The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic
centre and central business district of
The City of
The local authority for the City, namely the City of London
Corporation , is unique in the UK and has some unusual
responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police
authority. It is also unusual in having responsibilities and
ownerships beyond its boundaries. The Corporation is headed by the
Lord Mayor of the City of
The City is a major business and financial centre . Throughout the
19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, and it
continues to be a major meeting point for businesses.
The City has a resident population of about 7,000 (2011 ) but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. The legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City, especially in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two— Inner Temple and Middle Temple —fall within the City of London boundary.
* 1 History
* 2 Governance
* 2.1 Wards * 2.2 Elections * 2.3 The Temple * 2.4 Other functions * 2.5 The boundary of the City * 2.6 Arms, motto and flag
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Boundary * 3.2 Gardens and public art * 3.3 Climate
* 4 Public services
* 4.1 Police and security * 4.2 Fire brigade
* 5 Demography
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Headquarters * 6.2 Other sectors * 6.3 Retail and residential
* 7 Landmarks
* 7.1 Historical buildings * 7.2 Skyscrapers and tall buildings
* 8 Transport
* 8.1 Rail * 8.2 Road * 8.3 River * 8.4 Travel to work (by residents)
* 9 Education
* 9.1 Public libraries
* 10 Criticism * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links
Main article: History of
It used to be widely held that _Londinium_ was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD, during the early years of the Roman occupation of Britain. However, this date is only supposition. The Romans have left no record of when or how the city was founded and the first time they mention the city is in the annals of Tacitus (in 61 AD) when he relates how Londinium was among a group of important cities sacked by the Iceni , led by their queen, Boudica .
Many historians now believe
Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of
Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at
Llydd was the eldest son. And after his father ( Beli Mawr ) was dead he took the government of the island. And he strengthened the walls of Llvndain, surrounded the city with many farmsteads , and lived in it the greater part of the year. And he had built within the city walls splendid buildings the like of which were not seen in all countries. And he called it Kaer Lvdd; and in the end it was called Kaer Lvndain. And, after the coming of the alien nation into it, it was called Kaer Lwndwn. —_Ystorya Brenhined y Brytanyeit_, Jesus MS. LXI.
Nevertheless, after the conquest the Romans certainly developed the settlement and port, with its centre roughly where the shallow stream the Walbrook met the Thames. After the city had been destroyed by Boudica in 60 AD it was entirely rebuilt as a planned settlement (a _civitas _), and the new walled town was prosperous and grew to become the largest settlement in Roman Britain by the end of the 1st century. By the beginning of the 2nd century, Londinium had replaced Camulodunum (Colchester) as the capital of Roman Britain ("Britannia").
At its height, the Roman city had a population of approximately
45,000–60,000 inhabitants. The Romans built the
A number of Roman sites and artefacts can be seen in the City,
including the Temple of Mithras , sections of the
By the time the
Main article: Anglo-Saxon
During the Anglo-Saxon
Heptarchy , the
Bede records that in 604 AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht . Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht , king of Kent , built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop. It is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the later medieval and the present cathedrals.
Alfred the Great , King of
Wessex and arguably the first king of the
"English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled
area, in 886, and appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia
over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of
England. The refortified Anglo-Saxon settlement was known as
Alfred's taking of
In the 10th century,
Athelstan permitted eight mints to be
established, compared with six in his capital, Winchester , indicating
the wealth of the city.
As the focus of trade and population was moved back to within the old Roman walls, the older Saxon settlement of Lundenwic was largely abandoned and gained the name of _Ealdwic_ (the "old settlement"). The name survives today as Aldwych (the "old market-place"), a name of a street and an area of the City of Westminster between Westminster and the City of London.
Battle of Hastings ,
William the Conqueror marched on
William built three castles nearby, to keep Londoners subdued:
* Tower of
About 1130, Henry I granted a sheriff to the people of London, along with control of the county of Middlesex : this meant that the two entities were regarded as one administratively (not that the county was a dependency of the City) until the Local Government Act 1888 . By 1141 the whole body of the citizenry was considered to constitute a single community. This 'commune' was the origin of the City of London Corporation and the citizens gained the right to appoint, with the king's consent, a Mayor in 1189—and to directly elect the Mayor from 1215.
From medieval times, the City has been composed of 25 ancient wards , each headed by an Alderman , who chairs Wardmotes , which still take place at least annually. A Folkmoot , for the whole of the City held at the outdoor cross of St Paul\'s Cathedral , was formerly also held. Many of the medieval offices and traditions continue to the present day, demonstrating the unique nature of the City and its Corporation .
