A CITY is a large and permanent human settlement . CITIES generally have extensive systems for housing , transportation , sanitation , utilities , land use , and communication . Their density facilitates interaction between people and businesses, sometimes benefiting both parties in the process.
Historically citydwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but today, following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization , half of the world population is said to live in cities. Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas , creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and edification.
The most populated city proper is Shanghai while the largest metropolitan areas also include the Greater Tokyo Area and Jabodetabek ( Jakarta ). The cities of Faiyum , Damascus , and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation .
* 1 Meaning
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Site * 2.2 Center * 2.3 Public space * 2.4 Internal structure * 2.5 Urban areas
* 3 History
* 3.1 Ancient times * 3.2 Middle Ages * 3.3 Early modern * 3.4 Industrial age * 3.5 Post-industrial age
* 4 Urbanization
* 5 Government
* 6 Society
* 7 Infrastructure
* 8 Ecology
* 9 World city system
* 10 Representation in culture * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links
Palitana represents the city's symbolic function in the extreme, devoted as it is to Jain temples .
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its relatively great size, but also by its functions and its special symbolic status , which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can also refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, and can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory.
A variety of definitions, invoking population , population density , number of dwellings , economic function, and infrastructure , are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most states using a minimum between 1,500 and 5000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but also by the role it plays within a larger political context. Cities serve as administrative, commercial, religious, and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas.
The presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators , regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or means to trade for them) to feed the government workers . (This arrangement contrasts with the more typically horizontal relationships in a tribe or village accomplishing common goals through informal agreements between neighbors, or through leadership of a chief.) The governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations .
The word _city_ and the related _civilization _ come, via Old French, from the Latin root _civitas_, originally meaning citizenship or community member and eventually coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman _civitas_ was closely linked with the Greek "polis " – another common root appearing in English words such as _metropolis _.
Hillside housing and graveyard in Kabul. Panoramic view of Tirana , Albania from Mount Dajt in 2004. Downtown Pittsburgh sits at the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, which become the Ohio . Kinshasa ends and fields begin. The L\'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C. , inspired by the design of Versailles , combines a utilitarian grid pattern with diagonal avenues and a symbolic focus on monumental architecture. This aerial view of the Gush Dan metropolitan area in Israel shows the geometrically planned city of Tel Aviv proper (upper left) as well as Givatayim to the east and some of Bat Yam to the south. Tel Aviv's population is 433,000; the total population of its metropolitan area is 3,785,000.
Urban geography deals both with cities in their larger context and with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological, economic, and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, and despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river.
Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations.
Main article: City centre
The vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic, political, and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos or if fortified as a citadel . These spaces historically reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence . Today cities have a city center or downtown , sometimes coincident with a central business district .
Cities typically have public spaces where anyone can go. These include privately owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons . Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere . Public art adorns (or disfigures) public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments .
Urban structure generally follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, radical, concentric, rectilinear, and curvilinear. Physical environment generally constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, it may rely on terraces and winding roads. It may be adapted to its means of subsistence (e.g. agriculture or fishing). And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphic" features, cities can develop internal patterns, due to natural growth or to city planning .
In a radial structure, main roads converge on a central point. This form could evolve from successive growth over a long time, with concentric traces of town walls and citadels marking older city boundaries. In more recent history, such forms were supplemented by ring roads moving traffic around the outskirts of a town. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and Haarlem are structured as a central square surrounded by concentric canals marking every expansion. In cities such as and also Moscow , this pattern is still clearly visible.
A system of rectilinear city streets and land plots, known as the s , has been used for millennia in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The Indus Valley Civilisation built Mohenjo-Daro , Harappa and other cities on a grid pattern, using ancient principles described by Kautilya , and aligned with the compass points . The ancient Greek city of Priene exemplifies a grid plan with specialized districts used across the Hellenistic Mediterranean .
Urban-type settlement extends far beyond the traditional boundaries of the city proper in a form of development sometimes described critically as urban sprawl . Decentralization and dispersal of city functions (commercial, industrial, residential, cultural, political) has transformed the very meaning of the term and has challenged geographers seeking to classify territories according to an urban-rural binary.
Metropolitan areas include suburbs and exurbs organized around the needs of commuters , and sometimes edge cities characterized by a degree of economic and political independence. (In the USA these are grouped into metropolitan statistical areas for purposes of demography and marketing .) Some cities are now part of a continuous urban landscape called urban agglomeration , conurbation , or megalopolis (exemplified by the BosWash corridor of the Northeastern United States.)
Main article: History of the city Further information: Urban history , Historical urban community sizes , and List of largest cities throughout history An arch from the ancient Sumerian city Ur , which flourished in the third millennium BC , can be seen at present-day Tell el-Mukayyar in Iraq Mohenjo-daro , a city of the Indus Valley Civilization , which was rebuilt six or more times, using bricks of standard size, and adhering to the same grid layout—also in the third millennium BC. This aerial view of what was once downtown Teotihuacan shows the Pyramid of the Sun , Pyramid of the Moon , and the processional avenue serving as the spine of the city's street system.
Cities, characterized by population density , symbolic function, and urban planning , have existed for thousands of years. In the conventional view, civilization and the city both followed from the development of agriculture , which enabled production of surplus food, and thus a social division of labour (with concomitant social stratification ) and trade . Early cities often featured granaries , sometimes within a temple. A minority viewpoint considers that cities may have arisen without agriculture, due to alternate means of subsistence (fishing), to use as communal seasonal shelters, to their value as bases for defensive and offensive military organization, or to their inherent economic function. Cities played a crucial role in the establishment of political power over an area, and ancient leaders such as Alexander the Great founded and created them with zeal.
In the fourth and third millennium BC , complex civilizations flourished in the river valleys of Mesopotamia , India , China , and Egypt . Excavations in these areas have found the ruins of cities geared variously towards trade, politics, or religion. Some had large, dense populations , but others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan , existing from about 2600 BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50,000 or more and a sophisticated sanitation system . China\'s planned cities were constructed according to sacred principles to act as celestial microcosms . The Ancient Egyptian cities known physically by archaeologists are not extensive. They include (known by their Arab names) El Lahun , a workers' town associated with the pyramid of Senusret II , and the religious city Amarna built by Akhenaten and abandoned. These sites appear planned in a highly regimented and stratified fashion, with a minimalistic grid of rooms for the workers and increasingly more elaborate housing available for higher classes.
In Mesopotamia, the civilization of Sumer , followed by Assyria and Babylon , gave rise to numerous cities, governed by kings and fostering multiple languages written in cuneiform . The Phoenician trading empire, flourishing around the turn of the first millennium BC , encompassed numerous cities extending from Tyre , Cydon , and Byblos to Carthage and Cádiz .
In the following centuries, independent city-states of Greece developed the _polis _, an association of male landowning citizens who collectively constituted the city. The agora , meaning "gathering place" or "assembly", was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the polis. Rome's rise to power brought its population to one million. Under the authority of its empire , Rome transformed and founded many cities (_coloniae _), and with them brought its principles of urban architecture, design, and society.
In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in the Andes and Mesoamerica . In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilization , Chavin and Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the Huari , Chimu and Inca cultures. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru . It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas, flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC. Mesoamerica saw the rise of early urbanism in several cultural regions, beginning with the Olmec and spreading to the Preclassic Maya , the Zapotec of Oaxaca, and Teotihuacan in central Mexico. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions.
Jenné-Jeno , located in present-day Mali and dating to the third century BC, lacked monumental architecture and a distinctive elite social class—but nevertheless had specialized production and relations with a hinterland. Pre- Arabic trade contacts probably existed between Jenné-Jeno and North Africa. Other early urban centers in sub-Saharan Africa, dated to around 500 AD, include Awdaghust, Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital of Ghana, and Maranda a center located on a trade route between Egypt and Gao.
The Ming Dynasty of China oversaw the creation of the Forbidden City and the expansion of Beijing to become the largest city in the world. This map of Haarlem , the Netherlands, created around 1550, shows the city completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal , with its square shape inspired by Jerusalem .
In the remnants of the
Roman Empire , cities of late antiquity gained
independence but soon lost population and importance. The locus of
power in the West shifted to
Constantinople and to the ascendant
Islamic civilization with its major cities
By the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, some cities become powerful states, taking surrounding areas under their control or establishing extensive maritime empires. In Italy medieval communes developed into city-states including the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa . In Northern Europe, cities including Lübeck and Bruges formed the Hanseatic League for collective defense and commerce. Their power was later challenged and eclipsed by the Dutch commercial cities of Ghent , Ypres , and Amsterdam . Similar phenomena existed elsewhere, as in the case of Sakai , which enjoyed a considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan.
In the West, nation-states became the dominant unit of political organization following the Peace of Westphalia in the seventeenth century. Western Europe's larger capitals ( London and Paris) benefited from the growth of commerce following the emergence of an Atlantic trade. However, most towns remained small.
During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws regarding administration, finances and urbanism.
The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. 19th-century London as capital of the world, crowded and thick with its own variety of smog .
England led the way as London became the capital of a world empire and cities across the country grew in locations strategic for manufacturing . In the United States from 1860 to 1910, the introduction of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large manufacturing centers began to emerge, fueling migration from rural to city areas.
Industrialized cities became deadly places to live, due to health problems resulting from overcrowding , occupational hazards of industry, contaminated water and air, poor sanitation , and communicable diseases such as typhoid and cholera . Factories and slums emerged as regular features of the urban landscape.
In the second half of the twentieth century, deindustrialization (or "economic restructuring ") in the West led to poverty , homelessness , and urban decay in formerly prosperous cities. America's "Steel Belt" became a " Rust Belt " and cities such as Detroit , Michigan, and Gary, Indiana began to shrink , contrary to the global trend of massive urban expansion. Such cities have shifted with varying success into the service economy and public-private partnerships , with concomitant gentrification , uneven revitalization efforts , and selective cultural development. Under the Great Leap Forward and subsequent five-year plans continuing today, the People\'s Republic of China has undergone concomitant urbanization and industrialization and to become the world's leading manufacturer .
Amidst these economic changes, high technology and instantaneous telecommunication enable select cities to become centers of the knowledge economy . A new smart city paradigm, supported by institutions such as the RAND Corporation and IBM , is bringing computerized surveillance , data analysis, and governance to bear on cities and city-dwellers. Some companies are building brand new masterplanned cities from scratch on greenfield sites.
Urbanization is the process of migration from rural into urban areas, driven by various political, economic, and cultural factors. Until the 18th century, an equilibrium existed between the rural agricultural population and towns featuring markets and small-scale manufacturing. With the agricultural and industrial revolutions urban population began its unprecedented growth, both through migration and through demographic expansion . In England the proportion of the population living in cities jumped from 17% in 1801 to 72% in 1891. In 1900, 15% of the world population lived in cities. The cultural appeal of cities also plays a role in attracting residents.
Urbanization rapidly spread across the Europe and the Americas and since the 1950s has taken hold in Asia and Africa as well. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs , reported in 2014 that for the first time more than half of the world population lives in cities. Graph showing urbanization from 1950 projected to 2050 .
