The Info List - Civil Constitution Of The Clergy

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The CIVIL CONSTITUTION OF THE CLERGY (French : "CONSTITUTION CIVILE DU CLERGé") was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution , that caused the immediate subordination of the Catholic Church in France
to the French government.

Earlier legislation had already arranged the confiscation of the Catholic Church's French land holdings and banned monastic vows . This new law completed the destruction of the monastic orders, outlawing "all regular and secular chapters for either sex, abbacies and priorships, both regular and in commendam , for either sex", etc. It also sought to settle the chaos caused by the earlier confiscation of Church lands and the abolition of the tithe. Additionally, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy regulated the current dioceses so that they could become more uniform and aligned with the administrative districts that had recently been created. It emphasised that officials of the church could not provide commitment to anything outside of France, specifically the Pope (due to his power and the influence he had) which was outside of France. Lastly, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy made Bishops and Priest elected. By having members of the Clergy elected the church lost much of the authority it had to govern itself and it was now subject to the people since they would vote on the Priest and Bishops as opposed to these individuals being appointed by the church and the hierarchy within.

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
was passed and some of the support for this came from figures that were within the Church, such as the priest and parliamentarian Pierre Claude François Daunou
Pierre Claude François Daunou
, and, above all, the revolutionary priest Henri Grégoire
Henri Grégoire
, who was the first French Catholic priest to take the Obligatory Oath. The measure was opposed, but ultimately acquiesced to, by King Louis XVI .


* 1 Document Outline * 2 Status of the Church in France
before the Civil Constitution * 3 Motivation of the Civil Constitution * 4 Debate over the Civil Constitution * 5 Legal status of the Church in France
under the Civil Constitution * 6 Delay in implementation * 7 Obligatory Oath * 8 Jurors and non-jurors * 9 Repeal of the Civil Constitution

* 10 References

* 10.1 Cited * 10.2 Uncited


See also: Civil Constitution of the Clergy Outline

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
document had 4 titles with different articles.

* The document began with an introduction that introduced why the document was written. * Title I focused on the dioceses and how they were to be administered. * Title II focused on the administration of the dioceses and how elections were to take place. * Title III focused on payment because the Clergy was a salaried employee of the State. * Title IV focused on the living requirements for bishops, parish priests, and the curates.


Even before the Revolution and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in France
(the Gallican Church ) had a status that tended to subordinate the Church to the State. Under the Declaration of the Clergy of France
(1682) privileges of the French monarch included the right to assemble church councils in their dominions and to make laws and regulations touching ecclesiastical matters of the Gallican Church or to have recourse to the "appeal as from an abuse" ("appel comme d'abus") against acts of the ecclesiastical power. In this caricature, after the decree of 16 February 1790, monks and nuns enjoy their new freedom.

Even prior to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy:

* On 11 August 1789 tithes were abolished. * On 2 November 1789, Catholic Church
Catholic Church
property that was held for purposes of church revenue was nationalized, and was used as the backing for the assignats . * On 13 February 1790, monastic vows were forbidden and all ecclesiastical orders and congregations were dissolved, excepting those devoted to teaching children and nursing the sick. * On 19 April 1790, administration of all remaining church property was transferred to the State.


The following interlinked factors appear to have been the causes of agitation for the confiscation of church lands and for the adoption of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy:

* The French government in 1790 was nearly bankrupt; this fiscal crisis had been the original reason for the king's calling the Estates-General in 1789.

* The Church owned about six percent of the land in France. In addition the Church collected tithes.

* The Church used the six percent of the land they owned for a multitude of purposes which included churches, monasteries, convents, schools, hospitals, and other establishments which served the people of France.

* Owing, in part, to abuses of this system (especially for patronage), there was enormous resentment of the Church, taking the various forms of atheism , anticlericalism , and anti-Catholicism . * Many of the revolutionaries viewed the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a retrograde force. * At the same time, there was enough support for a basically Catholic form of Christianity that some means had to be found to fund the Church in France.