In 1381, the Peasants\' Revolt affected London. The rebels took the
City and the Tower of London, but the rebellion ended after its
leader, Wat Tyler, was killed during a confrontation that included
William Walworth . The "Woodcut" map of
The City was burned severely on a number of occasions, the worst
being in 1123 and (more famously) in the Great Fire of
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
By the late 16th century,
In 1708, Christopher Wren 's masterpiece, St Paul\'s Cathedral , was completed on his birthday. The first service had been held on 2 December 1697, more than 10 years earlier. It replaced the original St Paul's, which had been completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London, and is considered to be one of the finest cathedrals in Britain and a fine example of Baroque architecture .
GROWTH OF LONDON
The 18th century was a period of rapid growth for London, reflecting an increasing national population, the early stirrings of the Industrial Revolution , and London's role at the centre of the evolving British Empire . The urban area expanded beyond the borders of the City of London, most notably during this period towards the West End and Westminster .
Expansion continued and became more rapid by the beginning of the
19th century, with
19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES
An attempt was made in 1894 with the Royal Commission on the
Amalgamation of the City and County of
The City's population fell rapidly in the 19th century and through
most of the 20th century, as people moved outwards in all directions
to London's vast suburbs , and many residential buildings were
demolished to make way for office blocks. Like many areas of London
and other British cities, the City fell victim to large scale and
highly destructive aerial bombing during
World War II , especially in
the Blitz . Whilst
St Paul's Cathedral survived the onslaught, large
swathes of the area did not and the particularly heavy raids of late
December 1940 led to a firestorm called the Second Great Fire of
There was a major rebuilding programme in the decades following the war, in some parts (such as at the Barbican) dramatically altering the urban landscape. But the destruction of the older historic fabric allowed the construction of modern and larger-scale developments, whereas in those parts not so badly affected by bomb damage the City retains its older character of smaller buildings. The street pattern, which is still largely medieval, was altered slightly in places, although there is a more recent trend of reversing some of the post-war modernist changes made, such as at Paternoster Square .
The City suffered terrorist attacks including the 1993 Bishopsgate
bombing and the 7 July 2005
The 1970s saw the construction of tall office buildings including the 600-foot (183 m), 47-storey Natwest Tower , the first skyscraper in the UK. Office space development has intensified especially in the central, northern and eastern parts, with skyscrapers including 30 St. Mary Axe ("the Gherkin"'), Leadenhall Building ("the Cheesegrater"), 20 Fenchurch Street ("the Walkie-Talkie"), the Broadgate Tower and the Heron Tower , the tallest in the City. Another skyscraper, 22 Bishopsgate , is under construction.
The main residential section of the City today is the Barbican Estate
, constructed between 1965 and 1976. The Museum of
_ Guildhall is the ceremonial and administrative centre of the City. Mansion House is the official residence of the Lord Mayor. John Stuttard , Lord Mayor of the City of London 2006–2007, during the Lord Mayor's Show of 2006.
This article APPEARS TO CONTRADICT THE ARTICLE CITY OF LONDON CORPORATION . Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page . (August 2013)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_
The City has a unique political status, a legacy of its uninterrupted integrity as a corporate city since the Anglo-Saxon period and its singular relationship with the Crown . Historically its system of government was not unusual, but it was not reformed by the Municipal Reform Act 1835 and little changed by later reforms.
It is administered by the City of
The City is a ceremonial county which has a Commission of Lieutenancy
headed by the Lord Mayor instead of a
Lord-Lieutenant and has two
Sheriffs instead of a
High Sheriff (see list of Sheriffs of
Main article: Wards of the City of
The City is made up of 25 wards . They are survivors of the medieval government system that allowed a very local area to exist as a self-governing unit within the wider city. They can be described as electoral/political divisions; ceremonial, geographic and administrative entities; sub-divisions of the City. Each ward has an Alderman , who until the mid-1960s held office for life but since put themselves up for re-election at least every 6 years. Wards continue to have a Beadle , an ancient position which is now largely ceremonial whose main remaining function is the running of an annual Wardmote of electors, representatives and officials. At the Wardmote the ward's Alderman appoints at least one Deputy for the year ahead. Each ward also has a Ward Club, which is similar to a residents\' association .
