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Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
(Spanish pronunciation: [θi̯uˈðað roˈðɾiɣo]) is a small cathedral city in the province of Salamanca,[3] in western Spain, with a population in 2016 of 12,896. It is also the seat of a judicial district. The site of Ciudad Rodrigo, perched atop a rocky rise on the right bank of the River Águeda, has been occupied since the Neolithic Age. Known also as Mirobriga by those who wish to associate the city with an ancient Celtic village in the outskirts of the modern city. A key border fortress, it was the site of a 10-day siege by the Duke of Wellington and its capture from the French opened up the invasion of Spain
Spain
in 1812.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate

2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Artistic works 2.3 Napoleonic Wars

3 Sights 4 The castle of Henry II of Castile 5 International Relations 6 References 7 Other References 8 External links

Geography[edit]

Ciudad Rodrigo

Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
is situated on the right bank of the Águeda river, about 89 km (55 mi) south-west of Salamanca
Salamanca
and 25 km (16 mi) away from the Portuguese border. The autovia A-62 (dual carriageway) link Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
with Salamanca, Valladolid and Burgos, and with Portugal. Climate[edit] Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
characterised by hot and dry summers, and cool, damp winters. History[edit] Origins[edit]

A verraco in Ciudad Rodrigo, built by the Vettones.

The Cathedral of Ciudad Rodrigo, was built between the 12th and 14th centuries.

The City Walls, built by Ferdinand II of León
Ferdinand II of León
in the 12th century.

Facade of Capilla de Cerralbo, built between the 16th and 17th centuries.

Capilla de las Franciscanas Descalzas (built in 1739).

The Hospital of the Passion, built in the 15th century.

Casa del Primer Marqués de Cerralbo
Cerralbo
(16th century).

San Isidoro Church (12th century).

Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
was originally a Celtic village under the name of Mirobriga. The town was later taken by the Romans during the conquest of Lusitania and named Augustobriga. In the 12th century, the site was repopulated by King Ferdinand II of León, walling it and re-establishing the old Visigothic diocese of Calabria into the new bishopric as suffragan of the Diocese of Santiago de Compostela; it comprised a big part of the province of Salamanca, and a portion of the province of Cáceres, an act confirmed by Pope Alexander III
Pope Alexander III
in 1175. This led to the construction of the city’s cathedral, an architectural hybrid of the Gothic and late Romanesque styles. King Alfonso VIII
Alfonso VIII
gave the city of Caliabria to the Diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
in 1191. The first bishop of whom anything certain is known was called Pedro (1165) and one of the most celebrated was the learned jurist Don Diego de Covarruvias y Leyva (1560). Artistic works[edit] During the 15th century, a series of artworks of perhaps 35-panels (only 26 panels survive), known as the Retablo (altarpiece) of the Cathedral of the Ciudad Rodrigo[4] was created by Fernando Gallego, Maestro Bartolomé,[5] and the artists of their workshops. Over the centuries, the works became badly deteriorated. In 1954, they were acquired by the Samuel H. Kress
Samuel H. Kress
Foundation which had them fully restored. In 1961, the foundation donated the works to the University of Arizona Museum of Art in Tucson, Arizona, where they reside today.[6] Napoleonic Wars[edit]

The Ayuntamiento of Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
(16th century).

A street of the city.

Main articles: Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (1810)
Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (1810)
and Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (1812) Its position as a fortified town on the main road from Portugal
Portugal
to Salamanca
Salamanca
made it militarily important in the middle years of the Napoleonic Peninsular War. The French Marshal Michel Ney
Michel Ney
took Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
on July 9, 1810 after a 24-day siege. The 5,500-man Spanish garrison of Field Marshal Don Andreas de Herrasti put up a gallant defense, surrendering only after French artillery opened a breach in the walls and their infantry were poised for an assault. The Spanish suffered 461 killed and 994 wounded, while 4,000 men and 118 cannon were captured. Ney's VI Corps lost 180 killed and over 1,000 wounded during the siege. The French soldiery then pillaged the city. The siege delayed Marshal André Masséna's invasion of Portugal
Portugal
by a month. The British General Wellington began his 1812 campaign by taking Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
by storm on the night of January 19, 1812 – January 20, 1812 after preparatory operations lasting about 10 days. In these clashes, the British captured the Greater Teson on January 8 and the Lesser Teson on January 16. Meanwhile, two breaches in the walls had been opened by Wellington's twenty-three 24-lb and four 18-lb siege guns under the command of Captain Alexander Dickson. Major-General Thomas Picton's 3rd Division assaulted the "greater" breach while Robert Craufurd's Light Division attacked the "lesser" breach. Allied losses in the siege were 195 killed and 916 wounded, although amongst the dead were Maj-Gens Henry Mackinnon and Craufurd. The 2,000-man French garrison under Brig-Gen Barrié lost 529 killed and wounded, while the rest were captured. The French Army of Portugal
Portugal
lost its entire siege train among the 142 captured cannon. There were two cannons embedded in the wall of the "greater" breach that caused most casualties in the storming. The 88th Connaught Rangers Regiment took one of the guns while the 45th Nottinghamshire Regiment took the other. The victory was marred when the British rank and file thoroughly sacked the city, despite the efforts of their officers. The capture of Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
allowed Wellington to proceed to Badajoz, whose taking was a much more bloody affair. In 1812, the then-Viscount Wellington (later created a Duke) was rewarded for his victorious liberation of Spain
Spain
with the hereditary Spanish ducal victory title of Duque de Ciudad Rodrigo. Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
is also the birthplace of Siglo de Oro
Siglo de Oro
writer Feliciano de Silva. Sights[edit]

Ávila y Tiedra`s palace

The historic centre of Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
is enclosed by the city walls.

