The Info List - Civic Platform

Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(Polish: Platforma Obywatelska, PO)[nb 1] is a liberal-conservative[12][13][14][15] and Christian democratic[16][17] political party in Poland. Civic Platform
Civic Platform
came to power following the 2007 general election as the major coalition partner in Poland's government, with party leader Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
as Prime Minister of Poland. Tusk was re-elected as Prime Minister in the 2011 general election but stepped down three years later to assume the post of President of the European Council. Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz
Ewa Kopacz
led the party in the 2015 general election but was defeated by the Law and Justice
Law and Justice
party. On 16 November 2015 Civic Platform
Civic Platform
government stepped down after exactly 8 years in power. In 2010 Civic Platform
Civic Platform
candidate Bronisław Komorowski was elected as President of Poland, but failed in running for re-election in 2015. PO is the second largest party in the Sejm, with 138 seats, and the Senate, with 33 seats. Civic Platform
Civic Platform
is a member of the European People's Party
European People's Party
(EPP). The party was formed in 2001 as a split from Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS), under the leadership of Andrzej Olechowski
Andrzej Olechowski
and Maciej Płażyński, with Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
of the Freedom Union (UW). In the 2001 general election, PO emerged as the largest opposition party, behind the ruling centre-left party Democratic Left Alliance
Democratic Left Alliance
(SLD). PO remained the second-largest party at the 2005 general election, but this time behind the national-conservative party Law and Justice (PiS). In 2007, Civic Platform
Civic Platform
overtook PiS, now established as the two dominant parties, and formed a coalition government with the Polish People's Party. Following the Smolensk disaster of April 2010, Bronisław Komorowski
Bronisław Komorowski
became the first President from PO in the 2010 presidential election. Since its creation, the party has shown stronger electoral performances in the west and north of Poland.[18]