Latin America is the most urban continent, with four fifths of its population living in cities, including one fifth of the population said to live in shantytowns (favelas , villas miserias , etc.). Batam , Indonesia, Mogadishu , Somalia, Xiamen , China and Niamey , Niger, are considered among the world's fastest-growing cities, with annual growth rates of 5–8%. In general, the more developed countries of the “ Global North ” remain more urbanized than the less developed countries of the “ Global South ”—but the difference continues to shrink because urbanization is happening faster in the latter group. Asia is home to by far the greatest absolute number of city-dwellers: over two billion and counting. The UN predicts an additional 2.5 billion citydwellers (and 300 million fewer countrydwellers) worldwide by 2050, with 90% of urban population expansion occurring in Asia and Africa.
Megacities , cities with population in the multi-millions, have proliferated into the dozens, arising especially in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Economic globalization fuels the growth of these cities, as new torrents of foreign capital arrange for rapid industrialization, as well as relocation of major businesses from Europe and North America, attracting immigrants from near and far. A deep gulf divides rich and poor in these cities, with usually contain a super-wealthy elite living in gated communities and large masses of people living in substandard housing with inadequate infrastructure and otherwise poor conditions.
Cities around the world have expanded physically as they grow in population, with increases in their surface extent, with the creation of high-rise buildings for residential and commercial use, and with development underground.
Urbanization can create rapid demand for water resources management , as formerly good sources of freshwater become overused and polluted, and the volume of sewage begins to exceed manageable levels.
Local government of cities takes different forms including prominently the municipality (especially in England , in the United States , in India , and in other British colonies ; legally, the municipal corporation ; _municipio _ in Spain and in Portugal , and, along with _municipalidad _, in most former parts of the Spanish and Portuguese empires) and the _commune_ (in France and in Chile ; or _comune _ in Italy).
The chief official of the city has the title of mayor . Whatever his true degree of political authority, the mayor typically acts as the figurehead or personification of his city. The city hall in George Town , Malaysia, today serves as the seat of the City Council of Penang Island .
City governments have authority to make laws governing activity within cities, while its jurisdiction is generally considered subordinate (in ascending order) to state/provincial , national , and perhaps international law. This hierarchy of law is not enforced rigidly in practice—for example in conflicts between municipal regulations and national principles such as constitutional rights and property rights . Legal conflicts and issues arise more frequently in cities than elsewhere due to the bare fact of their greater density. Modern city governments thoroughly regulate everyday life in many dimensions, including public and personal health , transport , burial , resource use and extraction , recreation , and the nature and use of buildings . Technologies, techniques, and laws governing these areas—developed in cities—have become ubiquitous in many areas. Municipal officials may be appointed from a higher level of government or elected locally.
The Dublin Fire Brigade pictured in April 1970, quenching a severe fire at a hardware store.
Cities typically provide municipal services such as education , through school systems ; policing , through police departments; and firefighting , through fire departments ; as well as the city's basic infrastructure. These are provided more or less routinely, in a more or less equal fashion. Responsibility for administration usually falls on the city government, though some services may be operated by a higher level of government, while others may be privately run. Armies may assume responsibility for policing cities in states of domestic turmoil such as America's King assassination riots of 1968.
The traditional basis for municipal finance is local property tax levied on real estate within the city. Local government can also collect revenue for services, or by leasing land that it owns. However, financing municipal services, as well as urban renewal and other development projects, is a perennial problem, which cities address through appeals to higher governments, arrangements with the private sector, and techniques such as privatization (selling services to into the private sector ), corporatization (formation of quasi-private municipally-owned corporations), and financialization (packaging city assets into tradable financial instruments and derivatives ). This situation has become acute in deindustrialized cities and in cases where businesses and wealthier citizens have moved outside of city limits and therefore beyond the reach of taxation. Cities in search of ready cash increasingly resort to the municipal bond , essentially a loan with interest and a repayment date . City governments have also begun to use tax increment financing , in which a development project is financed by loans based on future tax revenues which it is expected to yield. Under these circumstances, creditors and consequently city governments place a high importance on city credit ratings .
Governance includes government but refers to a wider domain of social control functions implemented by many actors including nongovernmental organizations . The impact of globalization and the role of multinational corporations in local governments worldwide, has led to a shift in perspective on urban governance, away from the "urban regime theory" in which a coalition of local interests functionally govern, toward a theory of outside economic control, widely associated in academics with the philosophy of neoliberalism . In the neoliberal model of governance, public utilities are privatized , industry is deregulated , and corporations gain the status of governing actors—as indicated by the power they wield in public-private partnerships and over business improvement districts , and in the expectation of self-regulation through corporate social responsibility . The biggest investors and real estate developers act as the city's de facto urban planners.
The related concept of good governance places more emphasis on the state, with the purpose of assessing urban governments for their suitability for development assistance . The concepts of governance and good governance are especially invoked in the emergent megacities, where international organizations consider existing governments inadequate for their large populations.
Urban planning , the application of forethought to city design, involves optimizing land use, transportation, utilities, and other basic systems, in order to achieve certain objectives . Urban planners and scholars have proposed overlapping theories as ideals for how plans should be formed. Planning tools, beyond the original design of the city itself, include public capital investment in infrastructure and land-use controls such as zoning . The continuous process of comprehensive planning involves identifying general objectives as well as collecting data to evaluate progress and inform future decisions.
Government, as the ultimate wielder of force is legally the final authority on planning but in practice the process involves both public and private elements. The legal principle of eminent domain is used by government to divest citizens of their property in cases where its use is required for a project. Planning often involves tradeoffs—decisions in which some stand to gain and some to lose—and thus is closely connected to the prevailing political situation.
The history of urban planning dates to some of the earliest known cities, especially in the Indus Valley and Mesoamerican civilizations, which built their cities on grids and apparently zoned different areas for different purposes. The effects of planning, ubiquitous in today's world, can be seen most clearly in the layout of planned communities , fully designed prior to construction, often with consideration for interlocking physical, economic, and cultural systems.
Urban society is typically stratified . Spatially, cities are formally or informally segregated along ethnic, economic and racial lines. People living relatively close together may live, work, and play, in separate areas, and associate with different people, forming ethnic or lifestyle enclaves or, in areas of concentrated poverty, ghettoes . While in the USA and elsewhere poverty became associated with the inner city , in France it has become associated with the _banlieues _, areas of urban development which surround the city proper. Meanwhile, across Europe and North America, the racially white majority is empirically the most segregated group. Suburbs in the west, and, increasingly, gated communities and other forms of "privatopia" around the world, allow local elites to self-segregate into secure and exclusive neighborhoods .
Landless urban workers, contrasted with peasants and known as the proletariat , form a growing stratum of society in the age of urbanization. In Marxist doctrine, the proletariat will inevitably revolt against the bourgeoisie as their ranks swell with disenfranchised and disaffected people lacking all stake in the status quo . The global urban proletariat of today, however, generally lacks the status as factory workers which in the nineteenth century provided access to the means of production .
Historically, cities rely on rural areas for intensive farming to yield surplus crops , in exchange for which they provide money, political administration, manufactured goods, and culture. Urban economics tends to analyze larger agglomerations, stretching beyond city limits, in order to reach a more complete understanding of the local labor market . People shopping for food at a marketplace in Taipei City .
As hubs of trade cities have long been home to retail commerce and consumption through the interface of shopping . In the 20th century, department stores using new techniques of advertising , public relations , decoration , and design , transformed urban shopping areas into fantasy worlds encouraging self-expression and escape through consumerism .
In general, the density of cities expedites commerce and facilitates knowledge spillovers , helping people and firms exchange information and generate new ideas. A thicker labor market allows for better skill matching between firms and individuals. Population density enables also sharing of common infrastructure and production facilities, however in very dense cities, increased crowding and waiting times may lead to some negative effects.
Although manufacturing fueled the growth of cities, many now rely on a tertiary or service economy. The services in question range from tourism , hospitality , entertainment , housekeeping and prostitution to grey-collar work in law , finance , and administration .
CULTURE AND COMMUNICATIONS
Cities are typically hubs for education and the arts , supporting universities , museums , temples , and other cultural institutions . They feature impressive displays of architecture ranging from small to enormous and ornate to brutal ; skyscrapers , providing thousands of offices or homes within a small footprint, and visible from miles away, have become iconic urban features. Cultural elites tend to live in cities, bound together by shared cultural capital , and themselves playing some role in governance. By virtue of their status as centers of culture and literacy, cities can be described as the locus of civilization , world history , and social change .
Density makes for effective mass communication and transmission of news , through heralds , printed proclamations , newspapers , and digital media. These communication networks, though still using cities as hubs, penetrate extensively into all populated areas. In the age of rapid communication and transportation, commentators have described urban culture as nearly ubiquitous or as no longer meaningful. At the same time hallmarks of rural life may appear in the midst of the city, as in the case of urban agriculture .
Today, a city's promotion of its cultural activities dovetails with place branding and city marketing , public diplomacy techniques used to inform development strategy; to attract businesses, investors, residents, and tourists; and to create a shared identity and sense of place within the metropolitan area. Physical inscriptions, plaques, and monuments on display physically transmit a historical context for urban places. Some cities, such as Jerusalem , Mecca , and Rome have indelible religious status and for hundreds of years have attracted pilgrims . Patriotic tourists visit Agra to see the Taj Mahal , or New York City to visit Ground Zero . Elvis lovers visit Memphis to pay their respects at Graceland . Place brands (which include place satisfaction and place loyalty) have great economic value (comparable to the value of commodity brands ) because of their influence on the decision-making process of people thinking about doing business in—"purchasing" (the brand of)—a city.
Bread and circuses among other forms of cultural appeal, attract and entertain the masses . Sports also play a major role in city branding and local identity formation. Cities go to considerable lengths in competing to host the Olympic Games , which bring global attention and tourism.
Atomic bombing on August 6, 1945, devastated the Japanese city of Hiroshima .
Cities play a crucial strategic role in warfare due to their economic, demographic, symbolic, and political centrality. For the same reasons, they are targets in asymmetric warfare . Many cities throughout history were founded under military auspices, a great many have incorporated fortifications , and military principles continue to influence urban design . Indeed, war may have served as the social rationale and economic basis for the very earliest cities.
Powers engaged in geopolitical conflict have established fortified settlements as part of military strategies, as in the case of garrison towns, America's Strategic Hamlet Program during the Vietnam War , and Israeli settlements in Palestine. While occupying the Philippines , the US Army ordered local people concentrated into cities and towns, in order to isolate committed insurgents and battle freely against them in the countryside.
During World War II , national governments on occasion declared certain cities open , effectively surrendering them to an advancing enemy in order to avoid damage and bloodshed. Urban warfare proved decisive, however, in the Battle of Stalingrad , where Soviet forces repulsed German occupiers, with extreme casualties and destruction. In an era of low-intensity conflict and rapid urbanization, cities have become sites of long-term conflict waged both by foreign occupiers and by local governments against insurgency . Such warfare, known as counterinsurgency , involves techniques of surveillance and psychological warfare as well as close combat , functionally extends modern urban crime prevention , which already uses concepts such as defensible space .
Although capture is the more common objective, warfare has in some cases spelt complete destruction for a city. Mesopotamian tablets and ruins attest to such destruction, as does the Latin motto _Carthago delenda est _. Since the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and throughout the Cold War , nuclear strategists continued to contemplate the use of "countervalue " targeting: crippling an enemy by annihilating its valuable cities, rather than aiming primarily at its military forces .