On 6 February 1790, one week before banning monastic vows, the National Constituent Assembly asked its ecclesiastical committee to prepare the reorganization of the clergy. No doubt, those who hoped to reach a solution amenable to the papacy were discouraged by the consistorial address of March 22 in which Pius VI spoke out against measures already passed by the Assembly; also, the election of the Protestant Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne
Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne
to the presidency of the Assembly brought about "commotions" at Toulouse
and Nîmes
, suggesting that at least some Catholics would accept nothing less than a return to the ancien régime practice under which only Catholics could hold office.

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
came before the Assembly on 29 May 1790. François de Bonal , Bishop of Clermont , and some members of the Right requested that the project should be submitted to a national council or to the Pope, but did not carry the day. Joining them in their opposition to the legislation was Abbé Sieyès , one of the chief political theorists of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and author of the 1789 pamphlet " What is the Third Estate? "

Conversely, the Jansenist theologian Armand-Gaston Camus argued that the plan was in perfect harmony with the New Testament
New Testament
and the councils of the fourth century.

The Assembly passed the Civil Constitution on 12 July 1790, two days before the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille . On that anniversary, the Fête de la Fédération
Fête de la Fédération
, Talleyrand
and three hundred priests officiated at the "altar of the nation" erected on the Champ de Mars
Champ de Mars
, wearing tricolor waistbands over their priestly vestments and calling down God's blessing upon the Revolution.

In 1793, the War in the Vendee
War in the Vendee
was influenced by the Constitution passing due to the devout population toward the Church among other social factors.


As noted above, even prior to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, church property was nationalized and monastic vows were forbidden. Under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy:

* There were 83 bishops, one per Department, rather than the previous 135 bishops. * Bishops (known as constitutional bishops ) and priests were elected locally; electors had to sign a loyalty oath to the constitution. There was no requirement that the electors be Catholics, creating the ironic situation that Protestants and even Jews could help elect the Catholic priests and bishops. Their proportion in the French population was however very small. * Authority of the Pope over the appointment of clergy was reduced to the right to be informed of election results.

The tone of the Civil Constitution can be gleaned from Title II, Article XXI: Before the ceremony of consecration begins, the bishop elect shall take a solemn oath, in the presence of the municipal officers, of the people, and of the clergy, to guard with care the faithful of his diocese who are confided to him, to be loyal to the nation, the law, and the king, and to support with all his power the constitution decreed by the National Assembly and accepted by the king.

In short, new bishops were required to swear loyalty to the State in far stronger terms than to any religious doctrine. Note also that, even in this revolutionary legislation, there are strong remnants of Gallican royalism.

The law also included some reforms supported even by many within the Church. For example, Title IV, Article I states, "The law requiring the residence of ecclesiastics in the districts under their charge shall be strictly observed. All vested with an ecclesiastical office or function shall be subject to this, without distinction or exception." In effect, this banned the practice by which younger sons of noble families would be appointed to a bishopric or other high church position and live off its revenues without ever moving to the region in question and taking up the duties of the office. The abuse of bishoprics by the nobility was further reduced in Title II, Article XI: "Bishoprics and cures shall be looked upon as vacant until those elected to fill them shall have taken the oath above mentioned." This unified state control over both the nobility and the Church through the use of elected bishops and the oath of loyalty.


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For some time, Louis XVI delayed signing the Civil Constitution, saying that he needed "official word from Rome" before doing so. Pope Pius VI broke the logjam on 9 July 1790, writing a letter to Louis rejecting the arrangement. On 28 July, 6 September, and 16 December 1790, Louis XVI wrote letters to Pius VI, complaining that the National Assembly was forcing him to publicly accept the Civil Constitution, and suggesting that Pius VI appease them by accepting a few selected articles too. On 10 July, Pius VI wrote to Louis XVI, indicating to the king that the Church could not accept any of the provisions of the Constitution. The Constitution attempted to change the internal government of the Church, and no political regime had the right to unilaterally change the internal structure of the Church. On 17 August, Pius VI wrote to Louis XVI of his intent to consult with the cardinals about this, but on 10 October Cardinal Rochefoucauld, the Archbishop of Aix, and 30 of France's 131 bishops sent their negative evaluation of the main points of the Civil Constitution to the Pope. Only four bishops actively dissented. On 30 October, the same 30 bishops restated their view to the public, signing a document known as the Exposition of Principles ("Exposition des principes sur la constitution civile du clergé"), written by Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de Boisgelin

On 27 November 1790, still lacking the king's signature on the law of the Civil Constitution, the National Assembly voted to require the clergy to sign an oath of loyalty to the Constitution. During the debate on that matter, on 25 November, Cardinal de Lomenie wrote a letter claiming that the clergy could be excused from taking the Oath if they lacked mental assent; that stance was to be rejected by the Pope on 23 February 1791. On 26 December 1790, Louis XVI finally granted his public assent to the Civil Constitution, allowing the process of administering the oaths to proceed in January and February 1791.