1 History 2 Ideology 3 Political support 4 Election results

4.1 Sejm 4.2 Senate 4.3 Presidential 4.4 Regional assemblies 4.5 European Parliament

5 Leadership

5.1 Chairmen 5.2 Current board

6 Notable politicians 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

History[edit] The Civic Platform
Civic Platform
was founded in 2001 as a split from existing parties. Founders Andrzej Olechowski, Maciej Płażyński, and Donald Tusk were sometimes jokingly called "the Three Tenors" by Polish media and commentators. Olechowski and Płażyński left the party during the 2001–2005 parliamentary term, leaving Tusk as the sole remaining founder, and current party leader. In 2009, in interviews to Rzeczpospolita daily newspaper and Polsat News (3 July 2009), General Gromosław Czempiński, who in 1972–1990 had been an agent of Communist secret services,[19] stated that the Civic Platform
Civic Platform
was his idea. "I can say that I participated in a number of discussions, above all, I had to convince Olechowski and Paweł Piskorski to an idea, which they excellently put into practice. I also talked to Donald Tusk", said Czempiński.[20][21] Czempinski's words were confirmed by Andrzej Olechowski
Andrzej Olechowski
(also an agent of Communist services, operational name "Must"),[22] who in an interview given to Gazeta Polska
Gazeta Polska
said: "General Czempinski surely participated in a way in forming such ideas ... I talked to General Czempinski about the newly created movement".[23] In the 2001 general election the party secured 12.6% of the vote and 65 deputies in the Sejm, making it the largest opposition party to the government led by the Democratic Left Alliance
Democratic Left Alliance
(SLD). In 2005, PO led all opinion polls with 26% to 30% of public support. However, in the 2005 general election, in which it was led by Jan Rokita, PO polled only 24.1% and unexpectedly came second to the 27% garnered by Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(PiS). A centre-right coalition of PO and PiS (nicknamed:PO-PiS) was deemed most likely to form a government after the election. Yet the putative coalition parties had a falling out in the wake of the fiercely contested Polish presidential election of 2005. Lech Kaczyński
Lech Kaczyński
(PiS) won the second round of the presidential election on 23 October 2005 with 54% of the vote, ahead of Tusk, the PO candidate. Due to the demands of PiS for control of all the armed ministries (the Defence Ministry, the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and the office of the Prime Minister, PO and PiS were unable to form a coalition. Instead, PiS formed a coalition government with the support of the League of Polish Families (LPR) and Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (SRP). PO became the opposition to this PiS-led coalition government. The PiS-led coalition fell apart in 2007 amid corruption scandal with Andrzej Lepper
Andrzej Lepper
and Tomasz Lipiec[24] and internal leadership disputes. These events led to the new elections in 2007. In the 21 October 2007 parliamentary election, PO won 41.51% of the popular vote and 209 out of 460 seats (now 201) in the Sejm
and 60 out of 100 seats (now 56) in the Senate of Poland. Civic Platform, now the largest party in both houses of parliament, subsequently formed a coalition with the Polish People's Party (PSL). At the Polish presidential election of 2010, following the Smolensk air disaster which killed the incumbent Polish president Lech Kaczyński, Tusk decided not to present his candidature, considered an easy possible victory over PiS leader Jarosław Kaczyński. During the PO primary elections, Bronisław Komorowski
Bronisław Komorowski
defeated the Oxford-educated, PiS defector Foreign Minister Radosław Sikorski. At the polls, Komorowski defeated Jarosław Kaczyński, ensuring PO dominance over the current Polish political landscape.[25] In November 2010, local elections granted Civic Platform
Civic Platform
about 30.1 percent of the votes and PiS at 23.2 percent, an increase for the former and a drop for the latter compared to the 2006 elections.[25] PO succeeded in winning four consecutive elections (a record in post-communist Poland), and Tusk remains as kingmaker. PO's dominance is also a reflection of left-wing weakness and divisions on both sides of the political scene, with PiS suffering a splinter in Autumn 2010.[25] The 9 October 2011 parliamentary election was won by Civic Platform with 39.18% of the popular vote, 207 of 460 seats in the Sejm, 63 out of 100 seats in the Senate.[26] In the 2014 European elections, Civic Platform
Civic Platform
came first place nationally, achieving 32.13% of the vote and returning 19 MEPs.[27] Ideology[edit] As a centre-right political party, Civic Platform
Civic Platform
has been described as liberal,[28][2][3] liberal-conservative,[14][15] conservative-liberal,[29][30][31] and Christian democratic.[16][17] Civic Platform
Civic Platform
combines ordoliberal stances on the economy with social conservative stances on social and ethical issues, including opposition to abortion, same-sex marriage, soft drug decriminalisation, euthanasia, fetal stem cell research, removal of crosses and other religious symbols in schools and public places, and partially to wide availability of in vitro fertilisation. The party also wants to criminalise gambling and supports religious education in schools and civil unions. Other socially conservative stances of the party include voting to ban designer drugs and amending the penal code to introduce mandatory chemical castration of paedophiles. It is somewhat less strident on social issues than Law and Justice, however. Despite declaring in the parliamentary election campaign the will to limit taxation in Poland
the Civic Platform
Civic Platform
has in fact increased it. The party refrained from implementing the flat tax, increasing instead the value-added tax from 22% to 23% in 2011.[32] It has also increased the excise imposed on diesel oil, alcoholic beverages, tobacco and coil.[33][34] The party has eliminated many tax exemptions.[35][36][37] Political support[edit]

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See also: Poland
A and B

Civic Platform's support is concentrated in the west and north of the country. Areas voting for Bronisław Komorowski
Bronisław Komorowski
in 2010 are shaded orange above.