Urban infrastructure involves various physical networks and spaces necessary for transportation, water use, energy, recreation, and public functions. Infrastructure carries a high initial cost in fixed capital (pipes, wires, plants, vehicles, etc.) but lower marginal costs and thus positive economies of scale . Because of the higher barriers to entry , these networks have been classified as natural monopolies , meaning that economic logic favors control of each network by a single organization, public or private.
Infrastructure in general (if not every infrastructure project) plays a vital role in a city's capacity for economic activity and expansion, underpinning the very survival of the city’s inhabitants, as well as technological, commercial, industrial, and social activities. Structurally, many infrastructure systems take the form of networks with redundant links and multiple pathways, so that the system as a whole continue to operate even if parts of it fail. The particulars of a city’s infrastructure systems have historical path dependence because new development must build from what exists already.
Megaprojects such as the construction of airports , power plants , and railways require large upfront investments and thus tend to require funding from national government or the private sector. Privatization may also extend to all levels of infrastructure construction and maintenance.
Urban infrastructure ideally serves all residents equally but in practice may prove uneven—with, in some cities, clear first-class and second-class alternatives.
Public utilities (literally, useful things with general availability) include basic and essential infrastructure networks, chiefly concerned with the supply of water, electricity, and telecommunications capability to the populace.
Sanitation , necessary for good health in crowded conditions, requires water supply and waste management as well as individual hygiene . Urban water systems include principally a water supply network and a network for wastewater including sewage and stormwater . Historically , either local governments or private companies have administered urban water supply , with a tendency toward government water supply in the 20th century and a tendency toward private operation at the turn of the twenty-first. The market for private water services is dominated by two French companies, Veolia Water (formerly Vivendi ) and Engie (formerly Suez ), said to hold 70% of all water contracts worldwide.
Modern urban life relies heavily on the energy transmitted through electricity for the operation of electric machines (from household appliances to industrial machines to now-ubiquitous electronic systems used in communications, business, and government) and for traffic lights , streetlights and indoor lighting . Cities rely to a lesser extent on hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and natural gas for transportation, heating , and cooking . Telecommunications infrastructure such as telephone lines and coaxial cables also traverse cities, forming dense networks for mass and point-to-point communications.
See also: Public transport
Because cities rely on specialization and an economic system based on wage labour , their inhabitants must have the ability to regularly travel between home, work, commerce, and entertainment. Citydwellers travel foot or by wheel on roads and walkways , or use special rapid transit systems based on underground , overground , and elevated rail. Cities also rely on long-distance transportation (truck, rail , and airplane ) for economic connections with other cities and rural areas. Train stopped at the Dnipro stop of the Kiev Metro .
Historically, city streets were the domain of horses and their riders and pedestrians , who only sometimes had sidewalks and special walking areas reserved for them. In the west, bicycles or (velocipedes ), efficient human-powered machines for short- and medium-distance travel, enjoyed a period of popularity at the beginning of the twentieth century before the rise of automobiles. Soon after, they gained a more lasting foothold in Asian and African cities under European influence. In western cities, industrializing, expanding, and electrifying at this time, public transit systems and especially streetcars enabled urban expansion as new residential neighborhoods sprung up along transit lines and workers rode to and from work downtown.
Since the mid-twentieth century, cities have relied heavily on motor
vehicle transportation, with major implications for their layout,
environment, and aesthetics. (This transformation occurred most
dramatically in the USA—where corporate and governmental policies
favored automobile transport systems—and to a lesser extent in
Europe.) The rise of personal cars accompanied the expansion of
urban economic areas into much larger metropolises , subsequently
creating ubiquitous traffic issues with accompanying construction of
new highways , wider streets, and alternative walkways for
pedestrians. People walk, drive, and cycle through a street
However, severe traffic jams still occur regularly in cities around the world, as private car ownership and urbanization continue to increase, overwhelming existing urban street networks .
The urban bus system , the world's most common form of public transport , uses a network of scheduled routes to move people through the city, alongside cars, on the roads. Economic function itself also became more decentralized as concentration became impractical and employers relocated to more car-friendly locations (including edge cities ). Some cities have introduced bus rapid transit systems which include exclusive bus lanes and other methods for prioritizing bus traffic over private cars. Many big American cities still operate conventional public transit by rail, as exemplified by the ever-popular New York City Subway system. Rapid transit is widely used in Europe and has increased in Latin America and Asia.
Walking and cycling ("non-motorized transport") enjoy increasing favor (more pedestrian zones and bike lanes ) in American and Asian urban transportation planning, under the influence of such trends as the Healthy Cities movement, the drive for sustainable development , and the idea of a carfree city . Techniques such as road space rationing and road use charges have been introduced to limit urban car traffic.
Housing of residents presents one of the major challenges every city must face. Adequate housing entails not only physical shelters but also the physical systems necessary to sustain life and economic activity. Home ownership represents status and a modicum of economic security, compared to renting which may consume much of the income of low-wage urban workers. Homelessness , or lack of housing, is a challenged currently faced by millions of people in countries rich and poor.
Urban ecosystems , influenced as they are by the density of human buildings and activities differ considerably from those of their rural surroundings. Anthropogenic buildings and waste , as well as cultivation in gardens , create physical and chemical environments which have no equivalents in wilderness , in some cases enabling exceptional biodiversity . They provide homes not only for immigrant humans but also for immigrant plants , bringing about interactions between species which never previously encountered each other. They introduce frequent disturbances (construction, walking) to plant and animal habitats , creating opportunities for recolonization and thus favoring young ecosystems with r-selected species dominant. On the whole, urban ecosystems are less complex and productive than others, due to the diminished absolute amount of biological interactions.
Typical urban fauna include insects (especially ants ), rodents (mice , rats ), and birds , as well as cats and dogs (domesticated and feral ). Large predators are scarce. Profile of an urban heat island .
Cities generate considerable ecological footprints , locally and at longer distances, due to concentrated populations and technological activities. From one perspective, cities are not ecologically sustainable due to their resource needs. From another, proper management may be able to ameliorate a city's ill effects. Air pollution arises from various forms of combustion, including fireplaces, wood or coal-burning stoves, other heating systems, and internal combustion engines . Industrialized cities, and today third-world megacities, are notorious for veils of smog (industrial haze ) which envelop them, posing a chronic threat to the health of their millions of inhabitants. Urban soil contains higher concentrations of heavy metals (especially lead , copper , and nickel ) and has lower pH than soil in comparable wilderness.
Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates , due to concrete , asphalt , and other artificial surfaces, which heat up in sunlight and channel rainwater into underground ducts . The temperature in New York City exceeds nearby rural temperatures by an average of 2–3 °C and at times 5–10 °C differences have been recorded. This effect varies nonlinearly with population changes (independently of the city's physical size). Aerial particulates increase rainfall by 5–10%. Thus, urban areas experience unique climates, with earlier flowering and later leaf dropping than in nearby country.
Poor and working-class people face disproportionate exposure to environmental risks (known as environmental racism when intersecting also with racial segregation). For example, within the urban microclimate, less-vegetated poor neighborhoods bear more of the heat (but have fewer means of coping with it).
WORLD CITY SYSTEM
As the world becomes more closely linked through economics, politics, technology, and culture (a process called globalization ), cities have come to play a leading role in transnational affairs, exceeding the limitations of international relations conducted by national governments. This phenomenon, resurgent today, can be traced back to the Silk Road , Phoenicia , and the Greek city-states, through the Hanseatic League and other alliances of cities. Today the information economy based on high-speed internet infrastructure enables instantaneous telecommunication around the world, effectively eliminating the distance between cities for the purposes of stock markets and other high-level elements of the world economy, as well as personal communications and mass media .
Stock exchanges , characteristic features of the top global cities, are interconnected hubs for capital. Here, a delegation from Australia is shown visiting the London Stock Exchange .
A global city , also known as a world city, is a prominent centre of trade, banking, finance, innovation, and markets. Saskia Sassen used the term "global city" in 1991 to refer to a city's power , status, and cosmopolitanism, rather than to its size. Following this view of cities, it is possible to rank the world\'s cities hierarchically . London , New York City , Paris , and Tokyo form the capstone of the global hierarchy, exerting command and control through their economic and political influence. Global cities may have reached their status due to early transition to post-industrialism or through inertia which has enabled them to maintain their dominance from the industrial era. This type of ranking exemplifies an emerging discourse in which cities, considered variations on the same ideal type, _must_ compete with each other globally to achieve prosperity.
Critics of the notion point to the different realms of power and interchange. The term "global city" is heavily influenced by economic factors and, thus, may not account for places that are otherwise significant. Paul James , for example argues that the term is "reductive and skewed" in its focus on financial systems.
Multinational corporations and banks make their headquarters in global cities and conduct much of their business within this context. American firms dominate the international markets for law and engineering and maintain branches in the biggest foreign global cities.
Global cities feature concentrations of extremely wealthy and extremely poor people. Their economies are lubricated by their capacity (limited by the national government's immigration policy, which functionally defines the supply side of the labor market) to recruit low- and high-skilled immigrant workers from poorer areas. More and more cities today draw on this globally available labor force. Modern global cities, like New York City, often include large central business districts that serve as hubs for economic activity.
Cities increasingly participate in world political activities independently of their enclosing nation-states. Early examples of this phenomenon are the sister city relationship and the promotion of multi-level governance within the European Union as a technique for European integration . Cities including Hamburg , Prague , Amsterdam , The Hague , and City of London maintain their own embassies to the European Union at Brussels .
New urban dwellers may increasingly not simply as immigrants but as transmigrants , keeping one foot each (through telecommunications if not travel) in their old and their new homes.
Cities participate in global governance by various means including membership in global networks which transmit norms and regulations. At the general, global level, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) is a significant umbrella organization for cities; regionally and nationally, Eurocities , Asian Network of Major Cities 21 , the Federation of Canadian Municipalities the National League of Cities , and the United States Conference of Mayors play similar roles. UCLG took responsibility for creating Agenda 21 for culture , a program for cultural policies promoting sustainable development, and has organized various conferences and reports for its furtherance.
Networks have become especially prevalent in the arena of environmentalism and specifically climate change following the adoption of Agenda 21 . Environmental city networks include the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group , World Association of Major Metropolises ("Metropolis"), the United Nations Global Compact Cities Programme , the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA), the Covenant of Mayors and the Compact of Mayors , ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability , and the Transition Towns network .
Cities with world political status as meeting places for advocacy groups, non-governmental organizations, lobbyists, educational institutions, intelligence agencies, military contractors, information technology firms, and other groups with a stake in world policymaking. They are consequently also sites for symbolic protest.
UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM
The United Nations System has been involved in a series of events and declarations dealing with the development of cities during this period of rapid urbanization.
* The Habitat I conference in 1976 adopted the "Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements" which identifies urban management as a fundamental aspect of development and establishes various principles for maintaining urban habitats . * Citing the Vancouver Declaration, the UN General Assembly in December 1977 authorized the United Nations Commission Human Settlements and the HABITAT Centre for Human Settlements, intended to coordinate UN activities related to housing and settlements. * The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro resulted in a set of international agreements including Agenda 21 which establishes principles and plans for sustainable development . World Assembly of Mayors at Habitat III conference in Quito . * The Habitat II conference in 1996 called for cities to play a leading role in this program, which subsequently advanced the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals . * In January 2002 the UN Commission on Human Settlements became an umbrella agency called the United Nations Human Settlements Programme or UN-Habitat, a member of the United Nations Development Group . * The Habitat III conference of 2016 focused on implementing these goals under the banner of a "New Urban Agenda". The four mechanisms envisio 14ned for effecting the New Urban Agenda are (1) national policies promoting integrated sustainable development, (2) stronger urban governance, (3) long-term integrated urban and territorial planning, and (4) effective financing frameworks. Just before this conference, the European Union concurrently approved an "Urban Agenda for the European Union" known as the Pact of Amsterdam .