The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since time immemorial
* in 1394 Farringdon was divided into Farringdon Within and Farringdon Without * in 1550 the ward of Bridge Without, south of the river , was created, the ward of Bridge becoming Bridge Within; * in 1978 these Bridge wards were merged as Bridge ward.
A map of the wards as they were in the late 19th century. A map of the wards since 2003
Following boundary changes in 1994, and later reform of the business
vote in the City, there was a major boundary and electoral
representation revision of the wards in 2003, and they were reviewed
again in 2010 for change in 2013, though not to such a dramatic
extent. The review was conducted by senior officers of the Corporation
and senior judges of the
Old Bailey ; the wards are reviewed by this
process to avoid malapportionment . The procedure of review is unique
United Kingdom as it is not conducted by the Electoral
Commission or a local government boundary commission every 8 to 12
years, which is the case for all other wards in Great Britain .
Particular churches, livery company halls and other historic buildings
and structures are associated with a ward, such as St Paul's Cathedral
Castle Baynard , and
Each ward elects an
Alderman to the
Court of Aldermen , and Commoners
(the City equivalent of a
Councillor ) to the Court of Common Council
of the Corporation. Only electors who are Freemen of the City of
Census data provides eight nominal rather than 25 real wards, all of
varying size and population. Being subject to renaming and definition
at any time, these census 'wards' are notable in that four of the
eight wards accounted for 67% of the 'square mile' and held 86% of the
population, and these were in fact similar to and named after four
EXTRACT OF CENSUS \'WARDS\' WHERE APPROXIMATE TO UNDERLYING LEGAL WARDS
CENSUS WARD % OF THE CITY OF LONDON RESIDENTS % OF BUILT-UPON LAND: COMMERCIAL % RESIDENTIAL
Cripplegate 10.0% 2,782 79% 21%
Aldersgate 4.5% 1,465 81% 19%
Farringdon Without 22.1% 1,099 90% 10%
Portsoken 6.6% 985 86% 14%
The City has a unique electoral system. Most of its voters are representatives of businesses and other bodies that occupy premises in the City. Its ancient wards have very unequal numbers of voters. In elections, both the businesses based in the City and the residents of the City vote.
The City of
The business or "non-residential vote " was abolished in other UK local council elections by the Representation of the People Act 1969 , but was preserved in the City of London. The principal reason given by successive UK governments for retaining this mechanism for giving businesses representation, is that the City is "primarily a place for doing business". About 330,000 non-residents constitute the day-time population and use most of its services, far outnumbering residents, who number around 7,000 (2011). By contrast, opponents of the retention of the business vote argue that it is a cause of institutional inertia.
The City of
Inner Temple and
Middle Temple (which neighbour each other) are two
of the few remaining liberties , an old name for a geographic
division. They are independent extra-parochial areas , historically
not governed by the City of
Within the City, the Corporation owns and runs both Smithfield Market
Leadenhall Market . It owns land beyond its boundaries, including
open spaces (parks, forests and commons) in and around Greater London,
including most of
Epping Forest ,
Hampstead Heath . The Honourable The
Irish Society , a body closely linked with the Corporation, also owns
many public spaces in
Northern Ireland . The Corporation owns Old
Spitalfields Market and
Billingsgate Fish Market , in the neighbouring
The City has its own independent police force, the City of London
Police —the Common Council (the main body of the Corporation) is the
police authority . The rest of Greater
The City has one hospital, St Bartholomew\'s Hospital , also known as 'Barts'. Founded in 1123, it is located at Smithfield , and is undergoing a long-awaited regeneration after doubts as to its continuing use during the 1990s.
The City is the third largest UK patron of the arts. It oversees the Barbican Centre and subsidises several important performing arts companies.
THE BOUNDARY OF THE CITY
The size of the City was constrained by a defensive perimeter wall,
Most of the wall has disappeared, but several sections remain
visible. A section near the Museum of
The boundary of the City was unchanged until minor boundary changes
on 1 April 1994, when it expanded slightly to the west, north and
east, taking small parcels of land from the
Southwark , to the south of the City on the other side of the Thames
, was within the City between 1550 and 1899 as the _Ward of Bridge
Without _, a situation connected with the
Guildable Manor . The City's
administrative responsibility there had in practice disappeared by the
mid-Victorian period as various aspects of metropolitan government
were extended into the neighbouring areas. Today it is part of the
ARMS, MOTTO AND FLAG
The Corporation of the City of
The coat of arms is "anciently recorded " at the
College of Arms .
