A city is a large human settlement. Cities generally have
extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities,
land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction
between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes
benefiting different parties in the process.
Historically, city-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity
overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid
urbanization, roughly half of the world population now lives in
cities, which has had profound consequences for global
sustainability. Present-day cities usually form the core of larger
metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters
traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and
edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all
cities are in different degree also connected globally beyond these
The most populated city proper is Shanghai while the most populous
metropolitan areas are the Greater
Tokyo Area, the
Shanghai area, and
Jabodetabek (Jakarta). The cities of Faiyum, Damascus, and
Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual
2.3 Public space
2.4 Internal structure
2.5 Urban areas
3.1 Ancient times
3.2 Middle Ages
3.3 Early modern
3.4 Industrial age
3.5 Post-industrial age
5.1 Municipal services
5.4 Urban planning
6.1 Social structure
6.3 Culture and communications
World city system
9.1 Global city
9.2 Transnational activity
9.3 Global governance
9.4 United Nations System
10 Representation in culture
11 See also
14 External links
Palitana represents the city's symbolic function in the extreme,
devoted as it is to Jain temples.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its relatively
great size, but also by its functions and its special symbolic status,
which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can also refer
either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the
collection of people who dwell there, and can be used in a general
sense to mean urban rather than rural territory.
A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density,
number of dwellings, economic function, and infrastructure, are used
in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common
population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000
people, with most U.S. states using a minimum between 1,500 and 5000
inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such
minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded on local
criteria. According to the "functional definition" a city is not
distinguished by size alone, but also by the role it plays within a
larger political context. Cities serve as administrative, commercial,
religious, and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding
areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet
any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top
City, Pennsylvania (pop 452) and
City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet.
The presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the
definition. A typical city has professional administrators,
regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or
means to trade for them) to feed the government workers. (This
arrangement contrasts with the more typically horizontal relationships
in a tribe or village accomplishing common goals through informal
agreements between neighbors, or through leadership of a chief.) The
governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work
projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership,
agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of
these. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations.
The word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from
the Latin root civitas, originally meaning citizenship or community
member and eventually coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in
a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was closely linked with
the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words
such as metropolis.
Hillside housing and graveyard in Kabul.
Panoramic view of Tirana, Albania from
Mount Dajt in 2004.
Downtown Pittsburgh sits at the confluence of the Monongahela and
Allegheny rivers, which become the Ohio.
Kinshasa ends and fields begin.
L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C., inspired by the design of
Versailles, combines a utilitarian grid pattern with diagonal avenues
and a symbolic focus on monumental architecture.
This aerial view of the
Gush Dan metropolitan area in Israel shows the
geometrically planned city of
Tel Aviv proper (upper left) as well
Givatayim to the east and some of
Bat Yam to the south. Tel Aviv's
population is 433,000; the total population of its metropolitan area
Urban geography deals both with cities in their larger context and
with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural,
technological, economic, and military contexts. Access to water has
long been a major factor in city placement and growth, and despite
exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth
century, through the present most of the world's urban population
lives near the coast or on a river.
Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must
develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them.
Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in
long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside
which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region
influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the
creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations.
The vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings
with special economic, political, and religious significance.
Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos or if
fortified as a citadel. These spaces historically reflect and
amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of
influence. Today cities have a city center or downtown, sometimes
coincident with a central business district.
Cities typically have public spaces where anyone can go. These include
privately owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public
land such as public domain and the commons.
Western philosophy since
the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as
the substrate of the symbolic public sphere.
Public art adorns
(or disfigures) public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within
cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity
of typical built environments.
Urban structure generally follows one or more basic patterns:
geomorphic, radial, concentric, rectilinear, and curvilinear. Physical
environment generally constrains the form in which a city is built. If
located on a mountainside, it may rely on terraces and winding roads.
It may be adapted to its means of subsistence (e.g. agriculture or
fishing). And it may be set up for optimal defense given the
surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphic" features, cities
can develop internal patterns, due to natural growth or to city
In a radial structure, main roads converge on a central point. This
form could evolve from successive growth over a long time, with
concentric traces of town walls and citadels marking older city
boundaries. In more recent history, such forms were supplemented by
ring roads moving traffic around the outskirts of a town. Dutch cities
Haarlem are structured as a central square
surrounded by concentric canals marking every expansion. In cities
such as and also Moscow, this pattern is still clearly visible.
A system of rectilinear city streets and land plots, known as the grid
plan, has been used for millennia in Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation built Mohenjo-Daro,
Harappa and other
cities on a grid pattern, using ancient principles described by
Kautilya, and aligned with the compass points. The
ancient Greek city of
Priene exemplifies a grid plan with specialized
districts used across the Hellenistic Mediterranean.
Urban-type settlement extends far beyond the traditional boundaries of
the city proper in a form of development sometimes described
critically as urban sprawl. Decentralization and dispersal of city
functions (commercial, industrial, residential, cultural, political)
has transformed the very meaning of the term and has challenged
geographers seeking to classify territories according to an
Metropolitan areas include suburbs and exurbs organized around the
needs of commuters, and sometimes edge cities characterized by a
degree of economic and political independence. (In the US these are
grouped into metropolitan statistical areas for purposes of demography
and marketing.) Some cities are now part of a continuous urban
landscape called urban agglomeration, conurbation, or megalopolis
(exemplified by the BosWash corridor of the Northeastern United
Main article: History of the city
Further information: Urban history, Historical urban community sizes,
List of largest cities
List of largest cities throughout history
An arch from the ancient Sumerian city Ur, which flourished in the
third millennium BC, can be seen at present-day Tell el-Mukayyar in
Mohenjo-daro, a city of the Indus Valley Civilization, which was
rebuilt six or more times, using bricks of standard size, and adhering
to the same grid layout—also in the third millennium BC.
This aerial view of what was once downtown
Teotihuacan shows the
Pyramid of the Sun, Pyramid of the Moon, and the processional avenue
serving as the spine of the city's street system.
Cities, characterized by population density, symbolic function, and
urban planning, have existed for thousands of years. In the
conventional view, civilization and the city both followed from the
development of agriculture, which enabled production of surplus food,
and thus a social division of labour (with concomitant social
stratification) and trade. Early cities often featured
granaries, sometimes within a temple. A minority viewpoint
considers that cities may have arisen without agriculture, due to
alternate means of subsistence (fishing), to use as communal
seasonal shelters, to their value as bases for defensive and
offensive military organization, or to their inherent economic
function. Cities played a crucial role in the
establishment of political power over an area, and ancient leaders
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great founded and created them with zeal.
Further information: Cities of the Ancient Near East, Polis,
City-state, and Late Antiquity § Cities
Jericho and Çatalhöyük, dated to the eighth millennium BC, are
among the earliest proto-cities known to archaeologists.
In the fourth and third millennium BC, complex civilizations
flourished in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, India, China, and
Egypt. Excavations in these areas have found the ruins of cities
geared variously towards trade, politics, or religion. Some had large,
dense populations, but others carried out urban activities in the
realms of politics or religion without having large associated
populations. Among the early Old World cities,
Mohenjo-daro of the
Civilization in present-day Pakistan, existing from about
2600 BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50,000 or more
and a sophisticated sanitation system. China's planned cities were
constructed according to sacred principles to act as celestial
microcosms. The Ancient Egyptian cities known physically by
archaeologists are not extensive. They include (known by their
Arab names) El Lahun, a workers' town associated with the pyramid of
Senusret II, and the religious city
Amarna built by
abandoned. These sites appear planned in a highly regimented and
stratified fashion, with a minimalistic grid of rooms for the workers
and increasingly more elaborate housing available for higher
In Mesopotamia, the civilization of Sumer, followed by
Babylon, gave rise to numerous cities, governed by kings and fostering
multiple languages written in cuneiform. The Phoenician trading
empire, flourishing around the turn of the first millennium BC,
encompassed numerous cities extending from Tyre, Cydon, and
Carthage and Cádiz.
In the following centuries, independent city-states of Greece
developed the polis, an association of male landowning citizens who
collectively constituted the city. The agora, meaning "gathering
place" or "assembly", was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual
and political life of the polis. Rome's rise to power brought its
population to one million. Under the authority of its empire, Rome
transformed and founded many cities (coloniae), and with them brought
its principles of urban architecture, design, and society.
In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in the Andes
and Mesoamerica. In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in
the Norte Chico civilization, Chavin and Moche cultures, followed by
major cities in the Huari,
Inca cultures. The Norte Chico
civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what
is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. It is the
oldest known civilization in the Americas, flourishing between the
30th century BC and the 18th century BC.
Mesoamerica saw the rise
of early urbanism in several cultural regions, beginning with the
Olmec and spreading to the Preclassic Maya, the Zapotec of Oaxaca, and
Teotihuacan in central Mexico. Later cultures such as the
on these earlier urban traditions.
