Magnus Malan
– General, Minister of Defence (1980–1991) Jannie Geldenhuys – General, and Chief of the SADF (1985–1990)[52] Joep Joubert – held the rank of major general, Chairman of the management board (1985–89) Kat Liebenberg – General, and Chief of the SADF (1991–1993) Eddie Webb – held the rank of major general, Chairman of the management board (1989–1990) Pieter Johan Verster – mostly known as 'Joe' Verster, aliases 'Gerhard',[53] 'Dave Martin', 'Jack van Staden' and 'Rick van Staden', held the rank of colonel, CCB Managing Director or general manager

Operatives and associates[edit]

Donald Dolan Acheson – an Irish mercenary nicknamed 'The Cleaner'[54] Eeben Barlow
Eeben Barlow
– also referred to incorrectly as "Eeban Barlow", intelligence operative, ex-member of 32 Battalion and at one point commander of Region 5[55] Ferdi Barnard – prominent Region 6 operative, convicted and jailed in 1998 for the murder of David Webster[56] Wouter Jacobus Basson – alias Christo Britz, one time coordinator of the Zimbabwe unit, not to be confused with his cousin Dr. Wouter Basson[57] Johannes Basson[58] Barry Bawden – cousin of Kit and Gary, Region 4 operative and member of Zimbabwe-based CCB cell known as Juliet[59] Guy Bawden – brother of Kit, Region 4 operative and member of Zimbabwe-based CCB cell known as Juliet[59] Kit Bawden – Region 4 operative and head of Zimbabwe-based CCB cell known as Juliet[59] Petrus Foster Botes – alias Bobby Greeff,[50] held the rank of captain Carl Casteling Botha – nicknamed Calla, a one time forward for the Transvaal rugby team[60] Gray Branfield – alias major Brian, and Mr. Z,[61] killed 2004 in Kut, Iraq
during a gunfight between Shi'ite radicals and Ukrainian forces[62] Ron Butterweck – a German (or Dutch?) mercenary/agent, active in Angola around 1985/86 Phillip Conjwayo – Zimbabwean policeman, Region 4 operative and peripheral member of Zimbabwe-based CCB cell known as Juliet[59] José Daniels – CCB operator working for Petrus Botes, in the period just prior to the first democratic elections in Namibia, was instructed to dump four bottles containing cholera bacterium into the water supply of a camp near Windhoek[63] Daniel du Toit Burger – also referred to as Daniël Ferdinand du Toit,[64] alias Staal (meaning steel in Afrikaans) Burger also the name of an Afrikaans
radio comedy of the time,[65] held the rank of colonel, erstwhile owner of the Breakers Hotel in Berea, Johannesburg[66] and minder of a state-funded brothel,[67] recruited into the CCB by Verster on 1 June 1988 after vacating his position as head of the SAP's Brixton Murder and Robbery Unit[68] Trevor Mark Floyd[69] – testified in the trial of Wouter Basson that he smeared poisonous ointment received from Basson[70] on the door handle of the car belonging to Peter Kalangula; Basson denied the allegation; Implicated in the same trial by Danie Phaal, a Project Barnacle colleague, of murdering a fellow operator known only as Christopher in February 1983[71] Dawid Fourie – alias 'Heine Müller', held the rank of commandant and one time deputy head of the CCB[72] Edward James Gordon – nicknamed 'Peaches', informer, involved in the attempt on the life of Dullah Omar[73] [Gordon Proudfoot] – Special
Forces operative associate of Ferdi Barnard[74] André Wilhelmus Groenewald – alias Kobus Pienaar[75] Isgak Hardien – nicknamed Gakkie, an informer and gangster based in the Western Cape
Western Cape
who earned R18,000 for placing a limpet mine on the premises of the Early Learning Centre[76] Theodore Hermansen[75] André Klopper[77] Koos – CCB medical coordinator, who received, on the instructions of Wouter Basson, 16 bottles containing the cholera bacterium on 4 August 1989, and six more twelve days later from Dr. A. Immelman of Roodeplaat Research Laboratories[63] David Komansky, (not to be confused with the Merrill Lynch executive of the same name) a commodities broker from Johannesburg
who received R29 million from the CCB to establish a business in Britain for procuring arms.[78] Theuns Kruger – alias 'Jaco Black', financial manager Kobus le Roux implicated with Ferdi Barnard in the plot to kill Ahtisaari[33] Jackie Lonte – recruited to deal with United Democratic Front supporters, founder of the 10,000 strong Cape Flats
Cape Flats
gang 'The Americans' Hans Louw[79][80]– claimed he belonged to a squad which plotted to kill president Samora Machel Lafras Luitingh – held the rank of major, one time coordinator of Zimbabwe unit[81] Leon André Maree – nickname 'Chappies' (also the name of a popular South African chewing gum) Cornelius Alwyn Johannes Meerholz – nicknamed Corrie, alias 'Kerneels Koekemoer', held the rank of commandant, after transferring to 5 Reconnaissance Regiment Tai Minnaar[82] – once held the rank of major-general in the SADF, founder member of the Bureau of State Security, had been a CIA operative in 1970s Cuba[83] Mr J- alias' Verkyker'held the rank of lieutenant – operated in Mozambique and Swaziland, once delivered a parcel to Windhoek on behalf of Pieter (most likely Petrus) Botes[84] Mr R – alias 'Frans Brink', medical doctor, member until the beginning of 1990[85] Edwin Mudingi, former Selous Scout member of the same cell as Hans Louw[86] Christoffel Nel – alias 'Derek Louw', held the rank of colonel, one time head of intelligence unit[42][72] Johan Niemoller Jr. – also referred to as Joseph Niemoller, until 1987 coordinator of (European and International) unit Nico Palm[87] – foreign operative, involved in the CCB front company Geo International Trading as an explosives expert Danie Phaal[88] – or DJ Phaal,[63] CCB head of security, also known as Frank, James or Johan Jao Pinta – involved in the murder of Florence and Fabian Ribeiro[89] Ruiz da Silva – involved in the murder of Florence and Fabian Ribeiro[89] Eugene Riley[90] – also referred to as Eugene Reilly Noel Robey – involved in the murder of Florence and Fabian Ribeiro[89] Michael Smith – ex-Rhodesian soldier, Region 4 operative and member of Zimbabwe-based CCB cell known as Juliet[91] Migiel Sven Smuts-Muller – ex-31 Battalion member[85] Peter Stanton – ex-Rhodesian, intelligence operative[72] Pierre Theron – auditor of CCB books and keeper of share transfer certificates for related front companies[92] Ian Strange – alias Rodney, involved in the Angola, Zambia and Tanzania region[72] Alan Trowsdale[72] Charles Wildschudt (formerly Neelse)[72] Stefaans van der Walt – alias Anton du Randt[85] Willie van Deventer – claimed membership of CCB, and to have been part of the Gaborone raid in which ANC member, Matsela Pokolela, was killed[93] Roelf van Heerden – alias 'Roelf van der Westhuizen', one time head of South West Africa operations[72] Ferdi van Wyk[94] – Brigadier, also named as the Military Intelligence contact used by Marthinus van Schalkwyk
Marthinus van Schalkwyk
in the covert funding of the front organisation Jeugkrag[95] Abram van Zyl – aliases 'Thinus de Wet'[96] and 'Andries Rossouw', nickname 'Slang' (pronounced 'slung', means snake in Afrikaans), responsible for the Western Cape
Western Cape
operations of Region Six, and for Ferdi Barnard; left the CCB in October 1989 Leonard Veenendal[97] Athol Visser[98] – nickname 'Ivan the Terrible', a high-ranking CCB operative, posted to London in the 1980s to plan the elimination of key opponents of apartheid that allegedly included Swedish prime minister Olof Palme. Gary Strout – Region 4 operative and member of Zimbabwe-based CCB cell known as Juliet[59] Eugene Halliday[99] – alias "Wolf", was a member of the Clandestine Cooperation Bureau, linked to the assassination of Godfrey Mafuya[100] in Saulsville (1985). His involvement in European missions has never been confirmed