Pope Pius VI's 23 February rejection of Cardinal de Lomenie's position of withholding "mental assent" guaranteed that this would become a schism . The Pope's subsequent condemnation of the revolutionary regime and repudiation of all clergy who had complied with the oath completed the schism.


Members of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
taking the oath that was required by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

Within the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
there was a clause that required the Clergy to take an oath stating the individual's allegiance to France. The oath was basically an oath of fidelity and it required every single priest in France
to make a public choice on whether or not they believed the nation of France
had authority over all religious matters. This oath was very controversial because many Clergy believed that they could not put their loyalty towards France before their loyalty towards God. If a clergyman were to refuse to take this oath of allegiance then they were challenging the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and challenging the validity of the assembly which had established the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. On 16 January 1791 approximately 50% of the individuals required to take the oath went ahead and took it and the other half decided to wait for Pope Pius VI to provide instruction, since he was indecisive on what the Oath signified and how the Clergy should respond to it. It is important to note that all but seven of the bishops in France decided to not take the oath and as a reprimand those governing France began to replace the individuals with those who had taken the oath. In March 1791 Pope Pius VI finally decided that the oath was against the beliefs of the Church. By deciding that it was against the beliefs two groups were formed "jurors" ("refractory priests") and "non-jurors" and that was based on whether or not they had decided to take the oath. The Pope condemned those who took the oath and went as far as saying that they were absolutely separated from the church. Additionally, the Pope expressed disapproval and chastised King Louis XVI for signing the document that required the oath to be taken. Since the Pope expressed disapproval those who did not take it stayed unwilling to take it and as a result were replaced by those who had taken it. In addition to not receiving support from approximately 50% of the Clergy the oath was also disliked by a part of France's population. The individuals in France
who were opposed to it claimed that the Revolution was destroying their "true" faith and this was also seen in the two groups of individuals that were formed because of the oath. Those who believed that the Revolution was causing their "true" faith to be destroyed sided with the "non-jurors" and those who believed that the French government should have a say in religion sided with the "jurors."

American Scholar Timothy Tackett believes that the oath that was required determined which individuals would let the revolution cause change and allow revolutionary reform and those who did not would remain true to their beliefs for many years to come. Apart from Tackett's beliefs, it can be said that the obligatory oath marked a key historical point in the French Revolution
French Revolution
since it was the first piece of legislation in the revolution that received massive drawback and resistance.


The rate of swearing priests in 1791. The department division is the current one.

As noted above, the government required all clergy to swear an oath of loyalty to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Only seven bishops and about half of the clergy agreed while the rest refused; the latter became known as "non-jurors" or "refractory priests." In areas where a majority had taken the oath, such as Paris, the refractory minority could be victimized by society at large: nuns from the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris , for example, were subjected to humiliating public spankings.

While there was a higher rate of rejection in urban areas, most of these refractory priests (like most of the population) lived in the countryside, and the Civil Constitution generated considerable resentment among religious peasants. Meanwhile, the Pope repudiated the "jurors" who had signed the oath, especially bishops who had ordained new, elected clergy, and above all Bishop Louis-Alexandre Expilly de la Poipe . In May 1791, France
recalled its ambassador to the Vatican and the Papal Nuncio was recalled from Paris. On June 9, the Assembly forbade the publication of Papal Bulls or Decrees, unless they had been approved by the Assembly as well.