Today, Civic Platform
Civic Platform
enjoys support among higher class constituencies. Professionals, academics, managers, businessman vote for the party in high numbers. People with university degree support party more than less educated ones. PO voters are these people who generally benefited from European integration and economic liberalisation since 1989 and are satisfied with their life standard. Many PO voters are social-liberals who value environmentalism, secularism and europeanisation. Conservatives used to vote for the party before PO moved sharply to the left on economic i.e. increase of taxes and social issues i.e. support for civil unions. Young people are another voting bloc that abandoned the party after their economic and social situation didn't improve significantly when PO was in the government. Areas that are more likely to vote for PO are west and north of the country, especially parts of former Prussia
before 1918. Many of these people used to vote for Democratic Left Alliance
Democratic Left Alliance
before when that party enjoyed support and influence. Large cities in the whole country prefer this PO than rural areas and smaller towns. This is caused by the diversity, secular and social liberal urban voters tend to value. In the urban areas, conservative principles are much less identified by voters. Large cities in Poland
have a better economic situation what draws support to PO. Areas with higher concentration of minorities i.e. Germans or Belarusans support the party due to smaller emphasis on patriotism and national conservatism. Election results[edit] Sejm[edit]

Election year # of votes % of vote # of overall seats won +/– Govt?

2001 1,651,099 12.7 (#2)

65 / 460


2005 2,849,259 24.1 (#2)

133 / 460

68 Opposition

2007 6,701,010 41.5 (#1)

209 / 460

76 Coalition

2011 5,629,773 39.2 (#1)

207 / 460

2 Coalition

2015 3,661,474 24.1 (#2)

138 / 460

69 Opposition


Election year # of overall seats won +/–


2 / 100

As part of the Senate 2001 coalition, which won 15 seats.


34 / 100



60 / 100



63 / 100



34 / 100



Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round

# of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall votes % of overall vote

2005 Donald Tusk 5,429,666 36.3 (#1) 7,022,319 46.0 (#2)

2010 Bronisław Komorowski 6,981,319 41.5 (#1) 8,933,887 53.0 (#1)

2015 Supported Bronisław Komorowski 5,031,060 33.8 (#2) 8,112,311 48.5 (#2)

Regional assemblies[edit]

Election year % of vote # of overall seats won +/–

2002 12.1 (#4)

79 / 561

In coalition with Law and Justice.

2006 27.2 (#1)

186 / 561

2010 30.9 (#1)

222 / 561


2014 26.3 (#2)

179 / 555


European Parliament[edit]

Election year # of votes % of vote # of overall seats won +/–

2004 1,467,775 24.1 (#1)

15 / 54

2009 3,271,852 44.4 (#1)

25 / 50


2014 2,271,215 32.1 (#1)

19 / 51


Leadership[edit] Chairmen[edit]

Maciej Płażyński
Maciej Płażyński
(2001–2003) Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
(2003–2014) Ewa Kopacz
Ewa Kopacz
(2014–2016) Grzegorz Schetyna
Grzegorz Schetyna

Current board[edit]

Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
– former chairman, former Prime Minister, current President of the European Council Grzegorz Schetyna
Grzegorz Schetyna
– chairman, former Acting President of Poland, former Minister of Foreign Affairs, former Deputy Prime Minister, former Minister of Interior and Administration Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz
Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz
– former vice chairman (2006-2017), Mayor of Warsaw Ewa Kopacz
Ewa Kopacz
– former chairman, former Prime Minister, vice chairman Elżbieta Bieńkowska
Elżbieta Bieńkowska
- former Deputy Prime Minister, former Minister of Infrastructure and Development, current European Commissioner for Internal Market and Services and European Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship Waldy Dzikowski Urszula Augustyn Bogdan Borusewicz
Bogdan Borusewicz
- former Marshal of the Senate, vice chairman, deputy Marshal of the Senate Elżbieta Radziszewska
Elżbieta Radziszewska
– former Deputy Marshal of the Sejm Andrzej Czerwiński Cezary Grabarczyk
Cezary Grabarczyk
- former Minister of Justice Sławomir Nitras Tomasz Siemoniak
Tomasz Siemoniak
– former Deputy Prime Minister, former Minister of National Defense Andrzej Czuma Bronisław Komorowski
Bronisław Komorowski
– former President of Poland

Notable politicians[edit]