Associates who died mysteriously[edit]

Edward James Gordon – killed 1991[101] André Klopper – murdered Thursday 11 May 1995 a week after amnesty ensured his release from jail; found next to a road in Elandsfontein; ex-SADF Special
Forces members Mathys de Villiers (Kaalvoet Thysie) and Heckie Horn were tried for his murder and acquitted[102] Jackie Lonte – murdered in the 1990s[103] "Corrie" Alwyn Meerholtz – died in a car crash on 24 November 1989[104] Tai Minnaar – died in September 2002[105] after a chemical and biological weapons deal in which he was involved went wrong[106] Eugene Riley – was killed in January 1994[107] after probing the killing of Chris Hani[108][109]) – Died under suspicious circumstances.[85]

Truth and Reconciliation Commission[edit] Although the entire truth about the Civil Cooperation Bureau
Civil Cooperation Bureau
may never be known, South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission(TRC) concluded that:[110]

...the CCB was a creation of the SADF and an integral part of South Africa's counter-insurgency system which, in the course of its operations, perpetrated gross violations of human rights, including killings, against both South African and non-South African citizens. The Commission finds that the activities of the CCB constituted a systematic pattern of abuse which entailed deliberate planning on the part of the leadership of the CCB and the SADF. The Commission finds these institutions and their members accountable for the aforesaid gross violations of human rights.