UN- Habitat coordinates the UN urban agenda, working with the UN Environmental Programme , the UN Development Programme , the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights , the World Health Organization , and the World Bank . World Bank headquarters in Washington, DC.
The World Bank , a United Nations specialized agency , has been a primary force in promoting the Habitat conferences, and since the first Habitat conference has used their declarations as a framework for issuing loans for urban infrastructure. The bank's structural adjustment programs contributed to urbanization in the Third World by creating incentives to move to cities. The World Bank and UN-Habitat in 1999 jointly established the Cities Alliance (based at the World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.) to guide policymaking, knowledge sharing, and grant distribution around the issue of urban poverty. (UN- Habitat plays an advisory role in evaluating the quality of a locality's governance.) The Bank's policies have tended to focus on bolstering real estate markets through credit and technical assistance.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO has increasingly focused on cities as key sites for influencing cultural governance . It has developed various city networks including the International Coalition of Cities against Racism and the Creative Cities Network. UNESCO's capacity to select World Heritage Sites and maintain them through Public/social/private partnerships gives the organization significant influence over cultural capital , tourism , and historic preservation funding.
REPRESENTATION IN CULTURE
_ John Martin 's The Fall of Babylon_ (1831), depicting chaos as the Persian army occupies Babylon, also symbolizes the ruin of decadent civilization in modern times. Lightning striking the Babylonian ziggurat (also representing the Tower of Babel ) indicates God's judgment against the city.
Cities figure prominently in traditional Western mythology, appearing in the Bible in both evil and holy forms, symbolized by Babylon and Jerusalem . Cain and Nimrod are the first city builders in the Book of Genesis . In Sumerian mythology Gilgamesh built the walls of Uruk .
Cities can be perceived in terms of extremes or opposites: at once liberating and oppressive, wealthy and poor, organized and chaotic. The name anti-urbanism refers to various types of ideological opposition to cities, whether because of their culture or their political relationship with the country . Such opposition may result from identification of cities with oppression and the ruling elite . This and other political ideologies strongly influence narratives and themes in discourse about cities. In turn, cities symbolize their home societies.
Writers, painters, and filmmakers have produced innumerable works of art concerning the urban experience. Classical and medieval literature includes a genre of _descriptiones _ which treat of city features and history. Modern authors such as Charles Dickens and James Joyce are famous for evocative descriptions of their home cities. Fritz Lang conceived the idea for his influential 1927 film _ Metropolis (film) _ while visiting Times Square and marveling at the nighttime neon lighting . Other early cinematic representations of cities in the twentieth century generally depicted them as technologically efficient spaces with smoothly functioning systems of automobile transport. By the 1960s, however, traffic congestion began to appear in such films as _ The Fast Lady _ (1962) and _ Playtime _ (1967).
Literature, film, and other forms of popular culture have supplied visions of future cities both utopian and dystopian . The prospect of expanding, communicating, and increasingly interdependent world cities has given rise to images such as Nylonkong (NY, London, Hong Kong) and visions of a single world-encompassing ecumenopolis .
* Bibliography of suburbs * Ekistics * Ghost town * List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities * Lists of cities * Lost city * Nation * Principles of intelligent urbanism * Primate city * Urban sociology * Free city (antiquity)
* ^ Intellectuals such as H. G. Wells , Patrick Geddes and Kingsley Davis foretold the coming of a mostly urban world throughout the twentieth century. The United Nations has long anticipated a half-urban world, earlier predicting the year 2000 as the turning point and in 2007 writing that it would occur in 2008. Other researchers had also estimated that the halfway point was reached in 2007. Although the trend is undeniable, the precision of this statistic is dubious, due to reliance on national censuses and to the ambiguities of defining an area as urban. * ^ In practice, utility companies and agencies do secure monopolies over local service provision. Critics within the economics field have contested the inevitability of this outcome. * ^ Water resources in rapidly urbanizing areas are not merely _privatized_ as they are in western countries; since the systems don't exist to begin with, private contracts also entail water industrialization and enclosure . Also, there is a countervailing trend: 100 cities have _re_-municipalized their water supply since the 1990s. * ^ One important global political city, described at one time as a world capital , is Washington, D.C. and its metropolitan area (including Tysons Corner and Reston in the Dulles Technology Corridor and the various federal agencies found along the Baltimore-Washington Parkway ). Beyond the prominent institutions of U.S. government on the national mall, this area contains 177 embassies , the Pentagon , the Central Intelligence Agency headquarters , the World Bank headquarters, myriad think tanks and lobbying groups , and corporate headquarters for Booz Allen Hamilton , General Dynamics , Capital One , Verisign , Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems , Gannett Company etc.
* ^ Blanca Arellano 55th Congress of the European Regional Science
Association: "World Renaissance: Changing roles for people and
places", 25–28 August 2015, Lisbon.
* ^ Aristotle, _Politics _ 2.1267b
* ^ Jackson, Kenneth T. (1985), _Crabgrass Frontier: The
Suburbanization of the United States _, New York: Oxford University
Press, ISBN 0-19-504983-7 , p.73-76
* ^ Goodall, B. (1987) _The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography_.
* ^ Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) _The Social Science
Encyclopedia_. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.
* ^ The Travel &
Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007, Jennifer
Blanke, World Economic Forum
* ^ _Demographia World Urban Areas_ 13th Annual Edition, April
* ^ Nick Compton, "What is the oldest city in the world?", _The
Guardian_, 16 February 2015.
* ^ Ring, Trudy (2014). _Middle East and Africa: International
Dictionary of Historic Places_. p. 204.
* ^ Jhimli Mukherjee Pandeyl, "
Varanasi is as old as Indus valley
civilization, finds IIT-KGP study", _Times of India_ 25 February 2016.
* ^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), p. 45.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "city, n.", _Oxford English Dictionary_, June 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kevin A. Lynch, "What Is the Form of a City, and How is
It Made?"; in Marzluff et al. (2008), p. 678. "The city may be looked
on as a story, a pattern of relations between human groups, a
production and distribution space, a field of physical force, a set of
linked decisions, or an arena of conflict. Values are embedded in
these metaphors: historic continuity, stable equilibrium, productive
efficiency, capable decision and management, maximum interaction, or
the progress of political struggle. Certain actors become the decisive
elements of transformation in each view: political leaders, families
and ethnic groups, major investors, the technicians of transport, the
decision elite, the revolutionary classes."
* ^ "Table 6" in
United Nations Demographic Yearbook (2015), the
1988 version of which is quoted in Carter (1995), pp. 10–12.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Graeme Hugo, Anthony Champion, & Alfredo
Lattes, "Toward a New Conceptualization of Settlements for
Population and Development Review_ 29(2), June 2003.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Smith, "Earliest Cities", in Gmelch _Social
Sciences in China_ 33(2), 2012; doi:10.1080/02529203.2012.677292 .
* ^ Moholy-Nagy (1986), pp. 146–148.
* ^ Volker M. Welter, "The 1925 Master Plan for Tel-Aviv by Patrick
Geddes"; _Israel Studies_ 14(3), Fall 2009.
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , "Locations, Population
and Density per Sq. km., by metropolitan area and selected localities,
* ^ Carter (1995), p. 5–7. " the two main themes of study
introduced at the outset: the town as a distributed feature and the
town as a feature with internal structure, or in other words, the town
in area and the town as area."
* ^ Marshall (1989), pp. 11–14.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 155–156.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Marshall (1989), p. 15. "The mutual interdependence of
town and country has one consequence so obvious that it is easily
overlooked: at the global scale, cities are generally confined to
areas capable of supporting a permanent agricultural population.
Moreover, within any area possessing a broadly uniform level of
agricultural productivity, there is a rough but definite association
between the density of the rural population and the average spacing of
cities above any chosen minimum size."
* ^ _A_ _B_ Latham et al. (2009), p. 18. "From the simplest forms
of exchange, when peasant farmers literally brought their produce from
the fields into the densest point of interaction – giving us market
towns – the significance of central places to surrounding
territories began to be asserted. As cities grew in complexity, the
major civic institutions, from seats of government to religious
buildings, would also come to dominate these points of convergence.
Large central squares or open spaces reflected the importance of
collective gatherings in city life, such as Tiananmen Square in
Beijing, the Zócalo in Mexico City, the Piazza Navona in
Trafalgar Square in London.
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 34–35. "In the center of the city,
an elite compound or temenos was situated. Study of the very earliest
cities show this compound to be largely composed of a temple and
supporting structures. The temple rose some 40 feet above the ground
and would have presented a formidable profile to those far away. The
temple contained the priestly class, scribes, and record keepers, as
well as granaries, schools, crafts—almost all non-agricultural
aspects of society.
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 177–179.
* ^ Don Mitchell, "The End of Public Space? People\'s Park,
Definitions of the Public, and Democracy"; _Annals of the Association
of American Geographers_ 85(1), March 1995.
* ^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), 21–33.
* ^ Mohan Pant and Shjui Fumo, "The Grid and Modular Measures in
Planning of Mohenjodaro and Kathmandu Valley: A Study on
Modular Measures in Block and Plot Divisions in the
Mohenjodaro and Sirkap (Pakistan), and Thimi (Kathmandu Valley)";
_Journal of Asian
Building Engineerng_ 59, May 2005.
* ^ Michel Danino, "New Insights into Harappan Town-Planning,
Proportions and Units, with
Special Reference to Dholavira", "Man and
Environment 33(1), 2008.
* ^ Jane McIntosh, _The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives_ ;
ABC-CLIO, 2008; ISBN 978-1-57607-907-2 ; pp. 231, 346.
* ^ Carter (1995), p. 15. "In the underbound city the
administratively defined area is smaller than the physical extent of
settlement. In the overbound city the administrative area is greater
than the physical extent. The 'truebound' city is one where the
administrative bound is nearly coincidental with the physical extent."
* ^ Paul James; Meg Holden; Mary Lewin; Lyndsay Neilson; Christine
Oakley; Art Truter; David Wilmoth (2013). "Managing Metropolises by
Negotiating Mega-Urban Growth". In Harald Mieg; Klaus Töpfer.
_Institutional and Social Innovation for
* ^ Chaunglin Fang _Landscape and Urban Planning_ 162, 2017.
* ^ (Bairoch 1988 , pp. 3–4)
* ^ (Pacione 2001 , p. 16)
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 26. "Early cities also reflected these
preconditions in that they served as places where agricultural
surpluses were stored and distributed. Cities functioned economically
as centers of extraction and redistribution from countryside to
granaries to the urban population. One of the main functions of this
central authority was to extract, store, and redistribute the grain.
It is no accident that granaries—storage areas for grain—were
often found within the temples of early cities."