Jenné-Jeno, located in present-day Mali and dating to the third
century BC, lacked monumental architecture and a distinctive elite
social class—but nevertheless had specialized production and
relations with a hinterland. Pre-
Arabic trade contacts probably
Jenné-Jeno and North Africa. Other early urban
centers in sub-Saharan Africa, dated to around 500 AD, include
Awdaghust, Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital of Ghana, and Maranda a
center located on a trade route between
Egypt and Gao.
In the first millennium AD,
Angkor in the
Khmer Empire grew into one
of the most extensive cities in the world and may have
supported up to one million people.
Ming dynasty of
China oversaw the creation of the Forbidden City
and the expansion of
Beijing to become the largest city in the world.
This map of Haarlem, the Netherlands, created around 1550, shows the
city completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive canal, with
its square shape inspired by Jerusalem.
In the remnants of the Roman Empire, cities of late antiquity gained
independence but soon lost population and importance. The locus of
power in the West shifted to
Constantinople and to the ascendant
Islamic civilization with its major cities Baghdad, Cairo, and
Córdoba. From the 9th through the end of the 12th century,
Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the largest and
wealthiest city in Europe, with a population approaching 1
Ottoman Empire gradually gained control over many
cities in the Mediterranean area, including
Constantinople in 1453.
By the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, some cities become
powerful states, taking surrounding areas under their control or
establishing extensive maritime empires. In Italy medieval communes
developed into city-states including the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice and the
Republic of Genoa. In Northern Europe, cities including
Bruges formed the
Hanseatic League for collective defense and
commerce. Their power was later challenged and eclipsed by the Dutch
commercial cities of Ghent, Ypres, and Amsterdam. Similar
phenomena existed elsewhere, as in the case of Sakai, which enjoyed a
considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan.
In the West, nation-states became the dominant unit of political
organization following the
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia in the seventeenth
century. Western Europe's larger capitals (
London and Paris)
benefited from the growth of commerce following the emergence of an
Atlantic trade. However, most towns remained small.
During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city
concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the
newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws regarding
administration, finances and urbanism.
The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to
massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe
and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers
of migrants from rural communities into urban areas.
19th-century London as capital of the world, crowded and thick with
its own variety of smog.
England led the way as
London became the capital of a world empire and
cities across the country grew in locations strategic for
manufacturing. In the United States from 1860 to 1910, the
introduction of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large
manufacturing centers began to emerge, fueling migration from rural to
Industrialized cities became deadly places to live, due to health
problems resulting from overcrowding, occupational hazards of
industry, contaminated water and air, poor sanitation, and
communicable diseases such as typhoid and cholera.
Factories and slums
emerged as regular features of the urban landscape.
In the second half of the twentieth century, deindustrialization (or
"economic restructuring") in the West led to poverty, homelessness,
and urban decay in formerly prosperous cities. America's "Steel Belt"
became a "Rust Belt" and cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Gary,
Indiana began to shrink, contrary to the global trend of massive urban
expansion. Such cities have shifted with varying success into the
service economy and public-private partnerships, with concomitant
gentrification, uneven revitalization efforts, and selective cultural
development. Under the
Great Leap Forward
Great Leap Forward and subsequent five-year
plans continuing today, the People's Republic of
China has undergone
concomitant urbanization and industrialization and to become the
world's leading manufacturer.
Amidst these economic changes, high technology and instantaneous
telecommunication enable select cities to become centers of the
knowledge economy. A new smart city paradigm, supported by
institutions such as the
RAND Corporation and IBM, is bringing
computerized surveillance, data analysis, and governance to bear on
cities and city-dwellers. Some companies are building brand new
masterplanned cities from scratch on greenfield sites.
Main article: Urbanization
Clothes hang neatly and visibly in these
Jakarta dwellings on the
water near a dump.
Urbanization is the process of migration from rural into urban areas,
driven by various political, economic, and cultural factors. Until the
18th century, an equilibrium existed between the rural agricultural
population and towns featuring markets and small-scale
manufacturing. With the agricultural and industrial
revolutions urban population began its unprecedented growth, both
through migration and through demographic expansion. In
proportion of the population living in cities jumped from 17% in 1801
to 72% in 1891. In 1900, 15% of the world population lived in
cities. The cultural appeal of cities also plays a role in
Urbanization rapidly spread across the Europe and the Americas and
since the 1950s has taken hold in
Asia and Africa as well. The
Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Affairs, reported in 2014 that for the first time more than
half of the world population lives in cities.[a]
Graph showing urbanization from 1950 projected to 2050.
Latin America is the most urban continent, with four fifths of its
population living in cities, including one fifth of the population
said to live in shantytowns (favelas, poblaciones callampas, etc.).
 Batam, Indonesia, Mogadishu, Somalia, Xiamen,
China and Niamey,
Niger, are considered among the world's fastest-growing cities, with
annual growth rates of 5–8%. In general, the more developed
countries of the "Global North" remain more urbanized than the less
developed countries of the "Global South"—but the difference
continues to shrink because urbanization is happening faster in the
Asia is home to by far the greatest absolute number of
city-dwellers: over two billion and counting. The UN predicts an
additional 2.5 billion citydwellers (and 300 million fewer
countrydwellers) worldwide by 2050, with 90% of urban population
expansion occurring in
Asia and Africa.
Megacities, cities with population in the multi-millions, have
proliferated into the dozens, arising especially in Asia, Africa, and
Latin America. Economic globalization fuels the growth of
these cities, as new torrents of foreign capital arrange for rapid
industrialization, as well as relocation of major businesses from
Europe and North America, attracting immigrants from near and
far. A deep gulf divides rich and poor in these cities, with
usually contain a super-wealthy elite living in gated communities and
large masses of people living in substandard housing with inadequate
infrastructure and otherwise poor conditions.
Cities around the world have expanded physically as they grow in
population, with increases in their surface extent, with the creation
of high-rise buildings for residential and commercial use, and with
Urbanization can create rapid demand for water resources management,
as formerly good sources of freshwater become overused and polluted,
and the volume of sewage begins to exceed manageable levels.
Further information: Local government
The city council of
Tehran meets in September 2015.
Local government of cities takes different forms including prominently
the municipality (especially in England, in the United States, in
India, and in other British colonies; legally, the municipal
corporation; municipio in Spain and in Portugal, and, along with
municipalidad, in most former parts of the Spanish and Portuguese
empires) and the commune (in France and in Chile; or comune in Italy).
The chief official of the city has the title of mayor. Whatever their
true degree of political authority, the mayor typically acts as the
figurehead or personification of their city.
The city hall in George Town, Malaysia, today serves as the seat of
City Council of Penang Island.
City governments have authority to make laws governing activity within
cities, while its jurisdiction is generally considered subordinate (in
ascending order) to state/provincial, national, and perhaps
international law. This hierarchy of law is not enforced rigidly in
practice—for example in conflicts between municipal regulations and
national principles such as constitutional rights and property
rights. Legal conflicts and issues arise more frequently in cities
than elsewhere due to the bare fact of their greater density.
Modern city governments thoroughly regulate everyday life in many
dimensions, including public and personal health, transport, burial,
resource use and extraction, recreation, and the nature and use of
buildings. Technologies, techniques, and laws governing these
areas—developed in cities—have become ubiquitous in many
areas. Municipal officials may be appointed from a higher level
of government or elected locally.
Dublin Fire Brigade
Dublin Fire Brigade pictured in April 1970, quenching a severe
fire at a hardware store.
Cities typically provide municipal services such as education, through
school systems; policing, through police departments; and
firefighting, through fire departments; as well as the city's basic
infrastructure. These are provided more or less routinely, in a more
or less equal fashion. Responsibility for administration
usually falls on the city government, though some services may be
operated by a higher level of government, while others may be
privately run. Armies may assume responsibility for policing
cities in states of domestic turmoil such as America's King
assassination riots of 1968.
The traditional basis for municipal finance is local property tax
levied on real estate within the city.
Local government can also
collect revenue for services, or by leasing land that it owns.
However, financing municipal services, as well as urban renewal and
other development projects, is a perennial problem, which cities
address through appeals to higher governments, arrangements with the
private sector, and techniques such as privatization (selling services
into the private sector), corporatization (formation of quasi-private
municipally-owned corporations), and financialization (packaging city
assets into tradable financial instruments and derivatives). This
situation has become acute in deindustrialized cities and in cases
where businesses and wealthier citizens have moved outside of city
limits and therefore beyond the reach of taxation.
Cities in search of ready cash increasingly resort to the municipal
bond, essentially a loan with interest and a repayment date. City
governments have also begun to use tax increment financing, in which a
development project is financed by loans based on future tax revenues
which it is expected to yield. Under these circumstances,
creditors and consequently city governments place a high importance on
city credit ratings.
Governance includes government but refers to a wider domain of social
control functions implemented by many actors including nongovernmental
organizations. The impact of globalization and the role of
multinational corporations in local governments worldwide, has led to
a shift in perspective on urban governance, away from the "urban
regime theory" in which a coalition of local interests functionally
govern, toward a theory of outside economic control, widely associated
in academics with the philosophy of neoliberalism. In the
neoliberal model of governance, public utilities are privatized,
industry is deregulated, and corporations gain the status of governing
actors—as indicated by the power they wield in public-private
partnerships and over business improvement districts, and in the
expectation of self-regulation through corporate social
responsibility. The biggest investors and real estate developers act
as the city's de facto urban planners.