The arms consist of a silver shield bearing a red cross with a red
upright sword in the first quarter. They combine the emblems of the
patron saints of England and London: the Cross of St George with the
symbol of the martyrdom of Saint Paul . The sword is often
erroneously supposed to commemorate the killing of Peasants\' Revolt
Wat Tyler by Lord Mayor of
The Latin motto of the City is "_Domine dirige nos_", which translates as "_Lord, direct (guide) us_". It appears to have been adopted in the 17th century, as the earliest record of it is in 1633.
A banner of the arms (the design on the shield) is flown as a flag .
The City is England's smallest ceremonial county by area and population, and the fourth most densely populated. Of the 326 English districts , it is the second smallest by population , after the Isles of Scilly , and the smallest by area . It is also the smallest English city by population (and in Britain, only two cities in Wales are smaller).
The elevation of the City ranges from sea level at the Thames to 21.6
metres (71 ft) at the junction of High
Holborn and Chancery Lane. Two
small but notable hills are within the historic core,
Ludgate Hill to
the west and Cornhill to the east. Between them ran the
Walbrook , one
of the many "lost" rivers or streams of
Borders of the City of London, showing surrounding London boroughs and the pre-1994 boundary (where changed) in red. The area covered by the Inner and Middle Temple is marked.
Official boundary map, with wards.
Beginning in the west, where the City borders Westminster, the
boundary crosses the
Victoria Embankment from the Thames, passes to
the west of
Middle Temple , then turns for a short distance along
Strand and then north up
Chancery Lane , where it borders Camden. It
turns east along
Holborn Circus, and then goes north east
Charterhouse Street . As it crosses
Farringdon Road it becomes the
boundary with Islington. It continues to
Aldersgate , goes north, and
turns east into some back streets soon after
Goswell Road , since 1994 embracing all of the Corporation's Golden
Lane Estate. Here, at Baltic Street West, is the most northerly
extent. The boundary includes all of the
Barbican Estate and continues
east along Ropemaker Street and its continuation on the other side of
Moorgate , becomes South Place. It goes north, reaching the border
with Hackney, then east, north, east on back streets, with Worship
Street forming a northern boundary, so as to include the Broadgate
estate. The boundary then turns south at
Norton Folgate and becomes
the border with Tower Hamlets . It continues south into
and takes some backstreets to
Middlesex Street (
Petticoat Lane ) where
it continues south-east then south. It then turns south-west, crossing
Minories so as to exclude the Tower of
The boundaries are marked by black bollards bearing the City's emblem, and by dragon boundary marks at major entrances, such as Holborn. A more substantial monument marks the boundary at Temple Bar on Fleet Street.
In some places the financial district extends slightly beyond the
boundaries, notably to the north and east, into the
GARDENS AND PUBLIC ART
The City has no sizeable parks within its boundary, but does have a network of a large number of gardens and small open spaces, many of them maintained by the Corporation. These range from formal gardens such as the one in Finsbury Circus , containing a bowling green and bandstand , to churchyards such as St Olave Hart Street , to water features and artwork in courtyards and pedestrianised lanes.
* Barber-Surgeon's Hall Garden,
There are a number of private gardens and open spaces, often within courtyards of the larger commercial developments. Two of the largest are those of the Inner Temple and Middle Temple Inns of Court, in the far southwest.
The Thames and its riverside walks are increasingly being valued as open space and in recent years efforts have been made to increase the ability for pedestrians to access and walk along the river.
The nearest weather station has historically been the
The City has an oceanic climate (Köppen "Cfb") modified by the Urban Heat Island in the centre of London. This generally causes higher night-time minima than outlying areas. For example, the August mean minimum of 14.7 °C (58.5 °F) compares to a figure of 13.3 °C (55.9 °F) for Greenwich and Heathrow whereas is 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) at Wisley in the middle of several square miles of Metropolitan Green Belt . All figures refer to the observation period 1971–2000.
Accordingly, the weather station holds the record for the UK's warmest overnight minimum temperature, 24.0 °C (75.2 °F), recorded on 4 August 1990. The maximum is 37.6 °C (99.7 °F), set on 10 August 2003. The absolute minimum for the weather station is a mere −8.2 °C (17.2 °F), compared to readings around −15.0 °C (5.0 °F) towards the edges of London. Unusually, this temperature was during a windy and snowy cold spell (mid-January 1987), rather than a cold clear night—cold air drainage is arrested due to the vast urban area surrounding the city.