* ^ Jennifer R. Pournelle, "KLM to CORONA: A Bird\'s Eye View of
Cultural Ecology and Early Mesopotamian Urbanization"; in _Settlement
and Society: Essays Dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams_ ed. Elizabeth
C. Stone; Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA, and Oriental
Institute of the
University of Chicago, 2007.
* ^ _A_ _B_
Fredy Perlman , _Against His-Story, Against Leviathan
_, Detroit: Black p. 16.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Mumford (1961), pp. 39–46. "As the physical means
increased, this one-sided power mythology, sterile, indeed hostile to
life, pushed its way into every corner of the urban scene and found,
in the _new_ institution of organized war, its completest expression.
Thus both the physical form and the institutional life of the city,
from the very beginning to the urban implosion, were shaped in no
small measure by the irrational and magical purposes of war. From this
source sprang the elaborate system of fortifications, with walls,
ramparts, towers, canals, ditches, that continued to characterize the
chief historic cities, apart from certain special cases—as during
the Pax Romana—down to the eighteenth century. War brought
concentration of social leadership and political power in the hands of
a weapons-bearing minority, abetted by a priesthood exercising sacred
powers and possessing secret but valuable scientific and magical
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ashworth (1991), pp. 12–13.
* ^ (Jacobs 1969 , p. 23)
* ^ P. J. Taylor , "Extraordinary Cities I: Early 'City-ness' and
the Invention of Agriculture"; _International Journal of Urban and
Regional Research_ 36(3), 2012; doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2011.01101.x ;
see also GaWC Research Bulletins 359 and 360.
* ^ Michael E. Smith, Jason Ur, doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12138 .
* ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.03. "The ancients fostered the
spread of urban culture; their efforts were constant to bring their
people within the complete influence of municipal life. The desire to
create cities was the most striking characteristic of the people of
antiquity, and ancient rulers and statesmen vied with one another in
satisfying that desire."
* ^ Southall (1998), p. 23.
* ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998) _Ancient Cities of the Indus
Valley Civilization_. Oxford
University Press ,
Karachi and New York.
* ^ Southall (1998), pp. 38–43.
* ^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), pp. 158–161.
Robert McCormick Adams Jr. , _Heartland of Cities: Surveys of
Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the
University of Chicago Press, 1981; ISBN 0-226-00544-5 ; p.
Mesopotamia was a land of cities. It became one
precociously, before the end of the fourth millennium B.C. Urban
traditions remained strong and virtually continuous through the
vicissitudes of conquest, internal upheaval accompanied by widespread
economic breakdown, and massive linguistic and population replacement.
The symbolic and material content of civilization obviously changed,
but its cultural ambience remained tied to cities."
* ^ Pocock, J. G. A. (1998). _The
Citizenship Debates_. Chapter 2
-- The Ideal of
Citizenship since Classical Times (originally
published in _Queen's Quarterly_ 99, no. 1). Minneapolis, MN: The
University of Minnesota. p. 31. ISBN 0-8166-2880-7 .
* ^ Ring, Salkin, Boda, Trudy, Robert, Sharon (January 1, 1996).
_International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe_.
Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2 . CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link )
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 41–42. "
Rome created an elaborate
urban system. Roman colonies were organized as a means of securing
Roman territory. The first thing that Romans did when they conquered
new territories was to establish cities."
* ^ Shady Solís, Ruth Martha (1997). _La ciudad sagrada de
Caral-Supe en los albores de la civilización en el Perú_ (in
Spanish). Lima: UNMSM, Fondo Editorial. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
* ^ McIntosh, Roderic J., McIntosh, Susan Keech. "Early Urban
Configurations on the Middle Niger: Clustered Cities and Landscapes of
Power," Chapter 5.
* ^ Magnavita, Sonja (2013). "Initial Encounters: Seeking traces of
ancient trade connections between West Africa and the wider world".
_Afriques_. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
* ^ _History of African Cities South of the Sahara_ By Catherine
Coquery-Vidrovitch. 2005. ISBN 1-55876-303-1
* ^ Evans _et al._, A comprehensive archaeological map of the
world\'s largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, August 23,
* ^ "Map reveals ancient urban sprawl", _BBC News_, 14 August 2007.
* ^ Metropolis: Angkor, the world\'s first mega-city, The
Independent, August 15, 2007
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 43. "Capitals like Córdoba and Cairo
had populations of about 500,000;
* ^ _A_ _B_ Nicholas Blomley, "What Sort of a Legal Space is a City?" in Brighenti (2013), pp. 1–20.
Municipalities, within this frame, are understood as nested within the jurisdictional space of the provinces. Indeed, rather than freestanding legal sites, they are imagined as products (or 'creatures') of the provinces who may bring them into being or dissolve them as they choose. As with the provinces their powers are of a delegated form: they may only exercise jurisdiction over areas that have been expressly identified by enabling legislation. Municipal law may not conflict with provincial law, and may only be exercised within its defined territory. Yet we are danger missing the reach of municipal law: 'ven in highly constitutionalized regimes, it has remained possible for municipalities to micro-manage space, time, and activities through police regulations that infringe both on constitutional rights and private property in often extreme ways' (Vaverde 2009: 150). While liberalism fears the encroachments of the state, it seems less worried about those of the municipality. Thus if a national government proposed a statute forbidding public gatherings or sporting events, a revolution would occur. Yet municipalities routinely enact sweeping by-laws directed at open ended (and ill-defined) offences such as loitering and obstruction, requiring permits for protests or requiring residents and homeowners to remove snow from the city's sidewalks. * ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 53–54. " England was clearly at the center of these changes. London became the first truly global city by placing itself within the new global economy. English colonialism in North America, the Caribbean, South Asia, and later Africa and China helped to further fatten the wallets of many of its merchants. These colonies would later provide many of the raw materials for industrial production. England's hinterland was no longer confined to a portion of the world; it effectively became a global hinterland." * ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 54–55. * ^ Steven High, _Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America\'s Rust Belt, 1969-1984_; University of Toronto Press, 2003; ISBN 0-8020-8528-8 . "It is now clear that the deindustrialization thesis is part myth and part fact. Robert Z. Lawrence, for example, uses aggregate economic data to show that manufacturing employment in the United States did not decline but actually increased from 16.8 million in 1960, to 20.1 million in 1973, and 20.3 million in 1980. However, manufacturing employment was in relative decline. Barry Bluestone noted that manufacturing represented a decreasing proportion of the U.S. labour force, from 26.2 per cent in 1973 to 22.1 per cent in 1980. Studies in Canada have likewise shown that manufacturing employment was only in relative decline during these years. Yet mills and factories did close, and towns and cities lost their industries. John Cumbler submitted that 'depressions do not manifest themselves only at moments of national economic collapse' such as in the 1930s, but 'also recur in scattered sites across the nation in regions, in industries, and in communities.'" * ^ _A_ _B_ Kaplan (2004), p. 160–165. "Entrepreneurial leadership became manifest through growth coalitions made up of builders, realtors, developers, the media, government actors such as mayors, and dominant corporations. For example, in St. Louis, Anheuser-Busch, Monsanto, and Ralston Purina played prominent roles. The leadership involved cooperation between public and private interests. The results were efforts at downtown revitalization; inner-city gentrification; the transformation of the CBD to advanced service employment; entetainment, museums, and cultural venues; the construction of sports stadiums and sport complexes; and waterfront development." * ^ James Xiaohe Zhang, "Rapid urbanization in China and its impact on the world economy"; 16th Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, "New Challenges for Global Trade in a Rapidly Changing World", Shanhai Institute of Foreign Trade, June 12–14, 2013. * ^ Ian Johnson, "China\'s Great Uprooting: Moving 250 Million Into Cities"; _New York Times_, 15 June 2013. * ^ Castells, M. (ed) (2004). _The network society: a cross-cultural perspective_. London: Edward Elgar. (ebook) * ^ Flew, T. (2008). _New media: an introduction_, 3rd edn, South Melbourne: Oxford University Press * ^ Harford, T. (2008) _The Logic of Life_. London: Little, Brown. * ^ Taylor Shelton, Matthew Zook, doi:10.1093/cjres/rsu026 . * ^ The Urbanization and Political Development of the World System:A comparative quantitative analysis. _History & Mathematics_ 2 (2006): 115-153. * ^ _A_ _B_ William H. Frey in Paddison (2001). * ^ Christopher Watson, "Trends in urbanisation", _Proceedings of the First International Conference on Urban Pests_, ed. K.B. Wildey and William H. Robinson, 1993. * ^ Annez, Patricia Clarke; Buckley, Robert M. " Urbanization and Growth: Setting the Context" (PDF). In Spence, Michael; Annez, Patricia Clarke; Buckley, Robert M. _ Urbanization and Growth_. ISBN 978-0-8213-7573-0 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Moholy-Nagy (1968), pp. 136–137.
Why do anonymous people—the poor, the underprivileged, the unconnected—frequently prefer life under miserable conditions in tenements to the healthy order and tranquility of small towns or the sanitary subdivisions of semirural developments? The imperial planners and architects knew the answer, which is as valid today as it was 2,000 years ago. Big cities were created as power images of a competitive society, conscious of its achievement potential. Those who came to live in them did so in order to participate and compete on any attainable level. Their aim was to share in public life, and they were willing to pay for this share with personal discomfort. 'Bread and games' was a cry for opportunity and entertainment still ranking foremost among urban objectives. * ^ _A_ _B_ Somini Sengupta, "U.N. Finds Most People Now Live in Cities"; _New York Times_, 10 July 2014. Referring to: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; _World Urbanization Prospects: 2014 Revision_; New York: United Nations, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Neil Brenner _International Journal of Urban and Regional Research_ 38(3), 2013; doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12115 . * ^ McQuillin (1937/1987), §1.55. * ^ "Patterns of Urban and Rural Population Growth", Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Studies No. 68; New York, United Nations, 1980; p. 15. "If the projections prove to be accurate, the next century will begin just after the world population achieves an urban majority; in 2000, the world is projected to be 51.3 per cent urban." * ^ Edouart Glissant (Editor-in-Chief), UNESCO "Courier" ("The Urban Explosion"), March 1985. * ^ World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision * ^ Mike Hanlon, "World Population Becomes More Urban Than Rural"; _New Atlas_, 28 May 2007. * ^ "United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, CD-ROM Edition". * ^ Paulo A. Paranagua, "Latin America struggles to cope with record urban growth" (archive), _The Guardian_, 11 September 2012. Referring to UN- Habitat , _The State of Latin American and Caribbean Cities 2012: Towards a new urban transition_; Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2012. * ^ Helen Massy-Beresford, "Where is the fastest growing city in the world?"; _The Guardian_, 18 November 2015. * ^ Mark Anderson & Achilleas Galatsidas, "Urban population boom poses massive challenges for Africa and Asia" _The Guardian_ (Development data: Datablog), 10 July 2014. * ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 15. "Global cities need to be distinguished from megacities, defined here as cities with more than 8 million people. Only New York and London qualified as megacities 50 years ago. By 1990, just over 10 years ago, 20 megacities existed, 15 of which were in less economically developed regions of the world. In 2000, the number of megacities had increased to 26, again all except 6 are located in the less developed world regions." * ^ Frauke Kraas in Kraas et al. (2014), p. 2. "While seven megacities (with more than five million inhabitants) existed in 1950 and 24 in 1990, by 2010 there were 55 and by 2025 there will be – according to estimations – 87 megacities (UN 2012; Fig. 1). "
* ^ Frauke Kraas in Kraas et al. (2014), pp. 2–3.