The walls were built during the 12th century. In the 17th century the walls were rebuilt and reinforced by bastions, ravelins and artillery batteries. The Cathedral of Santa María is a medieval cathedral. The original cathedral was constructed in the 12th century in late Romanesque style and was refurbished in the 16th century by Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. The cathedral constains many artworks: The Portal
Portal
of the main façade (Portico del Perdón), the 16th-century choir stalls, baroque retables, medieval sculptures, and tombs. Old mansions: There are several well preserved Renaissance and Baroque mansions and palaces such as:

Castro's Palace. With an outstanding façade. Palace of the Aguila, with a garden and two courtyards, one of them in Plateresque
Plateresque
style. And many others: Casa of the Cornejo, Casa of the Condes de Alba de Yeltes, Casa of the Vazquez,…

The castle of Henry II of Castile
Henry II of Castile
was built in the 14th century, on a spur overlooking the Águeda river. It is currently used as a parador, a kind of hotel located in a historic building. The Plaza Mayor, the central town square. Some historical buildings around the square include the 16th century city hall and the plateresque Casa del Marques de Cerralbo. Chapel of Cerralbo.

The castle of Henry II of Castile[edit] This castle was built by the medieval King Enrique II of Castile in 1372.

View of the Castle.

Entrance of the Castle.

Interior courtyard.

The homage tower as seen from the City Walls (east).

International Relations[edit] Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
is twinned with:

– Aveiro, Portugal[7]

References[edit]

^ a b "Municipio:Ciudad Rodrigo". www.lasalina.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-10-27.  ^ "Salamanca: Población por municipios y sexo". www.ine.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-10-27.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ciudad Rodrigo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 402.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved April 24, 2011.  ^ Stengle, Jamie (May 9, 2008). "Behind the Altarpiece, a Maestro". The Australian.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 8, 2011. Retrieved April 24, 2011.  ^ "Geminações de Cidades e Vilas: Aveiro" (in Portuguese). Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 

Other References[edit]

William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Chandler, David, Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars Macmillan, 1979. Glover, Michael, The Peninsular War
Peninsular War
1807–1814 Penguin, 1974. Smith, Digby, The Napoleonic Wars Data Book Greenhill, 1998.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ciudad Rodrigo.

Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
(detailed account, with pictures) Catholic Encyclopaedia Bishops of Ciudad Rodrigo Early Bishops of Ciudad Rodrigo

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Municipalities in the province of Salamanca