The Constituent Assembly went back and forth on the exact status of non-juring priests. On 5 February 1791, non-juring priests were banned from preaching in public. By not allowing the clergy to preach the National Assembly was trying to silence the Clergy. This punishment that was imposed by the assembly signified that all refractory priest could no longer practice marriages and baptisms which were public ceremonies. By not allowing refractory clergy to practice these large public ceremonies they were silenced. However, non-juring clergy continued to celebrate the Mass and attract crowds because the Assembly feared that stripping them of all of their powers would create chaos and that would be ineffective towards silencing them. Although the Assembly allowed them to continue working in ceremonies that were not public they stated that they could only do so until they had been replaced by a clergyman who had taken the oath (juring). A large percentage of the refractionary priests were not replaced until 10 August 1792, which was more than a year after the original 50% had taken the oath; by the time they began to be replaced the Assembly had made some changes and it was not as significant that they were practicing Mass.

At the beginning, when the Assembly was stripping the clergy of their titles they tried to ignore how the extreme anti-clerical elements were responding with violence against those who attended these Masses and against nuns who would not renounce their vocation. Ultimately the Assembly had to recognize the schism that was occurring because it was extremely evident, even while the replacement was occurring juror priests often faced a hostile and violent reception in their old parishes. On 7 May 1791, the Assembly reversed itself, deciding that the non-juring priests, referred to as prêtres habitués ("habitual priests") could say Mass and conduct services in other churches on condition that they would respect the laws and not stir up revolt against the Civil Constitution. The assembly had to allow this change to control the schism and in part because "Constitutional Clergy" (those who had taken the oath) were unable to properly conduct their service. The constitutional clergy often required the assistance of the National Guard due to the mayhem that would occur.

The division in France
was at an all-time high when even families had different views on juring and non-juring priest. The difference in families was primarily seen when the women would attend masses that where held by those who had defied the oath and men attended mass that was provided by clergymembers who had taken the oath. It is important to note that even though priests who had not taken the Oath had the right to use the churches many were not allowed to use the buildings (this was done by priest who had sworn their allegiance) this furthermore demonstrated the division in the state. On 29 November 1791, the Legislative Assembly , which had replaced the National Constituent Assembly, decreed that refractory priests could only exacerbate factionalism and aggravate extremists in the constituent assembly. The November 29th decree declared that no refractory priest could invoke the rights in the Constitution of the Clergy and that all such priests were suspect and so to be arrested. Louis XVI vetoed this decree (as he also did with another text concerning the creation of an army of 20,000 men on the orders of the Assembly, precipitating the monarchy's fall), which was toughened and re-issued a year later. Anti-Catholic persecution by the State would intensify into de-Christianization and propagation of the Cult of Reason
Cult of Reason
and the Cult of the Supreme Being in 1793–1794. During this time countless non-juring priests were interned in chains on prison ships in French harbors where most died within a few months from the appalling conditions.


See also: Concordat of 1801
Concordat of 1801

After the Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
, the Convention repealed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; however, the schism between the civilly constituted French Church and the Papacy was only resolved when the Concordat of 1801
Concordat of 1801
was agreed on. The Concordat was reached on July 15, 1801 and it was made widely known the following year, on Easter. It was an agreement executed by Napoleon
Bonaparte and clerical and papal representatives from Rome and Paris , and determined the role and status of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in France; moreover, it concluded the confiscations and church reforms that had been implemented over the course of the revolution. The agreement also gave the first consul (Napoleon) the authority and right to nominate bishops, redistribute the current parishes and bishoprics, and allowed for seminaries to be established. In an effort to please Pius VII it was agreed upon that suitable salaries would be provided for bishops and curés and he would condone the acquisition of church lands.



* ^ A B C D E F G D., Popkin, Jeremy (2010-01-01). A short history of the French Revolution. Pearson Education. ISBN 0205693571 . OCLC 780111354 . * ^ A B C D Text of the Legislation From J.H. Robinson, ed., The Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 12 July 1790, Readings in European History, 2 vols. Boston: Ginn, 1906. Vol 2: pp. 423–427. * ^ A B C D 1950-, Carnes, Mark C. (Mark Christopher),; 1952-, Kates, Gary,. Rousseau, Burke, and revolution in France, 1791. ISBN 9780393938883 . OCLC
908192433 . * ^ A B C D E " Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Outline". Wikipedia. 2017-03-13. * ^ R., Hanson, Paul (2007-01-01). The A to Z of the French Revolution. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 1461716063 . OCLC
856869661 . * ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: French Revolution". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2016-09-02. * ^ 1948-, McPhee, Peter, (2009-01-01). Living the French Revolution, 1789-1799. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0333997395 . OCLC 465524553 . * ^ 1945-, Tackett, Timothy,. Priest & parish in eighteenth-century France: a social and political study of the curés in a diocese of Dauphiné, 1750-1791. ISBN 1400857147 . OCLC
889250730 . * ^ "The French Revolution
French Revolution
and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
History Today". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved 2017-02-06. * ^ A B Catholic Encyclopedia * ^ Kagan et al. (2001), p. 643. * ^ A B C D E F "CLERGY\'S OATH TO THE CONSTITUTION". www.historyworld.net. Retrieved 2017-02-26. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M "The Subjugation of the Catholic Church: A Failed Attempt". www.ucumberlands.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-06.