Above all, globalisation processes were and are the motors that drive these enormous changes and are also the driving forces, together with transformation and liberalisation policies, behind the economic developments of the last ca. 25 years (in China, especially the so-called socialism with Chinese characteristics that started under Deng Xiaoping in 1978/1979, in India essentially during the course of the economic reform policies of the so-called New Economic Policy as of 1991; Cartier 2001; Nissel 1999). Especially in megacities, these reforms led to enormous influx of foreign direct investments, to intensive industrialization processes through international relocation of production locations and depending upon the location, partially to considerable expansion of the services sector with increasing demand for office space as well as to a reorientation of national support policies – with a not to be mistaken influence of transnationally acting conglomerates but also considerable transfer payments from overseas communities. In turn, these processes are flanked and intensified through, at times, massive migration movements of national and international migrants into the megacities (Baur et al. 2006). * ^ Shipra Narang Suri in Kraas et al. (2014), p. 196. * ^ Stephen Graham _Progress in Human Geography_ 37(1), 2012; doi:1177/0309132512443147 . * ^ Eduardo F.J. de Mulder, Jacques Besner, in Kraas et al. (2014), pp. 26–29. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Karen Bakker, "Archipelagos and networks: urbanization and water privatization in the South"; _The Geographical Journal_ 169(4), December 2003; doi:10.1111/j.0016-7398.2003.00097.x . "The diversity of water supply management systems worldwide – which operate along a continuum between fully public and fully private – bear witness to repeated shifts back and forth between private and public ownership and management of water systems." * ^ Joan C. Williams, "The Invention of the Municipal Corporation: A Case Study in Legal Change"; _American University Law Review_ 34, 1985; pp. 369–438. * ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 146. "The figurehead of city leadership is, of course, the mayor. As 'first citizen', mayors are often associated with political parties, yet many of the most successful mayors are often those whoare able to speak 'for' their city. Rudy Giuliani, for example, while pursuing a neo-liberal political agenda, was often seen as being outside the mainstream of the national Republican party. Furthermore, mayors are often crucial in articulating the interests of their cities to external agents, be they national governments or major public and private investors." * ^ Penang Island was incorporated as a single municipality in 1976 and gained city status in 2015. See: Royce Tan, "Penang island gets city status", _The Star_, 18 December 2014. * ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.63. "The problem of achieving equitable balance between the two freedoms is infinitely greater in urban, metropolitan and megalopolitan situations than in sparsely settled districts and rural areas. / In the latter, sheer intervening space acts as a buffer between the privacy and well-being of one resident and the potential encroachments thereon by his neighbors in the form of noise, air or water pollution, absence of sanitation, or whatever. In a congested urban situation, the individual is powerless to protect himself from the "free" (i.e., inconsiderate or invasionary) acts of others without himself being guilty of a form of encroachment." * ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.08. * ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.33. * ^ Bryan D. Jones, Saadia R. Greenbeg, Clifford Kaufman, in Hahn in Hahn & Levine (1980). See: Hawkins v. Town of Shaw (1971). * ^ George Nilson, "Baltimore police under state control for good reason", _Baltimore Sun_ 28 February 2017. * ^ Robert Jay Dilger, Randolph R. Moffett, doi:10.2307/976688 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Kenneth Gwilliam, "Cities on the move – Ten years after", _Research in Transportation Economics_ 40, 2013; doi:10.1016/j.retrec.2012.06.032 . * ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §§1.65–1.66. * ^ David Walker, "The New System of Intergovernmental Relations: Fiscal Relief and More Governmental Intrusions"; in Hahn & Levine (1980). * ^ Bart Voorn, Marieke L. van Genugten, _Economic Geography_ 86(3), 2010; doi:10.1111/j.1944-8287.2010.01077.x . "TIF is an increasingly popular local redevelopment policy that allows municipalities to designate a 'blighted' area for redevelopment and use the expected increase in property (and occasionally sales) taxes there to pay for initial and ongoing redevelopment expenditures, such as land acquisition, demolition, construction, and project financing. Because developers require cash up-front, cities transform promises of future tax revenues into securities that far-flung buyers and sellers exchange through local markets." * ^ Rachel Weber, "Extracting Value from the City: Neoliberalism and Urban Redevelopment", _Antipode_, July 2002; doi:10.1111/1467-8330.00253 . * ^ Josh Pacewicz, "Tax increment financing, economic development professionals and the financialization of urban politics"; _Socio-Economic Review_ 11, 2013; doi:10.1093/ser/mws019 . "A city's credit rating not only influences its ability to sell bonds, but has become a general signal of fiscal health. Detroit's partial recovery in the early 1990s, for example, was reversed when Moody's downgraded the rating of the city's general obligation bonds, precipitating new rounds of capital flight (Hackworth, 2007). The need to maintain a high credit rating constrains municipal actors by making it difficult to finance discretionary projects in traditional ways." * ^ Gupta et al. (2015), pp. 4, 29. "We thereby understand urban governance as the multiple ways through which city governments, businesses and residents interact in managing their urban space and life, nested within the context of other government levels and actors who are managing their space, resulting in a variety of urban governance configurations (Peyroux et al. 2014)." * ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 142–143. * ^ Gupta, Verrest, and Jaffe, "Theorizing Governance", in Gupta et al. (2015), pp. 30–31. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gupta, Verrest, and Jaffe, "Theorizing Governance", in Gupta et al. (2015), pp. 31–33. "The concept of good governance itself was developed in the 1980s, primarily to guide donors in development aid (Doonbos 2001:93). It has been used both as a condition for aid and a development goal in its own right. Key terms in definitions of good governance include participation, accountability, transparency, equity, efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness, and rule of law (e.g. Ginther and de Waart 1995; UNDP 1997; Woods 1999; Weiss 2000). At the urban level, this normative model has been articulated through the idea of good urban governance, promoted by agencies such as UN Habitat. The Colombian city of Bogotá has sometimes been presented as a model city, given its rapid improvements in fiscal responsibility, provision of public services and infrastructure, public behavior, honesty of the administration, and civic pride." * ^ Shipra Narang Suri in Kraas et al. (2014), pp. 197–198. * ^ Alain Garnier, "La Plata: la visionnaire trahie"; _Architecture New York: George Braziller, 1968. * ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 131–140. * ^ Karl Marx and Frederick Engels , _Manifesto of the Communist Party _ (online), February 1848; translated from German to English by Samuel Moore. "But with the development of industry, the proletariat not only increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength grows, and it feels that strength more. The various interests and conditions of life within the ranks of the proletariat are more and more equalised, in proportion as machinery obliterates all distinctions of labour, and nearly everywhere reduces wages to the same low level."
Although studies of the so-called urban informal economy have shown myriad secret liaisons with outsourced multinational production systems, the larger fact is that hundreds of millions of new urbanites must further subdivide the peripheral economic niches of personal service, casual labor, street vending, rag picking, begging, and crime. This outcast proletariat—perhaps 1.5 billion people today, 2.5 billion by 2030—is the fastest-growing and most novel social class on the planet. By and large, the urban informal working class is not a labor reserve army in the nineteenth-century sense: a backlog of strikebreakers during booms; to be expelled during busts; then reabsorbed again in the next expansion. On the contrary, this is a mass of humanity structurally and biologically redundant to the global accumulation and the corporate matrix. It is ontologically both similar and dissimilar to the historical agency described in the _Communist Manifesto_. Like the traditional working classes, it has radical chains in the sense of having little vested interest in the reproduction of private property. But it is not a socialized collectivity of labor and it lacks significant power to disrupt or seize the means of production. It does possess, however, yet unmeasured powers of subverting urban order. * ^ Marshall (1989), pp. 5–6. * ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 160–164. "Indeed, the design of the buildings often revolves around the consumable fantasy experience, seen most markedly in the likes of Universal CityWalk, Disneyland and Las Vegas. Architecture critic Ada Louise Huxtable (1997) names architectural structures built specifically as entertainment spaces as ‘Architainment’. These places are, of course, places to make money, but they are also stages of performance for an interactive consumer. * ^ Leach (1993), pp. 173–176 and passim. * ^ "Knowledge Spillovers" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Kent E. Calder "SAIS Review of International Affairs" 29(1), Winter-Spring 2009; doi: 10.1353/sais.0.0036 . "Beneath state-to-state dealings, a flurry of activity occurs, with interpersonal networks forming policy communities involving embassies, think tanks, academic institutions, lobbying firms, politicians, congressional staff, research centers, NGOs, and intelligence agencies. This interaction at the level of 'technostructure'—heavily oriented toward information gathering and incremental policy modification—is too complex and voluminous to be monitored by top leadership, yet nevertheless often has important implications for policy." * ^ Borowiecki, Karol J. (2015). "Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music". _Papers in Regional Science_. 94 (3): 443–68. * ^ Saskia Sassen , "Global Cities and Survival Circuits"; in _Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy_ ed. Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Russell Hochschild ; New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2002. * ^ Latham et al. (2009) 84–85. * ^ Jane Zheng, "Toward a new concept of the 'cultural elite state': Cultural capital and the urban sculpture planning authority in elite coalition in Shanghai"; _Journal of Urban Affairs_ 39(4), 2017; doi:10.1080/07352166.2016.1255531 . * ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §§1.04–1.05. "Almost by definition, cities have always provided the setting for great events and have been the focal points for social change and human development. All great cultures have been city-born. World history is basically the history of city dwellers." * ^ Robert Redfield _ Economic Development and Cultural Change_ 3(1), October 1954. * ^ Magnusson (2011), p. 21. "These statistics probably underestimate the degree to which the world has been urbanized, since they obscure the fact that rural areas have become so much more urban as a result of modern transportation and communication. A farmer in Europe or California who checks the markets every morning on the computer, negotiates with product brokers in distant cities, buys food at a supermarket, watches television every night, and takes vacations half a continent away is not exactly living a traditional rural life. In most respects such a farmer is an urbanite living in the countryside, albeit an urbanite who has many good reasons for perceiving himself or herself as a rural person." * ^ Mumford (1961), p. 563–567. "Many of the original functions of the city, once natural monopolies, demanding the physical presence of all participants, have now been transposed into forms capable of swift transportation, mechanical manifolding, electronic transmission, worldwide distribution." * ^ Donald Theall, _The Virtual Marshall McLuhan_; McGill-Queen's University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-7735-2119-4 ; p. 11. Quoting Marshall McLuhan : "The CITY no longer exists, except as a cultural ghost The INSTANTANEOUS global coverage of radio-tv makes the city form meaningless, functionless." * ^ Cite error: The named reference Paddison2001p11 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Ashworth, Kavaratzis, in Kavaratzis, Warnaby, doi:10.1068/d21911 . * ^ Adriana Campelo, "Rethinking Sense of Place: Sense of One and Sense of Many"; in Kavaratzis, Warnaby, & Ashworth (2015). * ^ _A_ _B_ Greg Kerr & Jessica Oliver, "Rethinking Place Identities", in Kavaratzis, Warnaby, International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education _Bulletin_ 53, May 2008 (Feature: Feature: “Mega Sport Events in Developing Countries”). * ^ Kimberly S Schimmel, "Assessing the sociology of sport: On sport and the city"; _International Review for the Sociology for Sport_ 50(4-5), 2015; doi:10.1177/1012690214539484 .