Bronisław Komorowski
Bronisław Komorowski
former President of Poland

Ewa Kopacz
Ewa Kopacz
former Prime Minister of Poland

Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
former Prime Minister of Poland
Prime Minister of Poland
and President of the European Council

Jerzy Buzek
Jerzy Buzek
former President of the European Parliament
European Parliament
and former Prime Minister of Poland

Grzegorz Schetyna
Grzegorz Schetyna
former Minister of Foreign Affairs

Bogdan Borusewicz
Bogdan Borusewicz
former Marshal of the Senate

Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz
Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz
current Mayor of Warsaw

See also[edit]

List of Civic Platform
Civic Platform
politicians Politics of Poland List of political parties in Poland


^ The party is officially the Civic Platform
Civic Platform
of the Republic of Poland (Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej).


^ "Platforma Obywatelska traci swoich członków wMeritum.pl". wMeritum (in Polish). 25 December 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2016.  ^ a b Tomasz Zarycki (2014). Ideologies of Eastness in Central and Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-317-81857-1.  ^ a b c David Ost (2011). "The decline of civil society after 'post-communism'". In Ulrike Liebert; Hans-Jörg Trenz. The New Politics of European Civil Society. Routledge. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-415-57845-5.  ^ Ingo Peters (September 2011). 20 Years Since the Fall of the Berlin Wall: Transitions, State Break-Up and Democratic Politics in Central Europe and Germany. BWV Verlag. p. 280. ISBN 978-3-8305-1975-1. Retrieved 6 February 2013.  ^ a b Nathaniel Copsey (2013). "Poland:An Awkward Partner Redeemed". In Simon Bulmer; Christian Lequesne. The Member States of the European Union (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 191.  ^ a b Aleks Szczerbiak (2012). Poland
Within the European Union: New awkward partner or new heart of Europe?. Routledge. p. 2.  ^ a b Jean-Michel De Waele; Anna Pacześniak (2011). "The Europeanisation of Poland's political parties and party system". In Erol Külahci. Europeanisation and Party Politics. ECPR Press. p. 125.  ^ Foy, Henry (7 September 2014). "Polish premier's departure leaves party facing test". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ Viktor, Szary (9 September 2014). "Poland's PM Tusk, heading for Brussels, submits resignation". Reuters. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ Foy, Henry (7 September 2014). "Polish premier's departure leaves party facing test". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ Viktor, Szary (9 September 2014). "Poland's PM Tusk, heading for Brussels, submits resignation". Reuters. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ Hanley, Seán; Szczerbiak, Aleks; Haughton, Tim; Fowler, Brigid (July 2008). "Explaining Comparative Centre-Right Party Success in Post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe". Party Politics. 14 (4): 407–434. doi:10.1177/1354068808090253.  ^ Seleny, Anna (July 2007). "Communism's Many Legacies in East-Central Europe". Journal of Democracy. 18 (3): 156–170. doi:10.1353/jod.2007.0056.  ^ a b Aleks Szczerbiak (2006). "Power without Love? Patterns of Party Politics in Post-1989 Poland". In Susanne Jungerstam-Mulders. Post-Communist EU Member States: Parties and Party Systems. London: Ashgate. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-7546-4712-6.  ^ a b Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopeček (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7546-7840-3. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ a b Igor Guardiancich (2013). Pension Reforms in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe: From Post-Socialist Transition to the Global Financial Crisis. Routledge. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-0-415-68898-7.  ^ a b José Magone (2010). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 457. ISBN 978-0-203-84639-1. Retrieved 19 July 2013.  ^ See e.g. the results of the first round of the 2010 presidential election http://pl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plik:Wybory_prezydenckie_2010_I_tura_BK.png&filetimestamp=20100622224054 ^ Czempiński – życie nieznanego tenora, by Sławomir Cenckiewicz, 16 July 2009 ^ CZEMPIŃSKI - co mówił o PLATFORMIE - PiS przypomina: Miał udział w TWORZENIU PO, 23 November 2011 ^ "Przypomnijmy, co Czempiński mówił o powstaniu PO", TVN24, 23 November 2011 "- Nie było łatwo im wytłumaczyć, że mogą nadać nowy impet na scenie politycznej - mówił wówczas o swoich rozmowach z Tuskiem i Olechowskim. Podkreślał, że był tą osobą, która dała początek partii. Jak stwierdził, PO powstała dzięki jego rozmowom z politykami i długim przekonywaniu ich, że teraz jest czas i miejsce na powstanie partii." ^ Krwawa jatka na salonie by Przemyslaw Harczuk, Katarzyna Pawlak. Gazeta Polska, 30 listopada 2011 "Jednym z liderów ugrupowania był dawny agent Czempińskiego z wywiadu MSW PRL, Andrzej Olechowski. Jak wynika z dokumentów Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, Olechowski, zarejestrowany jako TW Must, miał być kontaktem operacyjnym Czempińskiego" ^ Czempiński – życie nieznanego tenora, by Sławomir Cenckiewicz, portal wpolityce.pl ^ BBC News (2007-10-22): Massive win for Polish opposition ^ a b c Warsaw
Business Journal Archived 20 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Elections 2011 - Election results". National Electoral Commission. Retrieved 20 November 2011.  ^ "Pkw Pkw". Pe2014.pkw.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ Paul Kubicek (2017). European Politics. Taylor & Francis. p. 257. ISBN 978-1-317-20638-5.  ^ Mart Laar. The Power of Freedom - Central and Eastern Europe after 1945. Unitas Foundation. p. 229. ISBN 978-9949-21-479-2.  ^ Joanna A. Gorska (2012). Dealing with a Juggernaut: Analyzing Poland's Policy toward Russia, 1989-2009. Lexington Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7391-4534-0.  ^ Bartek Pytlas (2016). Radical Right Parties in Central and Eastern Europe: Mainstream Party Competition and Electoral Fortune. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-317-49586-4.  ^ "Rzeczpospolita". rp.pl. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2014-08-31.  ^ "ząd podwyższa akcyzę i zamraża płace". forsal.pl. 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2014-08-31.  ^ "Rząd zaciska pasa: zamraża pensje, podnosi akcyzę na papierosy i paliwa". wyborcza.biz. 2011-10-23. Retrieved 2014-08-31.  ^ "Dziś dowiemy się, dlaczego rząd zabierze nam ulgi". bankier.pl. 2012-07-26. Retrieved 2014-08-31.  ^ Sebastian Bobrowski (2014-03-25). "Zmiany w odliczaniu VAT od samochodów. Sprawdź ile i kiedy możesz odliczyć". mamstartup.pl. Retrieved 2014-08-31.  ^ "Głosowanie nad przyjęciem w całości projektu ustawy o zmianie niektórych ustaw związanych z realizacją ustawy budżetowej, w brzmieniu proponowanym przez Komisję Finansów Publicznych, wraz z przyjętymi poprawkami". sejm.gov.pl. 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2014-08-31. 