The station holds the record for the highest British mean monthly temperature, 24.5 °C (76.1 °F) (mean maximum 29.2 °C (84.6 °F), mean minimum 19.7 °C (67.5 °F) during July 2006). However, in terms of daytime maximum temperatures, Cambridge NIAB and Botanical Gardens with a mean maximum of 29.1 °C (84.4 °F), and Heathrow with 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) all exceeded this.
CLIMATE DATA FOR LONDON WEATHER CENTRE 1971–2000, 43M ASL
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 8.5 (47.3) 11.1 (52) 13.5 (56.3) 17.1 (62.8) 20.0 (68) 22.6 (72.7) 22.5 (72.5) 19.3 (66.7) 15.3 (59.5) 11.2 (52.2) 9.1 (48.4) 14.88 (58.78)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 3.7 (38.7) 3.4 (38.1) 5.0 (41) 6.4 (43.5) 9.4 (48.9) 12.3 (54.1) 14.6 (58.3) 14.7 (58.5) 12.5 (54.5) 9.6 (49.3) 6.2 (43.2) 4.7 (40.5) 8.54 (47.38)
POLICE AND SECURITY
The City is a police area and has its own police force , the City of
Where the majority of British police forces have silver-coloured badges, those of the City Police are black and gold featuring the City crest. The force has unique red and white chequered cap bands and red and white striped duty arm bands on the sleeve of the tunics of constables and sergeants (red and white being the colours of the City), which in most other British police forces are black and white. City police sergeants and constables wear crested helmets whilst on foot patrol. These helmets do not feature either St Edward\'s Crown or the Brunswick Star , which are used on most other police helmets in England and Wales .
The City's position as the United Kingdom's financial centre and a critical part of the country's economy, contributing about 2.5% of the UK's gross national product , has resulted in it becoming a target for political violence. The Provisional IRA exploded several bombs in the early 1990s, including the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing .
The area is also spoken of as a possible target for al-Qaeda . For instance, when in May 2004 the BBC's _Panorama _ programme examined the preparedness of Britain's emergency services for a terrorist attack on the scale of September 11, 2001 attacks , they simulated a chemical explosion on Bishopsgate in the east of the City.
The "Ring of Steel" is a particularly notable measure, established in the wake of the IRA bombings, that has been taken against terrorist threats.
The City has fire risks in many historic buildings, including St
Paul\'s Cathedral ,
Old Bailey , Mansion House ,
Smithfield Market ,
the Guildhall , and also in numerous high-rise buildings. There is one
YEAR POP. ±%
1921 14,000 —
1931 11,000 −21.4%
1941 9,000 −18.2%
1951 4,800 −46.7%
1961 4,767 −0.7%
1971 4,245 −11.0%
1981 4,701 +10.7%
1991 5,398 +14.8%
2001 7,185 +33.1%
2011 7,375 +2.6%
Sources: Office for National Statistics
The Office for National Statistics recorded the population in 2011 as 7,000; approximately the same as that in the last census , 2001. At the 2001 census the ethnic composition was 84.6% White , 6.8% South Asian , 2.6% Black , 2.3% Mixed , 2.0% Chinese and 1.7% were listed as "other ". To the right is a graph showing the change in population since 1801, based on decadal censuses . The first half of the 19th century shows a population of between 120,000–140,000, decreasing dramatically from 1851 to 1991, with a small increase between 1991 and 2001. The only notable boundary change since the first census in 1801 occurred in 1994.
The City's full-time working residents have much higher gross weekly
pay than in
The City vies with New
York City as the financial capital of the
world; many banking and insurance institutions have their headquarters
Since 1991 Canary Wharf , a few miles east of the City in Tower Hamlets, has become another centre for London's financial services industry which houses many banks and other institutions formerly located in the Square Mile. Although growth has continued in both locations, and there have been relocations in both directions, the Corporation has come to realise that its planning policies may have been causing financial firms to choose Canary Wharf as a location.
A number of the world's largest law firms are headquartered in the City, including Allen "> Barbican Centre
Whilst the financial sector, and related businesses and institutions,
continue to dominate, the economy is not limited to that sector. The
legal profession has a strong presence, especially in the west and
north (i.e., towards the
Inns of Court ). Retail businesses were once
important, but have gradually moved to the West End of
RETAIL AND RESIDENTIAL
The trend for purely office development is beginning to reverse as the Corporation encourages residential use, albeit with development occurring when it arises on windfall sites. The City has a target of 90 additional dwellings per year. Some of the extra accommodation is in small pre- World War II listed buildings , which are not suitable for occupation by the large companies which now provide much of the City's employment. Recent residential developments include "the Heron", a high-rise residential building on the Milton Court site adjacent to the Barbican, and the Heron Plaza development on Bishopsgate is also expected to include residential parts.