* ^ A B 1950-, Carnes, Mark C. (Mark Christopher),; 1952-, Kates, Gary,. Rousseau, Burke, and revolution in France, 1791. ISBN 9780393938883 . OCLC
908192433 . * ^ Colin Jones , The Great Nation, 2002 (Penguin 2003 p. 444, ISBN 9780140130935 ) * ^ 1950-, Carnes, Mark C. (Mark Christopher),; 1952-, Kates, Gary,. Rousseau, Burke, and revolution in France, 1791. ISBN 9780393938883 . OCLC
908192433 . * ^ de Patris, B. Combes. Proces-verbaux des seances de la Societe Populaire de Rodez. Rodez, Carrere, 1912. p. 128 * ^ " Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-03-06. * ^ A B C D " Concordat of 1801
Concordat of 1801
French religious history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-03-06.


* http://home.nordnet.fr/~blatouche/E8.html (in French) * http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap1d.html * https://web.archive.org/web/20031212102553/http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~rpekarek/fresp1.html * Civil Constitution of the Clergy, complete text in English * Response of Pope Pius VI to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 13 April 1791.

* v * t * e

French Revolution
French Revolution




* Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) * Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)


* What Is the Third Estate? (Jan 1789) * Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) * Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) * National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) * Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) * National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) * Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) * Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) * Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) * Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) * Women\'s March on Versailles (5 Oct 1789)


* Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) * Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) * Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)


* Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) * Champ de Mars
Champ de Mars
Massacre (17 Jul 1791) * Declaration of Pillnitz
Declaration of Pillnitz
(27 Aug 1791) * The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) * Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)


* France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) * Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) * Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) * 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) * September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) * National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) * First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)


* Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) * Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795)

* Reign of Terror (27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

* Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
* Committee of General Security

* Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) * Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) * Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) * Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) * Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) * Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)


* Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) * Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) * Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) * Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) * White Terror (Fall 1794) * Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)


* Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) * Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795)

* Directoire (1795–99)

* Council of Five Hundred
Council of Five Hundred
* Council of Ancients
Council of Ancients


* Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) * Second Congress of Rastatt (Dec 1797)


* Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) * Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) * Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) * Consulate



* Verdun * Thionville * Valmy

* Royalist Revolts

* Chouannerie
* Vendée * Dauphiné

* Lille * Siege of Mainz * Jemappes * Namur (fr)


* First Coalition * Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) * War in the Vendée
War in the Vendée
* Battle of Neerwinden) * Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) * Capture of San Pietro and Sant\'Antioco (25 May 1793) * Battle of Kaiserslautern
Battle of Kaiserslautern
* Siege of Mainz * Battle of Wattignies
Battle of Wattignies
* Battle of Hondschoote * Siege of Bellegarde * Battle of Peyrestortes (Pyrenees) * First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) * Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) * Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)


* Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) * Battle of Boulou (Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) * Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) * Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) * Chouannerie
* Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) * Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)


* Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel


* Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) * Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) * Battle of Theiningen * Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) * Battle of Amberg (24 Aug 1796) * Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) * Battle of Rovereto (4 Sep 1796) * First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) * Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) * Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) * Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) * Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) * Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) * The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)


* Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) * Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) * Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) * Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) * Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) * Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)


* French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) * French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) * Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) * Quasi-War
(1798–1800) * Peasants\' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)


* Second Coalition (1798–1802) * Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) * Battle of Ostrach (20–21 Mar 1799) * Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) * Battle of Magnano (5 Apr 1799) * Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) * First Battle of Zurich (4–7 Jun 1799) * Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) * Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) * Second Battle of Zurich (25–26 Sep 1799)


* Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) * Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) * League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)


* Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) * Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) * Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)


* Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)



* Eustache Charles d\'Aoust * Pierre Augereau * Alexandre de Beauharnais
Alexandre de Beauharnais
* Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte * Louis-Alexandre Berthier
Louis-Alexandre Berthier
* Jean-Baptiste Bessières
Jean-Baptiste Bessières
* Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune * Jean François Carteaux
Jean François Carteaux
* Jean Étienne Championnet * Chapuis de Tourville * Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
* Louis-Nicolas Davout
Louis-Nicolas Davout
* Louis Desaix
Louis Desaix
* Jacques François Dugommier
Jacques François Dugommier
* Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
* Charles François Dumouriez
Charles François Dumouriez
* Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino
Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino
* Louis-Charles de Flers
Louis-Charles de Flers
* Paul Grenier
Paul Grenier
* Emmanuel de Grouchy * Jacques Maurice Hatry
Jacques Maurice Hatry
* Lazare Hoche * Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
* François Christophe de Kellermann
François Christophe de Kellermann
* Jean-Baptiste Kléber
Jean-Baptiste Kléber
* Pierre Choderlos de Laclos * Jean Lannes
Jean Lannes
* Charles Leclerc
Charles Leclerc
* Claude Lecourbe
Claude Lecourbe
* François Joseph Lefebvre
François Joseph Lefebvre
* Jacques MacDonald
Jacques MacDonald
* Jean-Antoine Marbot
Jean-Antoine Marbot
* Jean Baptiste de Marbot * François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers
François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers
* Auguste de Marmont * André Masséna
André Masséna
* Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey
Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey
* Jean Victor Marie Moreau * Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise * Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
* Michel Ney
Michel Ney
* Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) * Nicolas Oudinot
Nicolas Oudinot
* Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon
Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon
* Jean-Charles Pichegru
Jean-Charles Pichegru
* Józef Poniatowski
Józef Poniatowski
* Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr
Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr
* Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer
Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer
* Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier
Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier
* Joseph Souham
Joseph Souham
* Jean-de-Dieu Soult
Jean-de-Dieu Soult
* Louis-Gabriel Suchet
Louis-Gabriel Suchet
* Belgrand de Vaubois * Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno
Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno


* Charles-Alexandre Linois



* József Alvinczi
József Alvinczi
* Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
* Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) * Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg
Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg
* Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze (Swiss) * Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth
Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth
* Pál Kray (Hungarian) * Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) * Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) * Karl Mack von Leiberich
Karl Mack von Leiberich
* Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) * Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
* Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich
Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich
* Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen
Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen
* Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló (Hungarian) * Karl Philipp Sebottendorf * Dagobert von Wurmser


* Sir Ralph Abercromby
Ralph Abercromby
* Admiral Sir James Saumarez * Admiral Sir Edward Pellew * Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany


* William V, Prince of Orange
William V, Prince of Orange


* Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel * Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen


* Alexander Korsakov
Alexander Korsakov
* Alexander Suvorov
Alexander Suvorov


* Luis Firmin de Carvajal * Antonio Ricardos
Antonio Ricardos



* Jean Sylvain Bailly
Jean Sylvain Bailly
* Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
* François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt
François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt
* Isaac René Guy le Chapelier
Isaac René Guy le Chapelier
* Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau
* Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
* Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
* Nicolas de Condorcet
Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

* Madame de Lamballe * Madame du Barry
Madame du Barry
* Louis de Breteuil * Loménie de Brienne * Charles Alexandre de Calonne
Charles Alexandre de Calonne
* de Chateaubriand * Jean Chouan
Jean Chouan
* Grace Elliott
Grace Elliott
* Arnaud de La Porte * Jean-Sifrein Maury * Jacques Necker
Jacques Necker
* François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy
François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy
* Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas
Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas
* Antoine Barnave
Antoine Barnave
* Lafayette * Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth
Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth
* Charles Malo François Lameth
Charles Malo François Lameth
* André Chénier
André Chénier
* Jean-François Rewbell * Camille Jordan * Madame de Staël * Boissy d\'Anglas * Jean-Charles Pichegru
Jean-Charles Pichegru
* Pierre Paul Royer-Collard
Pierre Paul Royer-Collard