The related concept of good governance places more emphasis on the
state, with the purpose of assessing urban governments for their
suitability for development assistance. The concepts of
governance and good governance are especially invoked in the emergent
megacities, where international organizations consider existing
governments inadequate for their large populations.
La Plata, Argentina, based on a perfect square with 5196-meter sides,
was designed in the 1880s as the new capital of Buenos Aires
Urban planning and Urban design
Urban planning, the application of forethought to city design,
involves optimizing land use, transportation, utilities, and other
basic systems, in order to achieve certain objectives. Urban planners
and scholars have proposed overlapping theories as ideals for how
plans should be formed.
Planning tools, beyond the original design of
the city itself, include public capital investment in infrastructure
and land-use controls such as zoning. The continuous process of
comprehensive planning involves identifying general objectives as well
as collecting data to evaluate progress and inform future
Government, as the ultimate wielder of force is legally the final
authority on planning but in practice the process involves both public
and private elements. The legal principle of eminent domain is used by
government to divest citizens of their property in cases where its use
is required for a project.
Planning often involves
tradeoffs—decisions in which some stand to gain and some to
lose—and thus is closely connected to the prevailing political
The history of urban planning dates to some of the earliest known
cities, especially in the Indus Valley and Mesoamerican civilizations,
which built their cities on grids and apparently zoned different areas
for different purposes. The effects of planning, ubiquitous
in today's world, can be seen most clearly in the layout of planned
communities, fully designed prior to construction, often with
consideration for interlocking physical, economic, and cultural
Urban society is typically stratified. Spatially, cities are formally
or informally segregated along ethnic, economic and racial lines.
People living relatively close together may live, work, and play, in
separate areas, and associate with different people, forming ethnic or
lifestyle enclaves or, in areas of concentrated poverty, ghettoes.
While in the US and elsewhere poverty became associated with the inner
city, in France it has become associated with the banlieues, areas of
urban development which surround the city proper. Meanwhile, across
Europe and North America, the racially white majority is empirically
the most segregated group.
Suburbs in the west, and, increasingly,
gated communities and other forms of "privatopia" around the world,
allow local elites to self-segregate into secure and exclusive
Landless urban workers, contrasted with peasants and known as the
proletariat, form a growing stratum of society in the age of
urbanization. In Marxist doctrine, the proletariat will inevitably
revolt against the bourgeoisie as their ranks swell with
disenfranchised and disaffected people lacking all stake in the status
quo. The global urban proletariat of today, however, generally
lacks the status as factory workers which in the nineteenth century
provided access to the means of production.
Historically, cities rely on rural areas for intensive farming to
yield surplus crops, in exchange for which they provide money,
political administration, manufactured goods, and culture.
Urban economics tends to analyze larger agglomerations, stretching
beyond city limits, in order to reach a more complete understanding of
the local labor market.
People shopping for food at a marketplace in Taipei City.
As hubs of trade cities have long been home to retail commerce and
consumption through the interface of shopping. In the 20th century,
department stores using new techniques of advertising, public
relations, decoration, and design, transformed urban shopping areas
into fantasy worlds encouraging self-expression and escape through
In general, the density of cities expedites commerce and facilitates
knowledge spillovers, helping people and firms exchange information
and generate new ideas. A thicker labor market allows for
better skill matching between firms and individuals. Population
density enables also sharing of common infrastructure and production
facilities, however in very dense cities, increased crowding and
waiting times may lead to some negative effects.
Although manufacturing fueled the growth of cities, many now rely on a
tertiary or service economy. The services in question range from
tourism, hospitality, entertainment, housekeeping and prostitution to
grey-collar work in law, finance, and administration.
Culture and communications
Cities are typically hubs for education and the arts, supporting
universities, museums, temples, and other cultural institutions.
They feature impressive displays of architecture ranging from small to
enormous and ornate to brutal; skyscrapers, providing thousands of
offices or homes within a small footprint, and visible from miles
away, have become iconic urban features. Cultural elites tend to
live in cities, bound together by shared cultural capital, and
themselves playing some role in governance. By virtue of their
status as centers of culture and literacy, cities can be described as
the locus of civilization, world history, and social change.
Density makes for effective mass communication and transmission of
news, through heralds, printed proclamations, newspapers, and digital
media. These communication networks, though still using cities as
hubs, penetrate extensively into all populated areas. In the age of
rapid communication and transportation, commentators have described
urban culture as nearly ubiquitous or as no longer
meaningful. At the same time hallmarks of rural life may appear
in the midst of the city, as in the case of urban
Today, a city's promotion of its cultural activities dovetails with
place branding and city marketing, public diplomacy techniques used to
inform development strategy; to attract businesses, investors,
residents, and tourists; and to create a shared identity and sense of
place within the metropolitan area. Physical
inscriptions, plaques, and monuments on display physically transmit a
historical context for urban places. Some cities, such as
Jerusalem, Mecca, and
Rome have indelible religious status and for
hundreds of years have attracted pilgrims. Patriotic tourists visit
Agra to see the Taj Mahal, or
New York City
New York City to visit the World Trade
Elvis lovers visit
Memphis to pay their respects at
Graceland. Place brands (which include place satisfaction and
place loyalty) have great economic value (comparable to the value of
commodity brands) because of their influence on the decision-making
process of people thinking about doing business in—"purchasing" (the
brand of)—a city.
Bread and circuses among other forms of cultural appeal, attract and
entertain the masses. Sports also play a major role in city
branding and local identity formation. Cities go to considerable
lengths in competing to host the Olympic Games, which bring global
attention and tourism.
Atomic bombing on August 6, 1945, devastated the Japanese city of
Cities play a crucial strategic role in warfare due to their economic,
demographic, symbolic, and political centrality. For the same reasons,
they are targets in asymmetric warfare. Many cities throughout history
were founded under military auspices, a great many have incorporated
fortifications, and military principles continue to influence urban
design. Indeed, war may have served as the social rationale and
economic basis for the very earliest cities.
Powers engaged in geopolitical conflict have established fortified
settlements as part of military strategies, as in the case of garrison
Strategic Hamlet Program
Strategic Hamlet Program during the Vietnam War, and
Israeli settlements in Palestine. While occupying the
Philippines, the US Army ordered local people concentrated into cities
and towns, in order to isolate committed insurgents and battle freely
against them in the countryside.
During World War II, national governments on occasion declared certain
cities open, effectively surrendering them to an advancing enemy in
order to avoid damage and bloodshed.
Urban warfare proved decisive,
however, in the Battle of Stalingrad, where Soviet forces repulsed
German occupiers, with extreme casualties and destruction. In an era
of low-intensity conflict and rapid urbanization, cities have become
sites of long-term conflict waged both by foreign occupiers and by
local governments against insurgency. Such warfare, known as
counterinsurgency, involves techniques of surveillance and
psychological warfare as well as close combat, functionally
extends modern urban crime prevention, which already uses concepts
such as defensible space.
Although capture is the more common objective, warfare has in some
cases spelt complete destruction for a city. Mesopotamian tablets and
ruins attest to such destruction, as does the Latin motto
Carthago delenda est. Since the atomic bombing of Hiroshima
and Nagasaki and throughout the Cold War, nuclear strategists
continued to contemplate the use of "countervalue" targeting:
crippling an enemy by annihilating its valuable cities, rather than
aiming primarily at its military forces.
Urban infrastructure involves various physical networks and spaces
necessary for transportation, water use, energy, recreation, and
Infrastructure carries a high initial cost in
fixed capital (pipes, wires, plants, vehicles, etc.) but lower
marginal costs and thus positive economies of scale. Because of
the higher barriers to entry, these networks have been classified as
natural monopolies, meaning that economic logic favors control of each
network by a single organization, public or private.[b]
Infrastructure in general (if not every infrastructure project) plays
a vital role in a city's capacity for economic activity and expansion,
underpinning the very survival of the city’s inhabitants, as well as
technological, commercial, industrial, and social
activities. Structurally, many infrastructure systems take
the form of networks with redundant links and multiple pathways, so
that the system as a whole continue to operate even if parts of it
fail. The particulars of a city’s infrastructure systems have
historical path dependence because new development must build from
what exists already.
Megaprojects such as the construction of airports, power plants, and
railways require large upfront investments and thus tend to require
funding from national government or the private sector.
Privatization may also extend to all levels of infrastructure
construction and maintenance.
Urban infrastructure ideally serves all residents equally but in
practice may prove uneven—with, in some cities, clear first-class
and second-class alternatives.
Public utilities (literally, useful things with general availability)
include basic and essential infrastructure networks, chiefly concerned
with the supply of water, electricity, and telecommunications
capability to the populace.