All this media exposure, provided it is reasonably positive, influences many tourist decisions at the time of the Games. This tourism impact will focus on, but extend beyond, the city to the country and the wider global region. More importantly, there is also huge long term potential for both tourism and investment (Kasimati, 2003). No other city marketing opportunity achieves this global exposure. At the same time, provided it is carefully managed at the local level, it also gives a tremendous opportunity to heighten and mobilize the commitment of citizens to their own city. The competitive nature of sport and its unrivalled capacity to be enjoyed as a mass cultural activity gives it many advantages from the marketing point of view (S.V. Ward, 1998, pp.231–232). In a more subtle way it also becomes a metaphor for the notion of cities having to compete in a global marketplace, a way of reconciling citizens and local institutions to the wider economic realities of the world. * ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 127–128. * ^ Ashworth (1991). "In more recent years, planned networks of defended settlements as part of military strategies can be found in the pacification programmes of what has become the conventional wisdom of anti-insurgency operations. Connected networks of protected settlements are inserted as islands of government control into insurgent areas—either defensively to separate existing populations from insurgents or aggressively as a means of extending control over areas—as used by the British in South Africa (1899–1902) and Malaya (1950–3) and by the Americans in Cuba (1898) and Vietnam (1965–75). These were generally small settlements and intended as much for local security as offensive operations. / The planned settlement policy of the State of Israel, however, has been both more comprehensive and has longer-term objectives. These settlements provide a source of armed manpower, a defence in depth of a vulnerable frontier area and islands of cultural and political control in the midst of a potentially hostile population, thus continuing a tradition of the use of such settlements as part of similar policies in that area which is over 2,000 years old." * ^ See Brigadier General J. Franklin Bell 's telegraphic circular to all station commanders, 8 December 1901, in Robert D. Ramsey III, _A Masterpiece of Counterguerrilla Warfare: BG J. Franklin Bell in the Philippines, 1901–1902_, Long War Series, Occasion Paper 25; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press, US Army Combined Arms Center; pp. 45–46. "Commanding officers will also see that orders are at once given and distributed to all the inhabitants within the jurisdiction of towns over which they exercise supervision, informing them of the danger of remaining outside of these limits and that unless they move by December 25th from outlying barrios and districts with all their movable food supplies, including rice, palay, chickens, live stock, etc., to within the limits of the zone established at their own or nearest town, their property (found outside of said zone at said date) will become liable to confiscation or destruction." * ^ Maj. Eric Weyenberg, U.S. Army, _ Population Isolation in the Philippine War: A Case Study_; School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; January 2015. * ^ Ashworth (1991), p. 3. Citing L.C. Peltier and G.E. Pearcy, _Military Geography_ (1966). * ^ R. D. McLaurin _Diogenes_ 203, 2004; doi:1177/0392192104043648 . * ^ Burns H. Westou, "Nuclear Weapons Versus International Law: A Contextual Reassessment"; _McGill Law Journal_ 28, p. 577. "As noted above, nulcear weapons designed for countervalue or city-killing purposes tend to be of the strategic class, with known yields of deployed warheads averaging somewhere between two and three times and 1500 times the firepower of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki." * ^ Dallas Boyd, "Revealed Preference and the Minimum Requirements of Nuclear Deterrence"; _Strategic Studies Quarterly_, Spring 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Joel A. Tarr , "The Evolution of the Urban Infrastructure in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries"; in Hanson (1984). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Wellman & Spiller, “Introduction”, in Wellman & Spiller (2012). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kath Wellman in Wellman _Review of Australian Economics_ 9(2), 1996. * ^ Jean-Michel Guldmann, "Economies of Scale and Natural Monopoly in Urban Utilities: The Case of Natural Gas Distribution"; _Geographical Analysis_ 17(4), October 1985; doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1985.tb00852.x . * ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 70. * ^ Kath Wellman in Wellman & Spiller (2012), pp. 73–74. “The NCP established a legislative regime at Federal and State levels to facilitate third-party access to provision and operation of infrastructure facilities, including electricity and telecommunications networks, gas and water pipelines, railroad terminals and networks, airports, and ports. Following these reforms, few countries embarked on a larger scale initiative than Australia to privatize delivery and management of public infrastructure at all levels of government.”
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 75.
By the 1960s, however, this 'integrated ideal' was being challenged, public infrastructure entering into crisis. There is now a new orthodoxy in many branches of urban planning: 'The logic is now for planners to fight for the best possible networked infrastructures for their specialized district, in partnership with (often privatised and internationalised network) operators, rather than seeking to orchestrate how networks roll out through the city as a whole' (Graham and Marvin, 2001: 113). In the context of development theory, these 'secessionary' infrastructures physically by-pass sectors of cities unable to afford the necessary cabling, pipe-laying, or streetscaping that underpins service provision. Cities such as Manila, Lagos or Mumbai are thus increasingly characterized by a two-speed mode of urbanisation. * ^ "public, adj. and n.", _Oxford English Dictionary_, September 2007. * ^ Emanuele Lobina, David Hall, Public Services International Research Unit , University of Greenwich. * ^ Michael Goldman, "How \' Water for All!\' policy became hegemonic: The power of the World Bank and its transnational policy networks"; _Geoforum_ 38(5), September 2007; doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2005.10.008 . * ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 169–170. * ^ Grava (2003), pp. 1–2. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Tom Hart, " Transport and the City"; in Paddison (2001). * ^ Grava (2003), pp. 15–18. * ^ Grava (2003), * ^ Smethurst pp. 67–71. * ^ Smethurst pp. 105–71. * ^ _A_ _B_ J. Allen Whitt _Urban Affairs Quarterly_ 21(1), September 1985. * ^ _A_ _B_ Iain Borden, "Automobile Interstices: Driving and the In-Between Spaces of the City"; in Brighenti (2013). * ^ Moshe Safdie with Wendy Kohn, _The City After the Automobile_; BasicBooks (Harper Collins), 1997; ISBN 0-465-09836-3 ; pp. 3–6. * ^ Grava (2003), pp. 128–132; 152–157. * ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 30–32. * ^ Grava (2003), 301–305. "There are a great many places where are the only public service mode offered; to the best of the author's knowledge, no city that has transit operates without a bus component. Leaving aside private cars, all indicators—passengers carried, vehicle kilometers accumulated, size of fleet, accidents recorded, pollution caused, workers employed, or whatever else—show the dominance of buses among all transit modes, in this country as well as anywhere else around the world. At the global scale, there are probably 8000 to 10,000 communities and cities that provide organized bus transit. The larger places have other modes as well, but the bulk of these cities offers buses as their sole public means of mobility." * ^ Herbert S. Levinson, Samuel Zimmerman, Jennifer Clinger, _Journal of Public Transportation 5(2), 2002._ * ^ Yvonne Rydin et al., "Shaping cities for health: complexity and the planning of urban environments in the 21st century"; _The Lancet_ 379(9831), 2012; PMID 3428861 . * ^ Anthony Walmsley, "Greenways: multiplying and diversifying in the 21st century"; _Landscape and Urban Planning_ 76, 2006; doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.09.036 . * ^ McQuillin (1937/1987), §1.74. "It cannot be too strongly emphasized that no city begins to be well-planned until it has solved its housing problem. The problems of living and working are of primary importance. These include sanitation, sufficient sewers, clean, well lighted streets, rehabilitation of slum areas, and health protection through provision for pure water and wholesome food. * ^ Ray Forrest in Paddison (2001). * ^ Franz Rebele, "Urban Ecology and Special Features of Urban Ecosystems", _Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters_ 4(6), November 1994. * ^ Herbert Sukopp, "On the Early History of Urban Ecology in Europe"; in Marzluff et al. (2008). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ S.T.A. Pickett, M.L. Cadenasso, J.M. Grove, C.H. Nilon, R.V. Pouyat, W.C. Zipperer, in Marzluff et al. (2008). * ^ Ingo Kowarik, "On the Role of Alien Species in Urban Flora and Vegetation"; in Marzluff et al. (2008). * ^ Robert Campagni, Roberta Capello, in Paddison (2001). * ^ "National Geographic Magazine; Special report 2008: Changing Climate: Village Green". Michelle Nijhuis. 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2009-02-07. * ^ "Indoor Air Quality — American Lung Association of Alaska". Aklung.org. Retrieved 2009-02-07. * ^ "Newsminer.com; EPA to put Fairbanks on air pollution problem list". Newsminer.com. 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2009-02-07. * ^ Peter Adey, “Coming up for Air: Comfort, Conflict and the Air of the Megacity”; in Brighenti (2013), p. 103. * ^ Anthony Brazel, Nancy Selover, Russel Vose, _Climate Research_ 15, 2000. * ^ Sharon L. Harlan, Anthony J. Brazel, G. Darrel Jenerette, Nancy S. Jones, Larissa Larsen, Lela Prashad, in Robert C. Wilkinson Oxford: JAI Press (Elsevier); ISBN 978-0-7623-1417-1 . * ^ Abrahamson (2004), p. 2–4. "The linkages among cities cutting across nations became a global network. It is important to note here that the key nodes in the international system are (global) cities, not nations. Once the linkages among cities became a global network, nations became dependent upon their major cities for connections to the rest of the world." * ^ _A_ _B_ Herrschel Sassen 1998). Decentralization processes have increased city-level capacities of city authorities to develop and implement local social and developmental policies. Cities as homes of the rich, and of powerful businesses, banks, stock markets, UN agencies and NGOs, are the location from which global to local decision-making occurs (e.g. New York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Hong Kong, São Paulo)." * ^ Herrschel with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred B. (2015). _Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of Sustainability_. London: Routledge. pp. 28, 30. "Against those writers who, by emphasizing the importance of financial exchange systems, distinguish a few special cities as 'global cities'—commonly London, Paris, New York and Tokyo—we recognize the uneven global dimensions of all the cities that we study. Los Angeles, the home of Hollywood, is a globalizing city, though perhaps more significantly in cultural than economic terms. And so is Dili globalizing, the small and 'insignificant' capital of Timor Leste—except this time it is predominantly in political terms..." * ^ Kaplan (2004), 99–106. * ^ Kaplan (2004), pp. 91–95. "The United States is also dominant in providing high-quality, global engineering-design services, accounting for approximately 50 percent of the world's total exports. The disproportionate presence of these U.S.