As per the policy of the TRC, its findings were set out, but no action was taken. According to General Malan, the CCB's three objectives—comparable to those of the British Special Operations Executive
Special Operations Executive

to infiltrate and penetrate the enemy; to gather Information; and to disrupt the enemy.

In his testimony before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Malan declared that he had never issued an order or authorised an order for the assassination of anybody, and that the killing of political opponents of the government never formed part of the brief of the South African Defence Force.[111] Negative outcomes[edit] The front company Oceantec among others was used to embezzle $100 million US from private investors and a collateral trading house as part of a supposed sanctions busting operation between 1989 and 1991.[112] CCB member Eben Barlow and Michael Mullen recruited other CCB members to start Executive Outcomes
Executive Outcomes
a private military contractor that provided combatants, training and equipment. See also[edit]

South Africa
South Africa

Massacre Dirk Coetzee Eugene de Kock Delta G Scientific Company Executive Outcomes Lema (company) National Intelligence Service Project Coast Protechnik Roodeplaat Research Laboratories State Security Council Craig Williamson


^ Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa
South Africa
Report, Volume 2, 2003, p. 39  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Author unknown. (1998). A self-confessed apartheid era assassin told the Pretoria High Court yesterday that he did not apply for amnesty for his deeds, with one exception, because he believed his seniors, who gave him the orders, were the ones who should be punished. Business Day. ^ a b Peter Batchelor; Kees Kingma; Guy Lamb (2004), Demilitarisation and Peace-building in Southern Africa, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, ISBN 0-7546-3315-2, retrieved 18 May 2008  ^ a b Author unknown. (1998). Former Civil Co-operation Bureau (CCB) agent Ferdi Barnard has admitted for the first time to murdering activist and academic David Webster in 1989 on instructions of then bureau head, Joe Verster. Business Day. ^ a b SAPA. (1999). Joubert authorises car bomb that killed Piet Ntuli. ^ Sanders, J (2006), Apartheid's friends, London: John Murray, pp. 34–55  ^ Sanders, J (2006), Apartheid's friends, London: John Murray, pp. 94–119  ^ "Confession 'built case against Basson'". Daily Dispatch. 7 December 2000. Archived from the original on 30 December 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2007.  ^ Gould, Chandr; Burger, Marlene (2000), The South African Chemical and Biological Warfare Programme, Trial Report: Twenty-Eight., Centre for Conflict Resolution, archived from the original on 30 December 2007, retrieved 21 May 2007  ^ Adri, Kotzé (30 August 1997), "Marthinus `moet om amnestie vra, soos ANC-spioene'", Beeld, archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 27 September 2007  ^ Ken, Silverstein (17 April 2006), "The Making of a Lobbyist", Harper's Magazine  ^ Engelbrecht, Leon (1 November 2006), "The life and times of PW Botha", IOL  ^ Malan admits setting up CCB, ordering raids, Cape Town, 7 May 1997, retrieved 21 May 2007  ^ Gear, Sasha (2000), Now that the War is Over. Ex-combatants Transition and the Question of Violence: A literature review, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation., archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 20 October 2006, retrieved 24 May 2007  ^ O'Brien, Kevin. "The Use of Assassination as a Tool of State Policy: South Africa's Counter-Revolutionary Strategy 1979-92 (Part II)." Terrorism and Political Violence 13.2 (2001): 131 ^ Submission to The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Gen MA de Malan, 2003, p. 28  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "The Transformation of Military Intelligence and Special
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- A Crime Against Humanity: The Unfolding of Total Strategy 1948-1989: Covert Operations". South African History Online. Retrieved April 26, 2016.  ^ Author unknown. (2005). Die geskiedenis van Vrye Weekblad in 170 bladsye. Die Burger. Accessed 12 December 2007 Archived 30 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Author unknown. (2007). Van bliksem tot grotman. Die Burger. Accessed 12 December 2007 ^ Associated Press. (1990). Paper Says Pretoria Put Germs in Namibian Water. New York Times, 12 May. Accessed 17 May 2007.. ^ Burgess, S. & Purkitt, H. (undated). The secret program. South Africa's chemical and biological weapons. Accessed 22 May 2007. ^ a b Targeted by the Civil Cooperation Bureau ^ von Paleske, A. (undated). Woods was part of murky past. The Zimbabwean. Accessed 22 May 2007. Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission Video Collection. Yale Law School Lilian Goldman Library. Accessed 17 May 2007. ^ Structures and personnel of the ANC and MK Archived 19 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Author unknown. (1998). The top structure of the defence force's Civil Co-operation Bureau (CCB) had given the go-ahead in 1989 for the elimination of Dullah Omar and offered a well-known Cape Flats gangster R15 000 to gun down the future justice minister, the high court heard yesterday. Business Day. Accessed 16 May 2007. ^ "OMAR WAS LUCKY BARNARD DIDN'T KILL HIM: PTA HIGH COURT TOLD". SAPA. 30 March 1998. Retrieved 26 May 2007.  ^ Stiff, Peter (2001), Warfare by other means. South Africa
South Africa
in the 1980s and 1990s., Alberton, South Africa: Galago, p. 266  ^ Ashley, Smith (16 March 2000), "I won't apologise, says CCB boss", Cape Argus  ^ Baboon foetus 'sent to bewitch Tutu’. Independent Newspapers Youthvote. Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Author unknown. (1998). TRC clears Lubowski's name. The Namibian. Accessed 21 May 2007. Archived 28 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ African National Congress, List of ANC Members who Died in Exile. March 1960 – December 1993. Accessed 21 May 2007 Archived 14 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa
South Africa
Report, Volume 2, p. 110. Retrieved 4 May 2007 ^ Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa
South Africa
Report, Volume 2, p. 141. Retrieved 4 May 2007 ^ Walker, A. (2000). How an assassin bungled a deadly umbrella plot The Independent, 13 May. ^ SAPA. (1998). Winnie and Tutu were on Ferdi Barnard's hit list: ex-wife ^ Transcript of proceedings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa
South Africa
(Day 17), 28 September 2000. Accessed 17 May 2007. ^ Author unknown. (2000). A self-confessed apartheid era assassin told the Pretoria High Court yesterday that he did not apply for amnesty for his deeds, with one exception, because he believed his seniors, who gave him the orders, were the ones who should be punished. Business Day. Accessed 17 May 2007. ^ a b Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa. (2000). Transcript of proceedings: Amnesty Hearing of Henri van der Westhuizen. Application no: AM8079/97. (Day 1), October, 9. Accessed 17 May 2007. ^ Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa
South Africa
Report, Volume 2, pp. 80, 82, 89, 110, 120, 136-8, 139, 140. Retrieved 4 May 2007 ^ Stiff, Peter (2001), Warfare by other means. South Africa
South Africa
in the 1980s and 1990s., Alberton, South Africa: Galago, p. 315  ^ Stiff, Peter (2001), Warfare by other means. South Africa
South Africa
in the 1980s and 1990s., Alberton, South Africa: Galago, p. 375  ^ Stiff, P. (2001). Warfare by other means. South Africa
South Africa
in the 1980s and 1990s. Alberton, South Africa: Galago. pp 389. ^ Author unknown. (2007). Eeben Barlow
Eeben Barlow
on the record. Molotov Cocktail, 1, 9-13. ^ SAPA. (1998). Former CCB agent Ferdi Barnard convicted of murder. Accessed 16 May 2007. ^ Gould, C. & Burger, M. (unknown)The South African Chemical and Biological Warfare Programme. Trial Report: Thirty-Seven. Centre for Conflict Resolution. Accessed 17 May 2007. ^ Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa
South Africa
Report, Volume 2, p. 142, accessed 4 May 2007 ^ a b c d e Schwegler, O, & Watts, D. (2006) Kevin Woods. Exclusive interview. Carte Blanche. Broadcast date: 23 July. Accessed 3 December 2007. ^ Author unknown. (2001). Colonel's orders: follow Evans, kill him! Dispatch, Wednesday, 27 June. Accessed 22 May 2007. ^ NTI. South Africa
South Africa
profile. Biological overview. Accessed 22 May 2007. ^ Gavin du Venage, The Australian, Apartheid
assassins meet match in Iraq, 27 April 2004, accessed 16 May 2007 ^ a b c The State vs Wouter Basson, Case CCT 30/03 (Constitutional Court of South Africa
South Africa
10 March 2004). ^ Menges, W. (1999). SA cops cautious on Lubowski progress. The Namibian, 6 August. Accessed 22 May 2007. Archived 27 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Springbok Radio. Archives. A list of programme titles that have been archived. Accessed 4 May 2007. Archived 6 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ [3] ^ [4] ^ [5] ^ [6] ^ a b c d e f g Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, Vol 2, Sec 2 Accessed 3 December 2007. Archived 1 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-05.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-11.  ^ a b [7] ^ [8] ^ [9] ^ Heidenheimer, Arnold J.; Michael Johnston (2002), Political corruption: Concepts & Contexts, Edison, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, p. 407, ISBN 978-0-7658-0761-8  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 April 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-06.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-19.  ^ "FORMER CCB MAN LIED TO HARMS COMMISSION ABOUT WEBSTER". SAPA. 18 March 1998. Retrieved 3 December 2007.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-05.  ^ Warrick, J. & Mintz, J. (2003). Lethal Legacy: Bioweapons for Sale. Washington Post, Sunday, 20 April; Page A01. Accessed 22 May 2007. ^ [10] ^ a b c d [11] ^ Commey, Pusch (April 2003), Mozambique/South Africa: Who killed Samora Machel?, New African, FindArticles, retrieved 17 April 2008  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-05.  ^ [12] ^ a b c [13] ^ [14] ^ [15] ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-05.  ^ [16] ^ Adri Kotzé, Beeld, Veldtog van BSB moes ANC `diskrediteer' `Wou ondergrondse strukture skep', 1997, accessed 16 May Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Peta Thornycroft, Mail and Guardian, Shady past of FW's heir, 29 Aug 1997, accessed 16 May 2007 ^ Transcript of an Amnesty Hearing, Day 15, Freeman Centre, Greenpoint, Cape Town: Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2000  ^ [17] ^ [18] ^ https://plus.google.com/112689766446532642869/posts/aV7Hv4VUGbq ^ http://sabctrc.saha.org.za/victims/mafuya_godfrey.htm?tab=report ^ Regional Office Reports ^ Taljaard, Jan (15 June 1995), "Kaalvoet's storming nights at the Bastille", Mail & Guardian, archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 30 September 2007  ^ [19] ^ Stiff, P. (2001). Warfare by other means. South Africa
South Africa
in the 1980s and 1990s. Alberton, South Africa: Galago. pp 413-4. ^ [20] ^ [21] ^ [22] ^ – (Luitenant – SADF attached to Special
Force) ^ South African Special
Forces League :: Archived 2 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The State outside South Africa
South Africa
between 1960 and 1990", Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa
South Africa
Report, Volume 2, Chapter 2, News24, 1993, archived from the original on 1 January 2008, retrieved 5 December 2007  ^ General Malan's submission to the TRC - Section 15: The Civil Cooperation Bureau ^ "Us Bankers Sue South African Government". 