* Jacques Pierre Brissot
Jacques Pierre Brissot
* Roland de La Platière * Madame Roland
Madame Roland
* Father Henri Grégoire
Henri Grégoire
* Étienne Clavière
Étienne Clavière
* Marquis de Condorcet
Marquis de Condorcet
* Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday
* Marie Jean Hérault * Jean Baptiste Treilhard
Jean Baptiste Treilhard
* Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud
Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud
* Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac * Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve
Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve
* Jean Debry
Jean Debry
* Jean-Jacques Duval d\'Eprémesnil * Olympe de Gouges * Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet
Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet
* Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux
Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux


* Abbé Sieyès * de Cambacérès * Charles François Lebrun * Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot * Philippe Égalité * Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
* Mirabeau * Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville * Jean Joseph Mounier * Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours * François de Neufchâteau
François de Neufchâteau


* Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
* Georges Danton
Georges Danton
* Jean-Paul Marat
Jean-Paul Marat
* Camille Desmoulins
Camille Desmoulins
* Louis Antoine de Saint-Just
Louis Antoine de Saint-Just
* Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras * Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
* Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau * Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis David
* Marquis de Sade
Marquis de Sade
* Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis David
* Georges Couthon
Georges Couthon
* Roger Ducos
Roger Ducos
* Jean-Marie Collot d\'Herbois * Jean-Henri Voulland * Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai
Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai
* Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville
Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville
* Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas
Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas
* Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier
Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier
* Jean-Pierre-André Amar
Jean-Pierre-André Amar
* Prieur de la Côte-d\'Or * Prieur de la Marne * Gilbert Romme
Gilbert Romme
* Jean Bon Saint-André
Jean Bon Saint-André
* Jean-Lambert Tallien
Jean-Lambert Tallien
* Pierre Louis Prieur
Pierre Louis Prieur
* Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac * Antoine Christophe Saliceti

and Enragés

* Jacques Hébert
Jacques Hébert
* Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne
Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne
* Pierre Gaspard Chaumette
Pierre Gaspard Chaumette
* Charles-Philippe Ronsin * Antoine-François Momoro
Antoine-François Momoro
* François-Nicolas Vincent * François Chabot
François Chabot
* Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte * Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel
Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel
* François Hanriot
François Hanriot
* Jacques Roux * Stanislas-Marie Maillard * Charles-Philippe Ronsin * Jean-François Varlet * Theophile Leclerc * Claire Lacombe * Pauline Léon * Gracchus Babeuf * Sylvain Maréchal
Sylvain Maréchal


* Charles X * Louis XVI * Louis XVII * Louis XVIII * Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien
Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien
* Louis Henri, Prince of Condé
Louis Henri, Prince of Condé
* Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé
Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé
* Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
* Napoléon Bonaparte * Lucien Bonaparte
Lucien Bonaparte
* Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
* Joseph Fesch
Joseph Fesch
* Joséphine de Beauharnais
Joséphine de Beauharnais
* Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
* Jean Sylvain Bailly
Jean Sylvain Bailly
* Jacques-Donatien Le Ray * Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes * Talleyrand
* Thérésa Tallien
Thérésa Tallien
* Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target
Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target
* Catherine Théot
Catherine Théot
* List of people associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution


* Les Lumières * Beaumarchais * Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke
* Anacharsis Cloots
Anacharsis Cloots
* Charles-Augustin de Coulomb * Pierre Claude François Daunou
Pierre Claude François Daunou
* Diderot * Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
* Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
* Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
* Montesquieu
* Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
* Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
* Abbé Sieyès * Voltaire
* Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft


* La Marseillaise
La Marseillaise
* French Tricolour * Liberté, égalité, fraternité
Liberté, égalité, fraternité
* Marianne
* Bastille Day
Bastille Day
* Panthéon
* French Republican Calendar
French Republican Calendar
* Cult of the Supreme Being
Cult of the Supreme Being

* Cult of Reason
Cult of Reason

* Temple of Reason
Temple of Reason

* Sans-culottes
* Metric system
Metric system
* Phrygian cap
Phrygian cap
* Women in the French Revolution
French Revolution
* Symbolism in the French Revolution
French Revolution
* Historiography of the French Revolution
French Revolution
* Influence of the French Revolution
French Revolution


* SUDOC : 02865448X * BNF : cb12044522x (data)

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