-headquartered firms is attributable to the U.S. role in overseas automobile production, the electronics and petroleum industries, and various kinds of construction, including work on the country's numerous overseas air and navy military bases." * ^ Kaplan (2004), p. 90–92. * ^ Michael Samers, "Immigration and the Global City Hypothesis: Towards an Alternative Research Agenda"; _International Journal of Urban and Regional Research_ 26(2), June 2002. "And not withstanding some major world cities that do not have comparatively high levels of immigration, like Tokyo, it may in fact be the presence of such large-scale immigrant economic 'communities' (with their attendant global financial remittances and their ability to incubate small business growth, rather than simply their complementarity to producer services employment) which partially distinguishes mega-cities from other more nationally oriented urban centres." * ^ Jane Willis, Kavita Datta, Yara Evans, Joanna Herbert, Jon May, London: Pluto Press, 2010; ISBN 978 0 7453 2799 0 ; p. 29: "These apparently rather different takes on London's 'global city' status are of course not so far removed from one another as they may first appear. Holding them together is the figure of the migrant worker. The reliance of London's financial institutions and business services industries on the continuing flow of highly skilled labour from overseas is now well known (Beaverstock and Smith 1996). Less well known is the extent to which London's economy as a whole is now dependent upon the labour power of low-paid workers from across the world." * ^ Mattthew R. Sanderson, Ben Derudder, Michael Timberlake, _International Journal of Comparative Sociology_ 56(3–4), 2015; doi:10.1177/0020715215604350 . * ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 49–50. * ^ Charlie Jeffery, "Sub-National Authorities and European Integration: Moving Beyond the Nation-State?" Presented at the Fifth Biennial International Conference of the European Community Studies Association, 29 May–1 June 1997, Seattle, USA. * ^ Jing Pan, "The Role of Local Government in Shaping and Influencing International Policy Frameworks", PhD thesis accepted at De Montfort University, April 2014. * ^ Herrschel _Regional and Federal Studies 12(3), Autumn 2002._ * ^ Carola Hein, "Cities (and regions) within a city: subnational representations and the creation of European imaginaries in Brussels"; _International Journal of the Urban Sciences_ 19(1), 2015. See also websites of individual city embassies cited therein, including Hanse Office ( Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein) and City of London "City Office in Brussels"; and CoR's in Brussels. * ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 45–47. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sofie Bouteligier, "Inequality in new global governance arrangements: the North–South divide in transnational municipal networks"; _Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research_ 26(3), 2013; doi:10.1080/13511610.2013.771890 . "City networks are not a new phenomenon, but it was the 1990s that saw an explosion of such initiatives, especially in the environmental domain. This is mostly ascribed to (chapter 28 of) Agenda 21, which recognizes the role of local authorities in the promotion of sustainable development and stimulates exchange and cooperation between them." * ^ _A_ _B_ Herrschel & Newman (2017), p. 82. * ^ _A_ _B_ Nancy Duxbury Chapter 21 in _The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning and Culture_; London: Ashgate, 2013. * ^ Now the Global Covenant of Mayors ; see: "Global Covenant of Mayors - Compact of Mayors". Retrieved 13 October 2016. * ^ "The Vancouver Action Plan"; Approved at Habitat: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Vancouver, Canada; 31 May to 11 June 1976. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Peter R. Walker, "Human Settlements and Urban Life: A United Nations Perspective"; _Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless_ 14, 2005; doi:10.1179/105307805807066329 . * ^ David Satterthwaite, "Editorial: A new urban agenda?"; _Environment doi:10.1177/0956247816637501 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Susan Parnell, "Defining a Global Urban Development Agenda"; _World Development_ 78, 2015; doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.028 ; pp. 531–532: "Garnered by its interest in the urban poor the Bank, along with other international donors, became an active and influential participant in the Habitat deliberations, confirming both Habitat I and Habitat II's focus on 'development in cities' instead of the role of 'cities in development'." * ^ _A_ _B_ Vanessa Watson, "Locating planning in the New Urban Agenda of the urban sustainable development goal"; _ Planning Theory_ 15(4), 2016; doi:10.1177/1473095216660786 . * ^ _New Urban Agenda_, Habitat III Secretariat, 2017; A/RES/71/256*; ISBN 978-92-1-132731-1 ; p. 15. * ^ Akin L. Mabogunje , "A New Paradigm for Urban Development"; _Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1991_. "Irrespective of the economic outcome, the regime of structural adjustment being adopted in most developing countries today is likely to spur urbanization. If structural adjustment actually succeeds in turning around economic performance, the enhanced gross domestic product is bound to attract more migrants to the cities; if it fails, the deepening misery—especially in the rural areas—is certain to push more migrants to the city." * ^ John Briggs and Ian E. A. Yeboah, " Structural adjustment and the contemporary sub-Saharan African city"; _Area_ 33(1), 2001. * ^ Claire Wanjiru Ngare, "Supporting Learning Cities: A Case Study of the Cities Alliance"; master's thesis accepted at the University of Ottawa, April 2012. * ^ Alexandre Apsan Frediani, "Amartya Sen, the World Bank, and the Redress of Urban Poverty: A Brazilian Case Study"; in _Journal of Human Development_ 8(1), March 2007. * ^ Ellul (1970). * ^ Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, " City Imaginaries", in Bridge & Watson, eds. (2000). * ^ Herrschel _A Dictionary of Symbols_, Second Edition, translated from Spanish to English by Jack Read; New York: Philosophical Library, 1971; pp. 48–49 (online). * ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 115. * ^ Leach (1993), p. 345. "The German film director Fritz Lang was inspired to 'make a film' about 'the sensations' he felt when he first saw Times Square in 1923; a place 'lit as if in full daylight by neon lights and topping them oversized luminous advertisements moving, turning, flashing on and off . . . something completely new and nearly fairly-tale-like for a European . . . a luxurious cloth hung from a dark sky to dazzle, distract, and hypnotize.' The film Lang made turned out to be _The Metropolis_, an unremittingly dark vision of a modern industrial city. * ^ Curtis (2016), p. vii–x, 1. * ^ Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis , _Ecumenopolis: Tomorrow\'s City_; Brittanica Book of the Year, 1968. Chapter V: Ecumenopolis, the Real City of Man. "Ecumenopolis, which mankind will have built 150 years from now, can be the real city of man because, for the first time in history, man will have one city rather than many cities belonging to different national, racial, religious, or local groups, each ready to protect its own members but also ready to fight those from other cities, large and small, interconnected into a system of cities. Ecumenopolis, the unique city of man, will form a continuous, differentiated, but also unified texture consisting of many cells, the human communities. "
* Abrahamson, Mark (2004). _Global Cities_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514204-7 * Ashworth, G.J. _War and the City_. London & New York: Routledge, 1991. ISBN 0-203-40963-9 . * Bairoch, Paul (1988). _Cities and Economic Development: From the Dawn of History to the Present_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press . ISBN 0-226-03465-8 . * Bridge, Gary, and Sophie Watson, eds. (2000). _A Companion to the City_. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000/2003. ISBN 0-631-21052-0 * Brighenti, Andrea Mubi, ed. (2013). _Urban Interstices: The Aesthetics and the Politics of the In-between._ Farnham: Ashgate Publishing . ISBN 9781472410023 . * Carter, Harold (1995). _The Study of Urban Geography_. Fourth edition. London: Arnold. ISBN 0 7131 65898 * Curtis, Simon (2016). _Global Cities and Global Order_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-874401-6 * Ellul, Jacques (1970). _ The Meaning of the City _. Translated by Dennis Pardee. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1970. 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New York: Random House Inc. * Grava, Sigurd (2003). _Urban Transportation Systems: Choices for Communities_. McGraw Hill, e-book. ISBN 9780071476799 * Kaplan, David H.; James O. Wheeler; Steven R. Holloway; & Thomas W. Hodler, cartographer (2004). _Urban Geography_. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-35998-X * Kavaratzis, Mihalis, Gary Warnaby, & Gregory J. Ashworth, eds. (2015). _Rethinking Place Branding: Comprehensive Brand Development for Cities and Regions_. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-12424-7 . * Kraas, Frauke, Surinder Aggarwal, Martin Coy, & Günter Mertins, eds. (2014). _Megacities: Our Global Urban Future_. United Nations "International Year of Planet Earth" book series. Springer. ISBN 978-90-481-3417-5 . * Latham, Alan, Derek McCormack, Kim McNamara, & Donald McNeil (2009). _Key Concepts in Urban Geography_. London: SAGE. ISBN 978 1 4129 3041 3 . * Leach, William (1993). _Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture_. New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1994. ISBN 0-679-75411-3 . * Levy, John M. (2017). _Contemporary Urban Planning_. 11th Edition. New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis). * Magnusson, Warren. _Politics of Urbanism: Seeing like a city_. London & New York: Routledge, 2011. ISBN 978-0-203-80889-4 . * Marshall, John U. (1989). _The Structure of Urban Systems_. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802067357 . * Marzluff, John M., Eric Schulenberger, Wilfried Endlicher, Marina Alberti, Gordon Bradley, Clre Ryan, Craig ZumBrunne, & Ute Simon (2008). _Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature_. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-0-387-73412-5 . * McQuillan, Eugene (1937/1987). _The Law of Municipal Corporations: Third Edition._ 1987 revised volume by Charles R. P. Keating, Esq. Wilmette, Illinois: Callaghan & Company. * Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl (1968). _Matrix of Man: An Illustrated History of Urban Environment._ New York: Frederick A Praeger. ISBN 9781315619408 * Mumford, Lewis (1961). _The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects _. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. * O'Flaherty, Brendan (2005). _ City Economics_. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press . ISBN 0-674-01918-0 . * Pacione, Michael (2001). _The City: Critical Concepts in The Social Sciences_. New York: Routledge . ISBN 0-415-25270-9 . * Paddison, Ronan, ed. (2001). _Handbook of Urban Studies_. London; Thousand Oaks, California; and New Delhi: SAGE Publications. ISBN 0 8039 7695 X . * Rybczynski, W. , _ City Life: Urban Expectations in a New World_, (1995) * Smith, Michael E. (2002) _The Earliest Cities. In Urban Life: Readings in Urban Anthropology, edited by George Gmelch and Walter Zenner_, pp. 3–19. 4th ed. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL. * Southall, Aidan (1998). _The City in Time and Space_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 46211 8 * Wellman, Kath & Marcus Spiller, eds. (2012). _Urban Infrastructure: Finance and Management_. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-470-67218-1 .
* Berger, Alan S., _The City: Urban Communities and Their Problems_, Dubuque, Iowa : William C. Brown, 1978. * Chandler, T. _Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census_. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press , 1987. * Geddes, Patrick , _ City Development_ (1904) * Glaeser, Edward (2011), _Triumph of the City: How Our Best Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier_, New York: Penguin Press, ISBN 978-1-59420-277-3 * Kemp, Roger L. _Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity_, McFarland and Company, Inc., Publisher, Jefferson, North Carolina, USA, and London, England, UK, 2007. (ISBN 978-0-7864-3151-9 ). * Kemp, Roger L. _How American Governments Work: A Handbook of City, County, Regional, State, and Federal Operations_, McFarland and Company, Inc., Publisher, Jefferson, North Carolina, USA, and London, England, UK. (ISBN 978-0-7864-3152-6 ). * Kemp, Roger L. " City and Gown Relations: A Handbook of Best Practices," McFarland and Company, Inc., Publisher, Jefferson, North Carolina, USA, and London, England, UK, (2013). (ISBN 978-0-7864-6399-2 ). * Monti, Daniel J., Jr., _The American City: A Social and Cultural History_. Oxford, England and Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. 391 pp. ISBN 978-1-55786-918-0 . * Reader, John (2005) Cities. Vintage, New York. * Robson, W.A., and Regan, D.E., ed., _Great Cities of the World_, (3d ed., 2 vol., 1972) * Smethurst, Paul (2015). _The Bicycle – Towards a Global History_. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-49951-6 . * Thernstrom, S., and Sennett, R., ed., _Nineteenth-Century Cities_ (1969) * Toynbee, Arnold J. (ed), _Cities of Destiny_, New York: McGraw-Hill , 1967. Pan historical/geographical essays, many images. Starts with "Athens", ends with "The Coming World City-Ecumenopolis". * Weber, Max , _The City _, 1921. (tr. 1958)
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