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony (1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Orange River Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Transvaal Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei



Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814


Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909


Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans


1948 general election Apartheid

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa

Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre


1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto
bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape
Western Cape
farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg
Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements


Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azania


v t e

South African Army
South African Army

Department of Defence South African National Defence Force South African Army

Divisions and Brigades


43 South African Brigade 44 Parachute Brigade 46 South African Brigade Special
Forces Brigade

Armoured Formation (SAAAF)


School of Armour


Regular 1 South African Tank Regiment Reserve Pretoria Regiment Natal Mounted Rifles Regiment President Steyn

Armoured Car

Regular 1 Special
Service Battalion Reserve Umvoti Mounted Rifles Regiment Oranjerivier Regiment Mooirivier Light Horse Regiment

Infantry Formation (SAAIF)


South African Infantry School

Parachute Infantry

Regular 44 Para 1 Para 44 Pathfinders 13 Signal Squadron 18 Light Regiment 44 Medical Task Group 101 Air Supply Unit SAOSC 44 Training Wing Parachute Packing Wing Reserve 2 Para 3 Para

Air Assault Infantry

Regular 6 SAI Reserve First City Regiment Prince Alfred's Guard

Seaborne Infantry

Regular 9 SAI Reserve Cape Town
Cape Town
Rifles ("Duke's")

Light Infantry

Regular 21 SAI Reserve Rand Light Infantry Regiment Oos Rand Regiment Paul Kruger

Mechanised Infantry

Regular 1 SAI 8 SAI Reserve Regiment De La Rey Regiment Northern Transvaal Cape Town
Cape Town
Highlanders Regiment Western Province Witwatersrand Rifles

Motorised Infantry

Regular 2 SAI 4 SAI 5 SAI 7 SAI 10 SAI 14 SAI 15 SAI 121 SAI Reserve Regiment Botha Regiment Christiaan Beyers Johannesburg
Regiment South African Irish Transvaal Scottish Tshwane Regiment Buffalo Volunteer Rifles Durban Regiment Durban Light Infantry Kimberly Regiment Natal Carbineers Regiment Bloemspruit Regiment Piet Retief

Artillery Formation


School of Artillery (South Africa)