Sanitation, necessary for good health in crowded conditions, requires
water supply and waste management as well as individual hygiene. Urban
water systems include principally a water supply network and a network
for wastewater including sewage and stormwater. Historically, either
local governments or private companies have administered urban water
supply, with a tendency toward government water supply in the 20th
century and a tendency toward private operation at the turn of the
twenty-first.[c] The market for private water services is
dominated by two French companies, Veolia
Water (formerly Vivendi) and
Engie (formerly Suez), said to hold 70% of all water contracts
Modern urban life relies heavily on the energy transmitted through
electricity for the operation of electric machines (from household
appliances to industrial machines to now-ubiquitous electronic systems
used in communications, business, and government) and for traffic
lights, streetlights and indoor lighting. Cities rely to a lesser
extent on hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and natural gas for
transportation, heating, and cooking. Telecommunications
infrastructure such as telephone lines and coaxial cables also
traverse cities, forming dense networks for mass and point-to-point
See also: Public transport
Because cities rely on specialization and an economic system based on
wage labour, their inhabitants must have the ability to regularly
travel between home, work, commerce, and entertainment.
Citydwellers travel foot or by wheel on roads and walkways, or use
special rapid transit systems based on underground, overground, and
elevated rail. Cities also rely on long-distance transportation
(truck, rail, and airplane) for economic connections with other cities
and rural areas.
Train stopped at the Dnipro stop of the Kiev Metro.
Historically, city streets were the domain of horses and their riders
and pedestrians, who only sometimes had sidewalks and special walking
areas reserved for them. In the west, bicycles or (velocipedes),
efficient human-powered machines for short- and medium-distance
travel, enjoyed a period of popularity at the beginning of the
twentieth century before the rise of automobiles. Soon after,
they gained a more lasting foothold in Asian and African cities under
European influence. In western cities, industrializing,
expanding, and electrifying at this time, public transit systems and
especially streetcars enabled urban expansion as new residential
neighborhoods sprung up along transit lines and workers rode to and
from work downtown.
Since the mid-twentieth century, cities have relied heavily on motor
vehicle transportation, with major implications for their layout,
environment, and aesthetics. (This transformation occurred most
dramatically in the US—where corporate and governmental policies
favored automobile transport systems—and to a lesser extent in
Europe.) The rise of personal cars accompanied the expansion
of urban economic areas into much larger metropolises, subsequently
creating ubiquitous traffic issues with accompanying construction of
new highways, wider streets, and alternative walkways for
People walk, drive, and cycle through a street in Cairo.
However, severe traffic jams still occur regularly in cities around
the world, as private car ownership and urbanization continue to
increase, overwhelming existing urban street networks.
Rapid metro on the move in Gurugram, India
The urban bus system, the world's most common form of public
transport, uses a network of scheduled routes to move people through
the city, alongside cars, on the roads. Economic function itself
also became more decentralized as concentration became impractical and
employers relocated to more car-friendly locations (including edge
cities). Some cities have introduced bus rapid transit systems
which include exclusive bus lanes and other methods for prioritizing
bus traffic over private cars. Many big American cities
still operate conventional public transit by rail, as exemplified by
New York City
New York City Subway system.
Rapid transit is widely
used in Europe and has increased in Latin America and Asia.
Walking and cycling ("non-motorized transport") enjoy increasing favor
(more pedestrian zones and bike lanes) in American and Asian urban
transportation planning, under the influence of such trends as the
Healthy Cities movement, the drive for sustainable development, and
the idea of a carfree city. Techniques such as road
space rationing and road use charges have been introduced to limit
urban car traffic.
Housing of residents presents one of the major challenges every city
must face. Adequate housing entails not only physical shelters but
also the physical systems necessary to sustain life and economic
activity. Home ownership represents status and a modicum of
economic security, compared to renting which may consume much of the
income of low-wage urban workers. Homelessness, or lack of housing, is
a challenged currently faced by millions of people in countries rich
This urban scene in
Paramaribo features a few plants growing amidst
solid waste and rubble behind some houses.
Main article: Urban ecology
Urban ecosystems, influenced as they are by the density of human
buildings and activities differ considerably from those of their rural
surroundings. Anthropogenic buildings and waste, as well as
cultivation in gardens, create physical and chemical environments
which have no equivalents in wilderness, in some cases enabling
exceptional biodiversity. They provide homes not only for immigrant
humans but also for immigrant plants, bringing about interactions
between species which never previously encountered each other. They
introduce frequent disturbances (construction, walking) to plant and
animal habitats, creating opportunities for recolonization and thus
favoring young ecosystems with r-selected species dominant. On the
whole, urban ecosystems are less complex and productive than others,
due to the diminished absolute amount of biological
Typical urban fauna include insects (especially ants), rodents (mice,
rats), and birds, as well as cats and dogs (domesticated and feral).
Large predators are scarce.
Profile of an urban heat island.
Cities generate considerable ecological footprints, locally and at
longer distances, due to concentrated populations and technological
activities. From one perspective, cities are not ecologically
sustainable due to their resource needs. From another, proper
management may be able to ameliorate a city's ill effects.
Air pollution arises from various forms of combustion, including
fireplaces, wood or coal-burning stoves, other heating systems,
and internal combustion engines. Industrialized cities, and today
third-world megacities, are notorious for veils of smog (industrial
haze) which envelop them, posing a chronic threat to the health of
their millions of inhabitants. Urban soil contains higher
concentrations of heavy metals (especially lead, copper, and nickel)
and has lower pH than soil in comparable wilderness.
Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates, due to
concrete, asphalt, and other artificial surfaces, which heat up in
sunlight and channel rainwater into underground ducts. The temperature
New York City
New York City exceeds nearby rural temperatures by an average of
2–3 °C and at times 5–10 °C differences have been
recorded. This effect varies nonlinearly with population changes
(independently of the city's physical size). Aerial
particulates increase rainfall by 5–10%. Thus, urban areas
experience unique climates, with earlier flowering and later leaf
dropping than in nearby country.
Poor and working-class people face disproportionate exposure to
environmental risks (known as environmental racism when intersecting
also with racial segregation). For example, within the urban
microclimate, less-vegetated poor neighborhoods bear more of the heat
(but have fewer means of coping with it).
World city system
As the world becomes more closely linked through economics, politics,
technology, and culture (a process called globalization), cities have
come to play a leading role in transnational affairs, exceeding the
limitations of international relations conducted by national
governments. This phenomenon, resurgent today, can be
traced back to the Silk Road, Phoenicia, and the Greek city-states,
Hanseatic League and other alliances of
cities. Today the information economy based on
high-speed internet infrastructure enables instantaneous
telecommunication around the world, effectively eliminating the
distance between cities for the purposes of stock markets and other
high-level elements of the world economy, as well as personal
communications and mass media.
Stock exchanges, characteristic features of the top global cities, are
interconnected hubs for capital. Here, a delegation from Australia is
shown visiting the
London Stock Exchange.
A global city, also known as a world city, is a prominent centre of
trade, banking, finance, innovation, and markets.
Saskia Sassen used
the term "global city" in her 1991 work, The Global City: New York,
Tokyo to refer to a city's power, status, and cosmopolitanism,
rather than to its size. Following this view of cities, it is
possible to rank the world's cities hierarchically. Global cities
form the capstone of the global hierarchy, exerting command and
control through their economic and political influence. Global cities
may have reached their status due to early transition to
post-industrialism or through inertia which has enabled them to
maintain their dominance from the industrial era. This type of
ranking exemplifies an emerging discourse in which cities, considered
variations on the same ideal type, must compete with each other
globally to achieve prosperity.
Critics of the notion point to the different realms of power and
interchange. The term "global city" is heavily influenced by economic
factors and, thus, may not account for places that are otherwise
significant. Paul James, for example argues that the term is
"reductive and skewed" in its focus on financial systems.
Multinational corporations and banks make their headquarters in global
cities and conduct much of their business within this context.
American firms dominate the international markets for law and
engineering and maintain branches in the biggest foreign global
Global cities feature concentrations of extremely wealthy and
extremely poor people. Their economies are lubricated by their
capacity (limited by the national government's immigration policy,
which functionally defines the supply side of the labor market) to
recruit low- and high-skilled immigrant workers from poorer
areas. More and more cities today draw on this globally
available labor force.
Modern global cities, like New York City, often include large central
business districts (CBDs) that serve as hubs for economic activity. A
panorama of Manhattan, the world's largest CBD, is shown from February
Time Warner Center
Bank of America Tower
Conde Nast Building
The New York Times Building
Empire State Building
a: 55 Hudson Yards, b: 35 Hudson Yards, c: 10 Hudson Yards, d: 15
56 Leonard Street
8 Spruce Street
70 Pine Street
Cities increasingly participate in world political activities
independently of their enclosing nation-states. Early examples of this
phenomenon are the sister city relationship and the promotion of
multi-level governance within the
European Union as a technique for
European integration. Cities including Hamburg, Prague,
Amsterdam, The Hague, and
London maintain their own embassies
European Union at Brussels.
New urban dwellers may increasingly not simply as immigrants but as
transmigrants, keeping one foot each (through telecommunications if
not travel) in their old and their new homes.