Since the 1990s, the City has diversified away from near exclusive office use in other ways. For example, several hotels and the first department store opened in the 2000s. A shopping centre was more recently opened at One New Change , Cheapside (near St Paul's Cathedral) in October 2010, which is open seven days a week. However, large sections remain quiet at weekends, especially in the eastern section, and it is quite common to find shops, pubs and cafes closed on these days.
Fire, bombing and post-
World War II redevelopment has meant that the
City, despite its history, has relatively few intact notable historic
structures. They include the Monument to the Great Fire of London
("the Monument"), St Paul\'s Cathedral , the Guildhall , the Royal
Exchange , Dr. Johnson\'s House , Mansion House and a great many
churches , many designed by Sir
Christopher Wren , who also designed
St Paul's. 2 King\'s Bench Walk and Prince Henry\'s Room are notable
historic survivors of heavy bombing of the Temple area, which has
largely been rebuilt to its historic form. Another example of a
bomb-damaged place having been restored is
Staple Inn on Holborn. A
few small sections of the Roman
The Tower of
SKYSCRAPERS AND TALL BUILDINGS
See also: List of tallest buildings and structures in
A growing number of tall buildings and skyscrapers are principally used by the financial sector. Almost all are situated in the eastern side around Bishopsgate , Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street , in the financial core of the City. In the north there is a smaller cluster comprising the Barbican Estate 's three tall residential towers and the commercial CityPoint tower. In 2007, the 100 m (328 ft) tall Drapers\' Gardens building was demolished and replaced by a shorter tower.
The City's buildings of more than 100 m (328 ft) in height are:
RANK NAME COMPLETED ARCHITECT USE HEIGHT TO ROOF FLOORS LOCATION
3 Tower 42 1980 R Siefert & Partners Office 183 600 47 25 Old Broad Street
Seven of the eleven
The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) has two stations within the City: Bank and Tower Gateway .
Three longer-distance rail termini are in the City:
(services primarily to
Essex and East Anglia including Southend
Fenchurch Street (services to East
* _North to South:_ City Thameslink (north) and Blackfriars (south) are both on the Thameslink line with trains running from Bedford to Brighton , serving St Pancras International Eurostar terminus , Gatwick and Luton airports. * _East to West:_ Crossrail is under construction, but upon completion will serve Farringdon , Moorgate , and Liverpool Street stations .
The City is in Travelcard Zone 1 .
The national A1 , A10 A3 , A4 , and
A40 road routes begin in the
City. The City is in the
There is a public riverside walk along the river bank, opened in stages over recent years. The only section not running along the river is a short stretch at Queenhithe . The walk along Walbrook Wharf is closed to pedestrians when waste is being transferred onto barges.
TRAVEL TO WORK (BY RESIDENTS)
According to a survey conducted in March 2011, the methods by which employed residents 16-74 get to work varied widely: 48.4% go on foot; 19.5% via light rail, (i.e. the Underground , DLR , etc.); 9.2% work mainly from home; 5.8% take the train; 5.6% travel by bus, minibus, or coach; and 5.3% go by bicycle; with just 3.4% commuting by car or van, as driver or passenger.
The City has only one directly maintained primary school, Sir John Cass's Foundation Primary School at Aldgate (ages 4 to 11). It is a Voluntary-Aided (VA) Church of England school, maintained by the Education Service of the City of London.
The City controls three independent schools, City of
The City is home to the
Cass Business School , The
Guildhall Library, and City Business Library are also public
reference libraries, specialising in the history of
Author and journalist Nicholas Shaxson argued that, in return for raising loans and finance for the British government, the City "has extracted privileges and freedoms from rules and laws to which the rest of Britain must submit". He further claims that the assistance provided to the institutions based within it, many of which help their rich clients with offshore tax arrangements, mean that the City is "a tax haven in its own right".
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales,
Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2016". Office for National
Statistics . 22 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
* ^ _2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and
Office for National Statistics (2012). See Classification of
ethnicity in the
United Kingdom for the full descriptions used in the
* ^ Beckett, J V (2005). _City status in the British Isles,
1830–2002_. Historical urban studies. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 12.
ISBN 0-7546-5067-7 .
* ^ "City of
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