HQ Artillery Mobilisation Regiment 4 Artillery Regiment


Cape Field Artillery Natal Field Artillery Transvaal Horse Artillery Regiment Potchefstroom Universiteit Transvaalse Staatsartillerie Vrystaatse Artillerie Regiment Pretoria Highlanders 18 Light Regiment

Air Defence Artillery Formation


School of Air Defence Artillery (South Africa)


HQ 6 Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment 10 Anti-Aircraft Regiment 44 Parachute Anti-Aircraft Regiment


Cape Garrison Artillery Regiment Vaalriver Regiment Oos Transvaal 7 Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment Regiment Overvaal

Engineer Formation


South African Army
South African Army
Engineer School


HQ 2 Field Engineer Regiment 35 Engineer Support Regiment 1 Construction Regiment Engineer Terrain Intelligence Unit


3 Field Engineer Regiment 19 Field Engineer Regiment 44 Parachute Engineer Regiment

Training Formation

3 SAI SA Army Combat Training Centre (SAACTC) Army Gymnasium Army College de Brug Training Area General de la Rey Training Area Potchefstroom Oustshoorn Training Area Touwsriver Training Area Wallmannsthal Training Area

Support Formation

Army Support Bases (Eastern Cape, Johannesburg, Kimberley, KZN, Limpopo, Potcheftstroom, Western Cape, Mpumalanga) Mobilisation Centre Main Ordnance Depot National Ceremonial Guard 15 Maint Unit Other Maintenance Units 37 Field Workshop SAOSC Other Field Workshops

Signals Formation


1 Signal Regt 2 Signal Regt 3 Signal Regt 4 Signal Regt 5 Signal Regt


6 Signal Regt 7 Signal Group 11 Field Postal Unit

71 Signals Unit 84 Signal Unit

Disbanded or Amalgamated Units

SADF Commands

Eastern Province Command
Eastern Province Command
(Port Elizabeth) Eastern Transvaal Command (Nelspruit) Natal Command
Natal Command
(Durban) Northern Transvaal Command
Northern Transvaal Command
(Swartkop, Pretoria) Northern Cape Command (Kimberly) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
Command (Bloemfontein) Western Province Command
Western Province Command
(Cape Town) Southern Cape Command West Transvaal Command Witwatersrand Command
Witwatersrand Command
(Johannesburg) Far North Command (Pietersburg) Northern Logistic Command (Grootfontein, South West Africa) South West Africa Command
South West Africa Command
(Windhoek, South West Africa) Northern Logistics Command (Grootfontein, South West Africa) Gauteng Command post 1994 SANDF (Amalgamation of Wits and Northern Transvaal Commands)

SADF Corps

I South African Corps Cape Corps

SADF Divisions

7th South African Infantry Division 8th South African Armoured Division 9th South African Division 10 South African Division (Operation Prone)

SADF Brigades

16 Brigade (see 81 Armoured Brigade) 17 Brigade (see 71 Motorised Brigade ) 18 Brigade (see 72 Motorised Brigade) 19 Brigade (see 82 Mechanised Brigade) 20 Brigade 60 Brigade (Battlegroups HQ Lohatla) 71 Motorised Brigade SADF era 72 Motorised Brigade SADF era 73 Motorised Brigade SADF era 74 Brigade SADF and SANDF era (see 8th Armoured Division) 75 Brigade SADF and SANDF era (see 9th Division) 81 Armoured Brigade SADF era 82 Mechanised Brigade SADF era 83 Brigade (planned but never existed) 84 Motorised Brigade SADF era 10 Artillery Brigade SADF era Other brigades

SADF Battlegroups

Combat Group Juliet 61 Mech 62 Mech 63 Mech

UDF and SADF Regiments and Battalions

Cape Regiment Cape Flats
Cape Flats
Light Infantry Regiment Algoa Bay Regiment Boland Regiment Congella Regiment Dan Pienaar Regiment De Wet Regiment Edenvale Regiment Groot Karoo Regiment Highveld Regiment Hillcrest Regiment Langenhoven Regiment Louw Wepener/Oos Vrystaat Regiment Molopo Regiment Natalia Regiment North Natal Regiment Port Natal Regiment Pretorius Regiment Sasolburg Regiment Springs Regiment Skoonspruit Regiment Uitenhage Regiment Rand Afrikaans
University Regiment University of Cape Town Regiment University of the Free State Regiment University of Port Elizabeth Regiment University of Pretoria Regiment University of Stellenbosch Regiment University of Witwatersrand Regiment Vanderbiljpark Regiment Vrystaat SA Army Troop Information Unit 1 Field Engineer Regiment 1 Locating Regiment 2 Locating Regiment 1 Special
Training Unit 2 Construction Regiment 2 Special
Service Battalion 3rd Armoured Personnel Carrier Squadron 4 Field Engineer Regiment 5 Forward Delivery Squadron 6 Field Artillery Regiment 6 Field Engineer 7 Medium Artillery Regiment 8 Field Artillery Regiment 9 Support Engineer 10 Armoured Squadron 10 Field Engineer 11 Field Engineer 11 SAI 12 Field Engineer 12 SAI 13 Field Engineer 13 SAI 14 Field Artillery Regiment 14 Field Engineer 15 Field Engineer 17 Field Artillery
17 Field Artillery
Regiment 19 Field Engineer 19 Rocket Regiment 24 Field Artillery
24 Field Artillery
Regiment 25 Field Artillery
25 Field Artillery
Regiment 26 Field Artillery
26 Field Artillery
Regiment 32 Battalion