Cities participate in global governance by various means including
membership in global networks which transmit norms and regulations. At
the general, global level,
United Cities and Local Governments
United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG)
is a significant umbrella organization for cities; regionally and
nationally, Eurocities, Asian Network of Major Cities 21, the
Federation of Canadian Municipalities
Federation of Canadian Municipalities the National League of Cities,
United States Conference of Mayors
United States Conference of Mayors play similar
roles. UCLG took responsibility for creating
Agenda 21 for
culture, a program for cultural policies promoting sustainable
development, and has organized various conferences and reports for its
Networks have become especially prevalent in the arena of
environmentalism and specifically climate change following the
adoption of Agenda 21. Environmental city networks include the C40
Cities Climate Leadership Group, World Association of Major
Metropolises ("Metropolis"), the United Nations Global Compact Cities
Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance
Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA), the Covenant of
Mayors and the Compact of Mayors,
ICLEI – Local Governments for
Sustainability, and the Transition Towns network.
Cities with world political status as meeting places for advocacy
groups, non-governmental organizations, lobbyists, educational
institutions, intelligence agencies, military contractors, information
technology firms, and other groups with a stake in world policymaking.
They are consequently also sites for symbolic protest.[d]
United Nations System
United Nations System
United Nations System has been involved in a series of events and
declarations dealing with the development of cities during this period
of rapid urbanization.
Habitat I conference in 1976 adopted the "Vancouver Declaration on
Human Settlements" which identifies urban management as a fundamental
aspect of development and establishes various principles for
maintaining urban habitats.
Citing the Vancouver Declaration, the UN General Assembly in December
1977 authorized the United Nations Commission Human Settlements and
the HABITAT Centre for Human Settlements, intended to coordinate UN
activities related to housing and settlements.
Earth Summit in
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro resulted in a set of
international agreements including
Agenda 21 which establishes
principles and plans for sustainable development.
World Assembly of Mayors at
Habitat III conference in Quito.
Habitat II conference in 1996 called for cities to play a leading
role in this program, which subsequently advanced the Millennium
Development Goals and
Sustainable Development Goals.
In January 2002 the UN Commission on Human Settlements became an
umbrella agency called the United Nations Human Settlements Programme
or UN-Habitat, a member of the United Nations Development Group.
Habitat III conference of 2016 focused on implementing these goals
under the banner of a "New Urban Agenda". The four mechanisms envisio
14ned for effecting the New Urban Agenda are (1) national policies
promoting integrated sustainable development, (2) stronger urban
governance, (3) long-term integrated urban and territorial planning,
and (4) effective financing frameworks. Just before this
European Union concurrently approved an "Urban Agenda
for the European Union" known as the Pact of Amsterdam.
Habitat coordinates the UN urban agenda, working with the UN
Environmental Programme, the UN Development Programme, the Office of
the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the World
and the World Bank.
Bank headquarters in Washington, DC.
The World Bank, a United Nations specialized agency, has been a
primary force in promoting the
Habitat conferences, and since the
Habitat conference has used their declarations as a framework
for issuing loans for urban infrastructure. The bank's structural
adjustment programs contributed to urbanization in the
Third World by
creating incentives to move to cities. The World
Habitat in 1999 jointly established the
Cities Alliance (based at
Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.) to guide
policymaking, knowledge sharing, and grant distribution around the
issue of urban poverty. (UN-
Habitat plays an advisory role in
evaluating the quality of a locality's governance.) The Bank's
policies have tended to focus on bolstering real estate markets
through credit and technical assistance.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,
UNESCO has increasingly focused on cities as key sites for influencing
cultural governance. It has developed various city networks including
the International Coalition of Cities against Racism and the Creative
Cities Network. UNESCO's capacity to select
World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites and
maintain them through Public/social/private partnerships gives the
organization significant influence over cultural capital, tourism, and
historic preservation funding.
Representation in culture
John Martin's The Fall of
Babylon (1831), depicting chaos as the
Persian army occupies Babylon, also symbolizes the ruin of decadent
civilization in modern times. Lightning striking the Babylonian
ziggurat (also representing the Tower of Babel) indicates God's
judgment against the city.
Cities figure prominently in traditional Western culture, appearing in
Bible in both evil and holy forms, symbolized by
Nimrod are the first city builders in the
Book of Genesis. In Sumerian mythology
Gilgamesh built the walls of
Cities can be perceived in terms of extremes or opposites: at once
liberating and oppressive, wealthy and poor, organized and
chaotic. The name anti-urbanism refers to various types of
ideological opposition to cities, whether because of their culture or
their political relationship with the country. Such opposition may
result from identification of cities with oppression and the ruling
elite. This and other political ideologies strongly influence
narratives and themes in discourse about cities. In turn, cities
symbolize their home societies.
Writers, painters, and filmmakers have produced innumerable works of
art concerning the urban experience. Classical and medieval literature
includes a genre of descriptiones which treat of city features and
history. Modern authors such as
Charles Dickens and
James Joyce are
famous for evocative descriptions of their home cities. Fritz
Lang conceived the idea for his influential 1927 film
Times Square and marveling at the nighttime neon
lighting. Other early cinematic representations of cities in the
twentieth century generally depicted them as technologically efficient
spaces with smoothly functioning systems of automobile transport. By
the 1960s, however, traffic congestion began to appear in such films
The Fast Lady
The Fast Lady (1962) and
Literature, film, and other forms of popular culture have supplied
visions of future cities both utopian and dystopian. The prospect of
expanding, communicating, and increasingly interdependent world cities
has given rise to images such as
Nylonkong (NY, London, Hong
Kong) and visions of a single world-encompassing
Bibliography of suburbs
List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities
Lists of cities
Principles of intelligent urbanism
Free city (antiquity)
^ Intellectuals such as H. G. Wells,
Patrick Geddes and Kingsley Davis
foretold the coming of a mostly urban world throughout the twentieth
century. The United Nations has long anticipated a half-urban
world, earlier predicting the year 2000 as the turning point
and in 2007 writing that it would occur in 2008. Other researchers
had also estimated that the halfway point was reached in 2007.
Although the trend is undeniable, the precision of this statistic is
dubious, due to reliance on national censuses and to the ambiguities
of defining an area as urban.
^ In practice, utility companies and agencies do secure monopolies
over local service provision. Critics within the economics field have
contested the inevitability of this outcome.
Water resources in rapidly urbanizing areas are not merely
privatized as they are in western countries; since the systems don't
exist to begin with, private contracts also entail water
industrialization and enclosure. Also, there is a countervailing
trend: 100 cities have re-municipalized their water supply since the
^ One important global political city, described at one time as a
world capital, is
Washington, D.C. and its metropolitan area
Tysons Corner and Reston in the Dulles Technology Corridor
and the various federal agencies found along the Baltimore-Washington
Parkway). Beyond the prominent institutions of U.S. government on the
national mall, this area contains 177 embassies, The Pentagon, the
Central Intelligence Agency headquarters, the World
myriad think tanks and lobbying groups, and corporate headquarters for
Booz Allen Hamilton, General Dynamics, Capital One, Verisign, Mortgage
Electronic Registration Systems,
Gannett Company etc.
^ Blanca Arellano & Josep Roca, "Megalopolis: An Assay for the
Identification of the World Urban Mega-structures"; 55th Congress of
the European Regional Science Association: "World Renaissance:
Changing roles for people and places", 25–28 August 2015, Lisbon.
^ Aristotle, Politics 2.1267b
^ Jackson, Kenneth T. (1985), Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization
of the United States, New York: Oxford
ISBN 0-19-504983-7 , pp. 73–76
^ Goodall, B. (1987) The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography.
^ Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) The Social Science Encyclopedia.
2nd edition. London: Routledge.
^ James, Paul; with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred B.
(2015). Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of
Sustainability. London: Routledge. .
^ The Travel &
Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007, Jennifer
Blanke, World Economic Forum
^ Demographia World Urban Areas 13th Annual Edition, April 2017.
^ Nick Compton, "What is the oldest city in the world?", The Guardian,
16 February 2015.
^ Ring, Trudy (2014). Middle East and Africa: International Dictionary
of Historic Places. p. 204.
^ Jhimli Mukherjee Pandeyl, "
Varanasi is as old as Indus valley
civilization, finds IIT-KGP study", Times of
India 25 February 2016.
^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), p. 45.
^ a b "city, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, June 2014.
^ a b Kevin A. Lynch, "What Is the Form of a City, and How is It
Made?"; in Marzluff et al. (2008), p. 678. "The city may be looked on
as a story, a pattern of relations between human groups, a production
and distribution space, a field of physical force, a set of linked
decisions, or an arena of conflict. Values are embedded in these
metaphors: historic continuity, stable equilibrium, productive
efficiency, capable decision and management, maximum interaction, or
the progress of political struggle. Certain actors become the decisive
elements of transformation in each view: political leaders, families
and ethnic groups, major investors, the technicians of transport, the
decision elite, the revolutionary classes."
^ "Table 6" in
United Nations Demographic Yearbook (2015), the 1988
version of which is quoted in Carter (1995), pp. 10–12.
^ a b c d Graeme Hugo, Anthony Champion, & Alfredo Lattes, "Toward
a New Conceptualization of Settlements for Demography",
Development Review 29(2), June 2003.