Abusejo Agallas Ahigal de Villarino Ahigal de los Aceiteros Alaraz Alba de Tormes Alba de Yeltes Alconada Aldea del Obispo Aldeacipreste Aldeadávila de la Ribera Aldealengua Aldeanueva de Figueroa Aldeanueva de la Sierra Aldearrodrigo Aldearrubia Aldeaseca de Alba Aldeaseca de la Frontera Aldeatejada Aldeavieja de Tormes Aldehuela de Yeltes Aldehuela de la Bóveda Almenara de Tormes Almendra Anaya de Alba Arabayona de Mógica Arapiles Arcediano Armenteros Añover de Tormes Babilafuente Barbadillo Barbalos Barceo Barruecopardo Bañobárez Beleña Bermellar Berrocal de Huebra Berrocal de Salvatierra Boada Bogajo Brincones Buenamadre Buenavista Béjar Bóveda del Río Almar Cabeza del Caballo Cabezabellosa de la Calzada Cabrerizos Cabrillas Calvarrasa de Abajo Calvarrasa de Arriba Calzada de Don Diego Calzada de Valdunciel Campillo de Azaba Candelario Canillas de Abajo Cantagallo Cantalapiedra Cantalpino Cantaracillo Carbajosa de la Sagrada Carpio de Azaba Carrascal de Barregas Carrascal del Obispo Casafranca Casillas de Flores Castellanos de Moriscos Castellanos de Villiquera Castillejo de Martín Viejo Castraz Cepeda Cereceda de la Sierra Cerezal de Peñahorcada Cerralbo Cespedosa de Tormes Chagarcía Medianero Cilleros de la Bastida Cipérez Ciudad Rodrigo Coca de Alba Colmenar de Montemayor Cordovilla Cristóbal de la Sierra Dios le Guarde Doñinos de Ledesma Doñinos de Salamanca Éjeme El Arco El Bodón El Cabaco El Campo de Peñaranda El Cerro El Cubo de Don Sancho El Manzano El Maíllo El Milano El Payo El Pedroso de la Armuña El Pino de Tormes El Sahugo El Tejado El Tornadizo Encina de San Silvestre Encinas de Abajo Encinas de Arriba Encinasola de los Comendadores Endrinal Escurial de la Sierra Espadaña Espeja Espino de la Orbada Florida de Liébana Forfoleda Frades de la Sierra Fresnedoso Fresno Alhándiga Fuenteguinaldo Fuenteliante Fuenterroble de Salvatierra Fuentes de Béjar Fuentes de Oñoro Gajates Galindo y Perahuy Galinduste Galisancho Gallegos de Argañán Gallegos de Solmirón Garcibuey Garcihernández Garcirrey Gejuelo del Barro Golpejas Gomecello Guadramiro Guijo de Ávila Guijuelo Herguijuela de Ciudad Rodrigo Herguijuela de la Sierra Herguijuela del Campo Hinojosa de Duero Horcajo Medianero Horcajo de Montemayor Huerta Iruelos Ituero de Azaba Juzbado La Alameda de Gardón La Alamedilla La Alberca La Alberguería de Argañán La Atalaya La Bastida La Bouza La Cabeza de Béjar La Calzada de Béjar La Encina La Fregeneda La Fuente de San Esteban La Hoya La Mata de Ledesma La Maya La Orbada La Peña La Redonda La Rinconada de la Sierra La Sagrada La Sierpe La Tala La Vellés La Vídola La Zarza de Pumareda Lagunilla Larrodrigo Las Casas del Conde Las Veguillas Ledesma Ledrada Linares de Riofrío Los Santos Lumbrales Machacón Macotera Madroñal Malpartida Mancera de Abajo Martiago Martinamor Martín de Yeltes Masueco Matilla de los Caños del Río Membribe de la Sierra Mieza Miranda de Azán Miranda del Castañar Mogarraz Molinillo Monforte de la Sierra Monleras Monleón Monsagro Montejo Montemayor del Río Monterrubio de Armuña Monterrubio de la Sierra Morasverdes Morille Moriscos Moronta Moríñigo Mozárbez Narros de Matalayegua Nava de Béjar Nava de Francia Nava de Sotrobal Navacarros Navales Navalmoral de Béjar Navamorales Navarredonda de la Rinconada Navasfrías Negrilla de Palencia Olmedo de Camaces Pajares de la Laguna Palacios del Arzobispo Palaciosrubios Palencia de Negrilla Parada de Arriba Parada de Rubiales Paradinas de San Juan Pastores Pedraza de Alba Pedrosillo de Alba Pedrosillo de los Aires Pedrosillo el Ralo Pelabravo Pelarrodríguez Pelayos Peralejos de Abajo Peralejos de Arriba Pereña de la Ribera Peromingo Peñacaballera Peñaparda Peñaranda de Bracamonte Peñarandilla Pinedas Pitiegua Pizarral Poveda de las Cintas Pozos de Hinojo Puebla de Azaba Puebla de San Medel Puebla de Yeltes Puente del Congosto Puertas Puerto Seguro Puerto de Béjar Retortillo Robleda Robliza de Cojos Rollán Rágama Saelices el Chico Salamanca Saldeana Salmoral Salvatierra de Tormes San Cristóbal de la Cuesta San Esteban de la Sierra San Felices de los Gallegos San Martín del Castañar San Miguel de Valero San Miguel del Robledo San Morales San Muñoz San Pedro de Rozados San Pedro del Valle San Pelayo de Guareña Sanchotello Sanchón de la Ribera Sanchón de la Sagrada Sancti-Spíritus Sando Santa Marta de Tormes Santa María de Sando Santiago de la Puebla Santibáñez de Béjar Santibáñez de la Sierra Santiz Sardón de los Frailes Saucelle Sepulcro-Hilario Sequeros Serradilla del Arroyo Serradilla del Llano Sieteiglesias de Tormes Sobradillo Sorihuela Sotoserrano Tabera de Abajo Tamames Tarazona de Guareña Tardáguila Tejeda y Segoyuela Tenebrón Terradillos Topas Tordillos Torresmenudas Trabanca Tremedal de Tormes Valdecarros Valdefuentes de Sangusín Valdehijaderos Valdelacasa Valdelageve Valdelosa Valdemierque Valderrodrigo Valdunciel Valero Vallejera de Riofrío Valsalabroso Valverde de Valdelacasa Valverdón Vecinos Vega de Tirados Ventosa del Río Almar Villaflores Villagonzalo de Tormes Villalba de los Llanos Villamayor Villanueva del Conde Villar de Argañán Villar de Ciervo Villar de Gallimazo Villar de Peralonso Villar de Samaniego Villar de la Yegua Villares de Yeltes Villares de la Reina Villarino de los Aires Villarmayor Villarmuerto Villasbuenas Villasdardo Villaseco de los Gamitos Villaseco de los Reyes Villasrubias Villaverde de Guareña Villavieja de Yeltes Villoria Villoruela Vilvestre Vitigudino Yecla de Yeltes Zamarra Zamayón Zarapicos Zorita de la Frontera

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128759

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