SADF Homeland Battalions

111 Battalion 112 Battalion 113 Battalion 115 Battalion 116 Battalion 117 Battalion 118 Battalion 151 Battalion

SADF Military Areas

Boschhoek Training Area Grahamstown Training Area Hellsgate Training Area Heidelberg Military Area Madimbo Corridor Mosita Training Area Pomfret Training Area Riemvasmaak Training Area Soutpansberg Military Area Walvis Bay Military Area

UDF and SADF Commando System

South African Commando System

SADF State Presidents Guard

State Presidents Guard

SADF Mobilisation Units

14 Reception Depot 15 Reception Depot 16 Reception Depot 17 Reception Depot 19 Reception Depot

Defence Force 1977–1994

1 BDF Infantry Battalion 2 BDF Infantry Battalion BDF Parachute Battalion BDF Military School BDF Special
Forces 1 BDF Military Area 2 BDF Military Area 3 BDF Military Area BDF Signals Unit BDF Bafokeng base BDF Mankwe base BDF Odi base BDF Thaba'Nchu base BDF Taung base BDF Air Wing

Defence Force 1979–1994

VDF Headquarters Sibasa 1 VDF Battalion Manenu 2 VDF Battalion Maunavhathu VDF Vuwani Military Base VDF Signals Unit VDF Air Wing

Defence Force 1981–1994

1 CDF Battalion CDF Special

Defence Force 1981–1994

1 TDF Battalion TDF Special
Forces TDF Mounted Battalion

SWATF 1977–1989

Regular Infantry Battalions 31/201 Battalion 33/701 Battalion 34/202 Battalion 35/101 Battalion 301 Battalion 36/203 Battalion 37/102 Battalion Modular Infantry Battalions 51 Battalion 52 Battalion 53 Battalion 54 Battalion 55 Battalion SWATF Brigade 91 Reaction Force Brigade 41/911 Battalion/Regiment Windhoek 912 Battalion/Regiment Erongo 913 Battalion/Regiment Namutoni 91 Armoured Car Regiment 91 Composite Field Regiment 91 Engineers Squadron 91 Field Ambulance 91 Mobilisation Centre 91 Technical Workshop 91 Maintenance Workshop Support Structures Logistics Brigade SWA Mil School SWA Military Academy Special
Forces 1 SWA Specialist Unit 2 SWA Specialist Unit 1 SWA Parachute Battalion Air Component 1 SWA Commando Squadron Alte Feste Commando
Alte Feste Commando
(SWATF) Aranos Commando (SWATF) Auob Commando (SWATF) Bo-Nossob Commando
Bo-Nossob Commando
(SWATF) Etosha Commando
Etosha Commando
(SWATF) Gobabis Commando (SWATF) Grootfontein Commando
Grootfontein Commando
(SWATF) Hochi Commando (SWATF) Karasburg Commando (SWATF) Keetmanshoop Commando
Keetmanshoop Commando
(SWATF) Maltahohe Commando
Maltahohe Commando
(SWATF) Mariental Commando
Mariental Commando
(SWATF) Okanhanja Commando (SWATF) Omaruru Commando (SWATF) Oranjemund Commando (SWATF) Otjiwarongo Commando
Otjiwarongo Commando
(SWATF) Outjo Commando
Outjo Commando
(SWATF) Rehoboth Commando (SWATF) Swakopmund Commando (SWATF)