^ "How NC Municipalities Work – North Carolina League of
Municipalities". www.nclm.org. Archived from the original on
^ a b c d Smith, "Earliest Cities", in Gmelch & Zenner (2002).
^ a b Marshall (1989), pp. 14–15.
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 23–24.
^ Yi Jianping, "'Civilization' and 'State': An Etymological
Perspective"; Social Sciences in
China 33(2), 2012;
^ Moholy-Nagy (1986), pp. 146–148.
^ Volker M. Welter, "The 1925 Master Plan for Tel-Aviv by Patrick
Geddes"; Israel Studies 14(3), Fall 2009.
^ Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, "Locations,
Density per Sq. km., by metropolitan area and selected
^ Carter (1995), p. 5–7. "[...] the two main themes of study
introduced at the outset: the town as a distributed feature and the
town as a feature with internal structure, or in other words, the town
in area and the town as area."
^ Marshall (1989), pp. 11–14.
^ a b Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 155–156.
^ a b Marshall (1989), p. 15. "The mutual interdependence of town and
country has one consequence so obvious that it is easily overlooked:
at the global scale, cities are generally confined to areas capable of
supporting a permanent agricultural population. Moreover, within any
area possessing a broadly uniform level of agricultural productivity,
there is a rough but definite association between the density of the
rural population and the average spacing of cities above any chosen
^ a b Latham et al. (2009), p. 18. "From the simplest forms of
exchange, when peasant farmers literally brought their produce from
the fields into the densest point of interaction—giving us market
towns—the significance of central places to surrounding territories
began to be asserted. As cities grew in complexity, the major civic
institutions, from seats of government to religious buildings, would
also come to dominate these points of convergence. Large central
squares or open spaces reflected the importance of collective
gatherings in city life, such as Tiananmen Square in Beijing, the
Zócalo in Mexico City, the Piazza Navona in
Rome and Trafalgar Square
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 34–35. "In the center of the city, an
elite compound or temenos was situated. Study of the very earliest
cities show this compound to be largely composed of a temple and
supporting structures. The temple rose some 40 feet above the ground
and would have presented a formidable profile to those far away. The
temple contained the priestly class, scribes, and record keepers, as
well as granaries, schools, crafts—almost all non-agricultural
aspects of society.
^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 177–179.
^ Don Mitchell, "The End of Public Space? People's Park, Definitions
of the Public, and Democracy";[permanent dead link] Annals of the
Association of American Geographers 85(1), March 1995.
^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), 21–33.
^ Mohan Pant and Shjui Fumo, "The Grid and Modular Measures in The
Planning of Mohenjodaro and Kathmandu Valley: A Study on Modular
Measures in Block and Plot Divisions in the
Planning of Mohenjodaro
and Sirkap (Pakistan), and Thimi (Kathmandu Valley)"; Journal of Asian
Engineering 59, May 2005.
^ Michel Danino, "New Insights into Harappan Town-Planning,
Proportions and Units, with
Special Reference to Dholavira", "Man and
Environment 33(1), 2008.
^ Jane McIntosh, The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives ;
ABC-CLIO, 2008; ISBN 978-1-57607-907-2 ; pp. 231, 346.
^ Carter (1995), p. 15. "In the underbound city the administratively
defined area is smaller than the physical extent of settlement. In the
overbound city the administrative area is greater than the physical
extent. The 'truebound' city is one where the administrative bound is
nearly coincidental with the physical extent."
^ Paul James; Meg Holden; Mary Lewin; Lyndsay Neilson; Christine
Oakley; Art Truter; David Wilmoth (2013). "Managing Metropolises by
Negotiating Mega-Urban Growth". In Harald Mieg; Klaus Töpfer.
Institutional and Social Innovation for
Sustainable Urban Development.
^ Chaunglin Fang & Danlin Yu, "Urban agglomeration: An evolving
concept of an emerging phenomenon"; Landscape and Urban
^ (Bairoch 1988, pp. 3–4)
^ (Pacione 2001, p. 16)
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 26. "Early cities also reflected these
preconditions in that they served as places where agricultural
surpluses were stored and distributed. Cities functioned economically
as centers of extraction and redistribution from countryside to
granaries to the urban population. One of the main functions of this
central authority was to extract, store, and redistribute the grain.
It is no accident that granaries—storage areas for grain—were
often found within the temples of early cities."
^ Jennifer R. Pournelle, "KLM to CORONA: A Bird's Eye View of Cultural
Ecology and Early Mesopotamian Urbanization"; in Settlement and
Society: Essays Dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams ed. Elizabeth C.
Stone; Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA, and Oriental Institute
University of Chicago, 2007.
^ a b Fredy Perlman, Against His-Story, Against Leviathan, Detroit:
Black & Red, 1983; p. 16.
^ a b Mumford (1961), pp. 39–46. "As the physical means increased,
this one-sided power mythology, sterile, indeed hostile to life,
pushed its way into every corner of the urban scene and found, in the
new institution of organized war, its completest expression. […]
Thus both the physical form and the institutional life of the city,
from the very beginning to the urban implosion, were shaped in no
small measure by the irrational and magical purposes of war. From this
source sprang the elaborate system of fortifications, with walls,
ramparts, towers, canals, ditches, that continued to characterize the
chief historic cities, apart from certain special cases—as during
the Pax Romana—down to the eighteenth century. […] War brought
concentration of social leadership and political power in the hands of
a weapons-bearing minority, abetted by a priesthood exercising sacred
powers and possessing secret but valuable scientific and magical
^ a b Ashworth (1991), pp. 12–13.
^ (Jacobs 1969, p. 23)
^ P. J. Taylor, "Extraordinary Cities I: Early 'City-ness' and the
Invention of Agriculture"; International Journal of Urban and Regional
Research 36(3), 2012; doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2011.01101.x; see also
GaWC Research Bulletins 359 and 360.
^ Michael E. Smith, Jason Ur, & Gary M. Feinman, "Jane Jacobs'
'Cities First' Model and Archaeological Reality", International
Journal of Urban and Regional Research 38, 2014;
^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.03. "The ancients fostered the spread of
urban culture; their efforts were constant to bring their people
within the complete influence of municipal life. The desire to create
cities was the most striking characteristic of the people of
antiquity, and ancient rulers and statesmen vied with one another in
satisfying that desire."
^ Southall (1998), p. 23.
^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998) Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley
Karachi and New York.
^ Southall (1998), pp. 38–43.
^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), pp. 158–161.
^ Robert McCormick Adams Jr., Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient
Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the Euphrates;
University of Chicago Press, 1981; ISBN 0-226-00544-5; p. 2.
Mesopotamia was a land of cities. It became one
precociously, before the end of the fourth millennium B.C. Urban
traditions remained strong and virtually continuous through the
vicissitudes of conquest, internal upheaval accompanied by widespread
economic breakdown, and massive linguistic and population replacement.
The symbolic and material content of civilization obviously changed,
but its cultural ambience remained tied to cities."
^ Pocock, J. G. A. (1998). The
Citizenship Debates. Chapter 2 – The
Citizenship since Classical Times (originally published in
Queen's Quarterly 99, no. 1). Minneapolis, MN: The
Minnesota. p. 31. ISBN 0-8166-2880-7.
^ Ring, Salkin, Boda, Trudy, Robert, Sharon (January 1, 1996).
International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe.
Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 41–42. "
Rome created an elaborate urban
system. Roman colonies were organized as a means of securing Roman
territory. The first thing that Romans did when they conquered new
territories was to establish cities."
^ Shady Solís, Ruth Martha (1997). La ciudad sagrada de Caral-Supe en
los albores de la civilización en el Perú (in Spanish). Lima: UNMSM,
Fondo Editorial. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
^ McIntosh, Roderic J., McIntosh, Susan Keech. "Early Urban
Configurations on the Middle Niger: Clustered Cities and Landscapes of
Power," Chapter 5.
^ Magnavita, Sonja (2013). "Initial Encounters: Seeking traces of
ancient trade connections between West Africa and the wider world".
Afriques. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
^ History of African Cities South of the Sahara Archived 2008-01-24 at
the Wayback Machine. By Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch. 2005.
^ Evans et al., A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's
largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the US, August 23,
^ "Map reveals ancient urban sprawl", BBC News, 14 August 2007.
^ Metropolis: Angkor, the world's first mega-city, The Independent,
August 15, 2007
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 43. "Capitals like Córdoba and
populations of about 500,000;
Baghdad probably had a population of
more than 1 million. This urban heritage would continue despite the
conquests of the Seljuk Turks and the later Crusades. China, the
longest standing civilization, was in the midst of a golden age as the
Tang dynasty gave way—after a short period of fragmentation—to the
Song dynasty. This dynasty ruled two of the most impressive cities on
the planet, Xian and Hangzhou. / In contrast, poor Western Europe had
not recovered from the sacking of
Rome and the collapse of the western
half of the Roman Empire. For more than five centuries a steady
process of deurbanization—whereby the population living in cities
and the number of cities declined precipitously—had converted a
prosperous landscape into a scary wilderness, overrun with bandits,
warlords, and rude settlements."