Adam Zakowski, A leading force, Polityka, March 2009

External links[edit]

Official website (in Polish)

v t e

Political parties and political associations in Poland

Represented in the Sejm

Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(217) Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(136) Kukiz'15
(26) Modern (26) Polish People's Party
Polish People's Party
(15) Alliance (11) United Poland
(8) Free and Solidary
Free and Solidary
(6) Union of European Democrats
Union of European Democrats
(4) Real Politics Union
Real Politics Union
(3) Liberty (1) National Movement (1) Right Wing of the Republic
Right Wing of the Republic

Represented in the Senate

Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(58) Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(31) Alliance (5) United Poland
(2) Catholic-National Movement (1) Social Democracy of Poland
(1) White-Reds (1)

Represented in the European Parliament

Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(19) Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(17) Polish People's Party
Polish People's Party
(4) Democratic Left Alliance
Democratic Left Alliance
(3) Liberty (2) Congress of the New Right
Congress of the New Right
(2) Labour United
Labour United
(1) Right Wing of the Republic
Right Wing of the Republic

Other existing parties

Alliance of Democrats Christian National Union Confederation of Independent Poland Democratic Party – demokraci.pl Greens League of Polish Families National Party of Retirees and Pensioners National Revival of Poland Party of Regions Pirate Party of Poland Polish Communist Party Polish Socialist Party Razem Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland Silesian Autonomy Movement Socialist Alternative Union of the Left Women's Party Workers' Democracy Your Movement

National minorities committees represented in Sejm

German Minority (1)

Defunct parties

Camp of Great Poland Catholic People's Party Centrolew Christian Democracy Christian Union of National Unity Citizens' Movement for Democratic Action Communist Party of Poland
(KPP) Communist Party of Poland
(Mijal) Confederation of Independent Poland Conservative People's Party Democratic Union Freedom Union Front Morges Labour Party League of the Right of the Republic Left and Democrats Liberal Democratic Congress Movement for Reconstruction of Poland National Democracy National Party National People's Union National Radical Camp

National Radical Camp National Radical Camp Falanga National Radical Camp ABC

National Workers' Party Social Alliance Peasants' Agreement Peasant's Party People's Party Poland
Comes First Polish Beer-Lovers' Party Polish Centre Polish Christian Democratic Party Polish Labour Party Polish People's Party
Polish People's Party
"Piast" Polish People's Party
Polish People's Party
"Wyzwolenie" Popular National Union Polish Socialist Party

Polish Socialist Party
Polish Socialist Party
– Freedom, Equality, Independence Polish Socialist Party
Polish Socialist Party
– Left Polish Socialist Party
Polish Socialist Party
of the Prussian Partition Polish Socialist Party
Polish Socialist Party
– Revolutionary Faction

Polish Workers' Party Polish United Workers' Party Reason Party Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland
and Lithuania Solidarity Electoral Action United People's Party

bold font - ruling coalition parties

Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of Poland

v t e

European People's Party
European People's Party

Parliamentary group: European People's Party
European People's Party


Member parties (EU)


Associated parties (non-EU)


Observer parties


Party Presidents

Leo Tindemans Piet Bukman Jacques Santer Wilfried Martens Joseph Daul

European Parliament Group Presidents

Maan Sassen Pierre Wigny Alain Poher Joseph Illerhaus Hans Lücker Alfred Bertrand Egon Klepsch Paolo Barbi Egon Klepsch Leo Tindemans Wilfried Martens Hans-Gert Pöttering Joseph Daul Manfred Weber see European Parliament

European Commissioners

José Manuel Barroso
José Manuel Barroso
(President) Andris Piebalgs
Andris Piebalgs
(Development) Jyrki Katainen
Jyrki Katainen
(Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro) Michel Barnier
Michel Barnier
(Internal Market and Services) Algirdas Šemeta
Algirdas Šemeta
(Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud) Tonio Borg
Tonio Borg
(Health and Consumer Policy) Jacek Dominik (Financial Programming and the Budget) Kristalina Georgieva
Kristalina Georgieva
(International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response) Günther Oettinger
Günther Oettinger
(Energy) Johannes Hahn
Johannes Hahn
(Regional Policy) Connie Hedegaard
Connie Hedegaard
(Climate Action) Dacian Cioloș
Dacian Cioloș
(Agriculture and Rural Development) see Barroso II Commission

Heads of government at the European Council

Nicos Anastasiades
Nicos Anastasiades
(Cyprus) Alexander Stubb
Alexander Stubb
(Finland) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(Germany) Antonis Samaras
Antonis Samaras
(Greece) Viktor Orbán
Viktor Orbán
(Hungary) Enda Kenny
Enda Kenny
(Ireland) Laimdota Straujuma
Laimdota Straujuma
(Latvia) Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Passos Coelho
(Portugal) Traian Băsescu
Traian Băsescu
(Romania) Mariano Rajoy
Mariano Rajoy
(Spain) see European Council

Eurofoundation: Wilfried Martens
Wilfried Martens
Centre for European Studies

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 166060952 GND: 16329791-5 SUDO