Union Defence Force 1912–1957

1st South African Infantry Division 2nd South African Division 3rd South African Infantry Division 6th South African Armoured Division 1st Reserve Brigade UDF era 1st Infantry Brigade UDF era 2nd Infantry Brigade UDF era 3rd Infantry Brigade UDF era 4th Infantry Brigade UDF era 4th Field Brigade 5th Infantry Brigade UDF era 7th Motorised Brigade UDF era 1 SA Armoured Brigade South African Field Force Pioneer Battalion Cape Fortress Engineers 1 Mobile Watch 1 Medium Regiment SAA Cape Mounted Riflemen Cape Peninsular Rifles 1 Special
Service Battalion Cape Garrison Force Cape Light Horse Cape Coast Defence Corps Durban Coast Defence Corps South African Field Artillery Brigade Coast Artillery Brigade Regiment Onse Jan Regiment Kemp Transvaal Cycle Corps Western Province Mounted Rifles 1st Citizen Battery 2nd Citizen Battery 3rd Citizen Battery 4th Citizen Battery 5th Citizen Battery 6th Citizen Battery 7th Citizen Battery 8th and 9th Citizen Batteries No 1 Military District Cape Town No 2 Military District Port Elizabeth No 3 Military District East London No 4 Military District Pietermaritzburg No 5 Military District Durban No 6 Military District Standerton No 7 Military District Potchefstroom No 8 Military District Johannesburg No 9 Military District Pretoria No 10 Military District Kroonstad No 11 Military District Bloemfontein No 12 Military District Prieska No 13 Military District De Aar No 14 Military District Worcester Ordnance Corps Native Military Corps Q Services Corps

Volunteers of Union of South Africa
South Africa
World War 1 Europe Campaign 1914–1918

South African Overseas Expeditionary Force 1st South African Infantry Brigade SA Heavy Artillery Brigade 1st SA Infantry Regiment 2nd SA Infantry Regiment 3rd SA Infantry Regiment 4th SA Infantry Regiment South African Native Labour Corps

Volunteers of Union of South Africa
South Africa
World War 1 East Africa Campaign 1914–1915

1st Infantry ACF 2nd Infantry ACF 5th Infantry ACF 9th Infantry ACF

Volunteers of Union of South Africa
South Africa
World War 1 German South West Africa Campaign 1915

1st Regiment S.A.M.R. 2nd Regiment S.A.M.R. 3rd Regiment S.A.M.R. 4th Regiment S.A.M.R. 5th Regiment S.A.M.R. Special
Service Pioneer Corps 1st Permanent Force Artillery Battery S.A.M.R. 2nd Permanent Force Artillery Battery S.A.M.R. 4th Permanent Force Artillery Battery S.A.M.R. Transvaal Horse Artillery, attached S.A.M.R. Ammunition Column S.A.M.R. Durban Light Infantry Duke of Edinburgh's Own Rifles Prince Alfred's Guards First Eastern Rifles Kaffrarian Rifles Cape Town
Cape Town
Highlanders Kimberly Regiment Transvaal Scottish Cape Peninsula Rifles Witwatersrand Rifles Rand Light Infantry Pretoria Regiment Natal Light Horse Natal Carbineers

Volunteer Militias 1903-1909

Border Light Horse Border Mounted Rifles Cape Light Horse Cape Peninsular Rifles Diamond Fields Horse Durban Light Infantry Eastern Rifles Kaffrarian Rifles Natal Mounted Rifles Natal Native Horse Natal Rangers Natal Rifle Associations Natal Field Artillery Northern District Mounted Rifles Northern Rifles Prince Alfred's Own Cape Field Artillery Royston's Horse Southern Mounted Rifles Tembuland Light Horse Transvaal Cycle Corps Transvaal Horse Artillery
Transvaal Horse Artillery
Volunteers Transvaal Light Infantry Transvaal Mounted Rifles Transvaal Scottish Volunteers Uitenhage Rifles Umvoti Mounted Rifles Western Rifles Zululand Mounted Rifles

Non-Statutory Forces 1961-1994

Umkhonto weSizwe Azanian People's Liberation Army

Colonial Armies 1885–1902

Cape Colonial Forces

v t e

Truth and Reconciliation Commission


Chairman: Desmond Tutu Deputy chairman: Alex Boraine testimony


Amy Biehl Foundation Trust Institute for Justice and Reconciliation


Azanian People's Liberation Army Civil Cooperation Bureau State Security Council


Umkhonto we Sizwe Third Force


Amanzimtoti bombing Battle of Ventersdorp Church Street bombing The Cradock Four Durban beach-front bombing Heidelberg Tavern massacre The Gugulethu Seven Mthatha Raid Pebco Three Saint James Church massacre Sharpeville massacre Shell House massacre Bombing of Khotso House Trojan Horse Incident Queenstown Massacre


Non-fiction books

Country of My Skull (1998) A Human Being Died That Night (2003)


Red Dust (2000)


Forgiveness (2004) In My Country
In My Country
(2004) Red Dust (2004) Zulu