^ Cameron, Averil (2009). The Byzantines. John Wiley and Sons.
p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4051-9833-2. Retrieved 24 January
^ Laiou, Angeliki E. (2002). "Writing the Economic History of
Byzantium". In Angeliki E. Laiou. The Economic History of Byzantium
(Volume 1). Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. pp. 130–131.
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 47–50.
^ Curtis (2016), pp. 5–6. "In the modern international system,
cities were subjugated and internalized by the state, and, with
industrialization, became the great growth engines of national
^ a b Nicholas Blomley, "What Sort of a Legal Space is a City?" in
Brighenti (2013), pp. 1–20. "Municipalities, within this frame, are
understood as nested within the jurisdictional space of the provinces.
Indeed, rather than freestanding legal sites, they are imagined as
products (or 'creatures') of the provinces who may bring them into
being or dissolve them as they choose. As with the provinces their
powers are of a delegated form: they may only exercise jurisdiction
over areas that have been expressly identified by enabling
legislation. Municipal law may not conflict with provincial law, and
may only be exercised within its defined territory. […]
Yet we are [in] danger [of] missing the reach of municipal law:
'[e]ven in highly constitutionalized regimes, it has remained possible
for municipalities to micro-manage space, time, and activities through
police regulations that infringe both on constitutional rights and
private property in often extreme ways' (Vaverde 2009: 150). While
liberalism fears the encroachments of the state, it seems less worried
about those of the municipality. Thus if a national government
proposed a statute forbidding public gatherings or sporting events, a
revolution would occur. Yet municipalities routinely enact sweeping
by-laws directed at open ended (and ill-defined) offences such as
loitering and obstruction, requiring permits for protests or requiring
residents and homeowners to remove snow from the city's sidewalks."
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 53–54. "
England was clearly at the
center of these changes.
London became the first truly global city by
placing itself within the new global economy. English colonialism in
North America, the Caribbean, South Asia, and later Africa and China
helped to further fatten the wallets of many of its merchants. These
colonies would later provide many of the raw materials for industrial
production. England's hinterland was no longer confined to a portion
of the world; it effectively became a global hinterland."
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 54–55.
^ Steven High, Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America's Rust
University of Toronto Press, 2003;
ISBN 0-8020-8528-8. "It is now clear that the deindustrialization
thesis is part myth and part fact. Robert Z. Lawrence, for example,
uses aggregate economic data to show that manufacturing employment in
the United States did not decline but actually increased from 16.8
million in 1960, to 20.1 million in 1973, and 20.3 million in 1980.
However, manufacturing employment was in relative decline. Barry
Bluestone noted that manufacturing represented a decreasing proportion
of the U.S. labour force, from 26.2 per cent in 1973 to 22.1 per cent
in 1980. Studies in Canada have likewise shown that manufacturing
employment was only in relative decline during these years. Yet mills
and factories did close, and towns and cities lost their industries.
John Cumbler submitted that 'depressions do not manifest themselves
only at moments of national economic collapse' such as in the 1930s,
but 'also recur in scattered sites across the nation in regions, in
industries, and in communities.'"
^ a b Kaplan (2004), pp. 160–165. "Entrepreneurial leadership became
manifest through growth coalitions made up of builders, realtors,
developers, the media, government actors such as mayors, and dominant
corporations. For example, in St. Louis, Anheuser-Busch, Monsanto, and
Ralston Purina played prominent roles. The leadership involved
cooperation between public and private interests. The results were
efforts at downtown revitalization; inner-city gentrification; the
transformation of the CBD to advanced service employment;
entetainment, museums, and cultural venues; the construction of sports
stadiums and sport complexes; and waterfront development."
^ James Xiaohe Zhang, "Rapid urbanization in
China and its impact on
the world economy"; 16th Annual Conference on Global Economic
Analysis, "New Challenges for Global
Trade in a Rapidly Changing
World", Shanhai Institute of Foreign Trade, June 12–14, 2013.
^ Ian Johnson, "China's Great Uprooting: Moving 250 Million Into
Cities"; New York Times, 15 June 2013.
^ Castells, M. (ed) (2004). The network society: a cross-cultural
perspective. London: Edward Elgar. (ebook)
^ Flew, T. (2008). New media: an introduction, 3rd edn, South
^ Harford, T. (2008) The Logic of Life. London: Little, Brown.
^ Taylor Shelton, Matthew Zook, & Alan Wiig, "The 'actually
existing smart city'", Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy, and
Society 8, 2015; doi:10.1093/cjres/rsu026.
Urbanization and Political Development of the World System:A
comparative quantitative analysis. History & Mathematics 2 (2006):
^ a b William H. Frey & Zachary Zimmer, "Defining the City"; in
^ Christopher Watson, "Trends in urbanisation", Proceedings of the
First International Conference on Urban Pests, ed. K.B. Wildey and
William H. Robinson, 1993.
^ Annez, Patricia Clarke; Buckley, Robert M. "
Urbanization and Growth:
Setting the Context" (PDF). In Spence, Michael; Annez, Patricia
Clarke; Buckley, Robert M.
Urbanization and Growth.
^ a b Moholy-Nagy (1968), pp. 136–137. "Why do anonymous
people—the poor, the underprivileged, the unconnected—frequently
prefer life under miserable conditions in tenements to the healthy
order and tranquility of small towns or the sanitary subdivisions of
semirural developments? The imperial planners and architects knew the
answer, which is as valid today as it was 2,000 years ago. Big cities
were created as power images of a competitive society, conscious of
its achievement potential. Those who came to live in them did so in
order to participate and compete on any attainable level. Their aim
was to share in public life, and they were willing to pay for this
share with personal discomfort. 'Bread and games' was a cry for
opportunity and entertainment still ranking foremost among urban
^ a b Somini Sengupta, "U.N. Finds Most People Now Live in Cities";
New York Times, 10 July 2014. Referring to: United Nations Department
of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division; World
Urbanization Prospects: 2014 Revision; New York: United Nations, 2014.
^ a b Neil Brenner & Christian Schmid, "The 'Urban Age' in
Question"; International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 38(3),
^ McQuillin (1937/1987), §1.55.
^ "Patterns of Urban and Rural
Population Growth", Department of
International Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Studies No. 68;
New York, United Nations, 1980; p. 15. "If the projections prove to be
accurate, the next century will begin just after the world population
achieves an urban majority; in 2000, the world is projected to be 51.3
per cent urban."
^ Edouart Glissant (Editor-in-Chief),
UNESCO "Courier" ("The Urban
Explosion"), March 1985.
Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision" (PDF).
^ Mike Hanlon, "World
Population Becomes More Urban Than Rural"; New
Atlas, 28 May 2007.
^ "United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2014). World
Urbanization Prospects: The 2014
Revision, CD-ROM Edition".
^ Paulo A. Paranagua, "Latin America struggles to cope with record
urban growth" (archive), The Guardian, 11 September 2012. Referring to
UN-Habitat, The State of Latin American and Caribbean Cities 2012:
Towards a new urban transition; Nairobi: United Nations Human
Settlements Programme, 2012.
^ Helen Massy-Beresford, "Where is the fastest growing city in the
world?"; The Guardian, 18 November 2015.
^ Mark Anderson & Achilleas Galatsidas, "Urban population boom
poses massive challenges for Africa and Asia" The Guardian
(Development data: Datablog), 10 July 2014.
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 15. "Global cities need to be distinguished
from megacities, defined here as cities with more than 8 million
people. […] Only New York and
London qualified as megacities 50
years ago. By 1990, just over 10 years ago, 20 megacities existed, 15
of which were in less economically developed regions of the world. In
2000, the number of megacities had increased to 26, again all except 6
are located in the less developed world regions."
^ Frauke Kraas & Günter Mertins, "
Megacities and Global Change";
in Kraas et al. (2014), p. 2. "While seven megacities (with more than
five million inhabitants) existed in 1950 and 24 in 1990, by 2010
there were 55 and by 2025 there will be—according to
estimations—87 megacities (UN 2012; Fig. 1). "
^ Frauke Kraas & Günter Mertins, "
Megacities and Global Change";
in Kraas et al. (2014), pp. 2–3. "Above all, globalisation processes
were and are the motors that drive these enormous changes and are also
the driving forces, together with transformation and liberalisation
policies, behind the economic developments of the last ca. 25 years
(in China, especially the so-called socialism with Chinese
characteristics that started under Deng Xiaoping in 1978/1979, in
India essentially during the course of the economic reform policies of
the so-called New Economic Policy as of 1991; Cartier 2001; Nissel
1999). Especially in megacities, these reforms led to enormous influx
of foreign direct investments, to intensive industrialization
processes through international relocation of production locations and
depending upon the location, partially to considerable expansion of
the services sector with increasing demand for office space as well as
to a reorientation of national support policies—with a not to be
mistaken influence of transnationally acting conglomerates but also
considerable transfer payments from overseas communities. In turn,
these processes are flanked and intensified through, at times, massive
migration movements of national and international migrants into the
megacities (Baur et al. 2006).
^ Shipra Narang Suri & Günther Taube, "
Governance in Megacities:
Experiences, Challenges and Implications for International
Cooperation"; in Kraas et al. (2014), p. 196.
^ Stephen Graham & Lucy Hewitt, "Getting off the ground: On the
politics of urban verticality; Progress in Human
^ Eduardo F.J. de Mulder, Jacques Besner, & Brian Marker,
"Underground Cities"; in Kraas et al. (2014), pp. 26–29.
^ a b c d e f Karen Bakker, "Archipelagos and networks: urbanization
and water privatization in the South"; The Geographical Journal
169(4), December 2003; doi:10.1111/j.0016-7398.2003.00097.x. "The
diversity of water supply management systems worldwide—which operate
along a continuum between fully public and fully private—bear
witness to repeated shifts back and forth between private and public
ownership and management of water systems."
^ Joan C. Williams, "The Invention of the Municipal Corporation: A
Case Study in Legal Change"; American
Law Review 34, 1985;
^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 146. "The figurehead of city leadership is,
of course, the mayor. As 'first citizen', mayors are often associated
with political parties, yet many of the most successful mayors are
often those whoare able to speak 'for' their city. Rudy Giuliani, for
example, while pursuing a neo-liberal political agenda, was often seen
as being outside the mainstream of the national Republican party.
Furthermore, mayors are often crucial in articulating the interests of
their cities to external agents, be they national governments or major
public and private investors."
Penang Island was incorporated as a single municipality in 1976 and
gained city status in 2015. See: Royce Tan, "Penang island gets city
status", The Star, 18 December 2014.
^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.63. "The problem of achieving equitable
balance between the two freedoms is infinitely greater in urban,
metropolitan and megalopolitan situations than in sparsely settled
districts and rural areas. / In the latter, sheer intervening space
acts as a buffer between the privacy and well-being of one resident
and the potential encroachments thereon by his neighbors in the form
of noise, air or water pollution, absence of sanitation, or whatever.
In a congested urban situation, the individual is powerless to protect
himself from the "free" (i.e., inconsiderate or invasionary) acts of
others without himself being guilty of a form of encroachment."
^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.08.
^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.33.
^ Bryan D. Jones, Saadia R. Greenbeg, Clifford Kaufman, & Joseph
Drew, "Service Delivery Rules and the Distribution of Local Government
Services: Three Detroit Bureaucracies"; in Hahn & Levine (1980).
Local government bureaucracies more or less explicitly accept the
goal of implementing rational criteria for the delivery of services to
citizens, even though compromises may have to be made in the
establishment of these criteria. These production oriented criteria
often give rise to "service deliver rules", regularized procedures for
the delivery of services, which are attempts to codify the
productivity goals of urban service bureaucracies. These rules have
distinct, definable distributional consequences which often go
unrecognized. That is, the decisions of governments to adopt rational
service delivery rules can (and usually do) differentially benefit
^ a b Robert L. Lineberry, "Mandating Urban Equality: The Distribution
of Municipal Public Services"; in Hahn & Levine (1980). See:
Town of Shaw (1971).
^ George Nilson, "Baltimore police under state control for good
reason", Baltimore Sun 28 February 2017.
^ Robert Jay Dilger, Randolph R. Moffett, & Linda Stuyk,
Privatization of Municipal Services in America's Largest Cities",
Public Administration Review 57(1), 1997; doi:10.2307/976688.
^ a b c d e f Kenneth Gwilliam, "Cities on the move – Ten years
after", Research in
Economics 40, 2013;
^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §§1.65–1.66.
^ David Walker, "The New System of Intergovernmental Relations: Fiscal
Relief and More Governmental Intrusions"; in Hahn & Levine (1980).
^ Bart Voorn, Marieke L. van Genugten, & Sandra van Thiel, "The
efficiency and effectiveness of municipally owned corporations: a
systematic review", Local Government Studies, 2017.
^ a b Rachel Weber, "Selling
City Futures: The
Redevelopment Policy"; Economic
Geography 86(3), 2010;
doi:10.1111/j.1944-8287.2010.01077.x. "TIF is an increasingly popular
local redevelopment policy that allows municipalities to designate a
'blighted' area for redevelopment and use the expected increase in
property (and occasionally sales) taxes there to pay for initial and
ongoing redevelopment expenditures, such as land acquisition,
demolition, construction, and project financing. Because developers
require cash up-front, cities transform promises of future tax
revenues into securities that far-flung buyers and sellers exchange
through local markets."
^ Rachel Weber, "Extracting Value from the City:
Urban Redevelopment",[dead link] Antipode, July 2002;
^ Josh Pacewicz, "Tax increment financing, economic development
professionals and the financialization of urban politics";
Socio-Economic Review 11, 2013; doi:10.1093/ser/mws019. "A city's
credit rating not only influences its ability to sell bonds, but has
become a general signal of fiscal health. Detroit's partial recovery
in the early 1990s, for example, was reversed when Moody's downgraded
the rating of the city's general obligation bonds, precipitating new
rounds of capital flight (Hackworth, 2007). The need to maintain a
high credit rating constrains municipal actors by making it difficult
to finance discretionary projects in traditional ways."
^ Gupta et al. (2015), pp. 4, 29. "We thereby understand urban
governance as the multiple ways through which city governments,
businesses and residents interact in managing their urban space and
life, nested within the context of other government levels and actors
who are managing their space, resulting in a variety of urban
governance configurations (Peyroux et al. 2014)."
^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 142–143.
^ Gupta, Verrest, and Jaffe, "Theorizing Governance", in Gupta et al.
(2015), pp. 30–31.
^ a b Gupta, Verrest, and Jaffe, "Theorizing Governance", in Gupta et
al. (2015), pp. 31–33. "The concept of good governance itself was
developed in the 1980s, primarily to guide donors in development aid
(Doonbos 2001:93). It has been used both as a condition for aid and a
development goal in its own right. Key terms in definitions of good
governance include participation, accountability, transparency,
equity, efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness, and rule of law
(e.g. Ginther and de Waart 1995; UNDP 1997; Woods 1999; Weiss 2000).
[…] At the urban level, this normative model has been articulated
through the idea of good urban governance, promoted by agencies such
as UN Habitat. The Colombian city of Bogotá has sometimes been
presented as a model city, given its rapid improvements in fiscal
responsibility, provision of public services and infrastructure,
public behavior, honesty of the administration, and civic pride."
^ Shipra Narang Suri & Günther Taube, "
Governance in Megacities:
Experiences, Challenges and Implications for International
Cooperation"; in Kraas et al. (2014), pp. 197–198.
^ Alain Garnier, "La Plata: la visionnaire trahie";
Comportment 4(1), 1988, pp. 59–79.
^ Levy (2017), pp. 193–235.
^ a b McQuillin (1937/1987), §§1.75–179. "Zoning, a relatively
recent development in the administration of local governmental units,
concerns itself with the control of the use of land and structures,
the size of buildings, and the use-intensity of building sites. Zoning
being an exercise of the police power, it must be justified by such
considerations as the protection of public health and safety, the
preservation of taxable property values, and the enhancement of
community welfare. […] Municipal powers to implement and effectuate
city plans are usually ample. Among these is the power of eminent
domain, which has been used effectively in connection with slum
clearance and the rehabilitation of blighted areas. Also available to
cities in their implementation of planning objectives are municipal
powers of zoning, subdivision control and the regulation of building,
housing and sanitation principles."
^ Levy (2017), p. 10. "
Planning is a highly political activity. It is
immersed in politics and inseparable from the law. [...] Planning
decisions often involve large sums of money, both public and private.
Even when little public expenditure is involved, planning decisions
can deliver large benefits to some and large losses at others."
^ Jorge Hardoy, Urban
Planning in Pre-Columbian America; New York:
George Braziller, 1968.
^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 131–140.
Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party
(online), February 1848; translated from German to English by Samuel
Moore. "But with the development of industry, the proletariat not only
increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its
strength grows, and it feels that strength more. The various interests
and conditions of life within the ranks of the proletariat are more
and more equalised, in proportion as machinery obliterates all
distinctions of labour, and nearly everywhere reduces wages to the
same low level."
^ a b Mike Davis, "The
Urbanization of Empire:
Megacities and the Laws
of Chaos"; Social Text 22(4), Winter 2004. "Although studies of the
so-called urban informal economy have shown myriad secret liaisons
with outsourced multinational production systems, the larger fact is
that hundreds of millions of new urbanites must further subdivide the
peripheral economic niches of personal service, casual labor, street
vending, rag picking, begging, and crime.
This outcast proletariat—perhaps 1.5 billion people today, 2.5
billion by 2030—is the fastest-growing and most novel social class
on the planet. By and large, the urban informal working class is not a
labor reserve army in the nineteenth-century sense: a backlog of
strikebreakers during booms; to be expelled during busts; then
reabsorbed again in the next expansion. On the contrary, this is a
mass of humanity structurally and biologically redundant to the global
accumulation and the corporate matrix.
It is ontologically both similar and dissimilar to the historical
agency described in the Communist Manifesto. Like the traditional
working classes, it has radical chains in the sense of having little
vested interest in the reproduction of private property. But it is not
a socialized collectivity of labor and it lacks significant power to
disrupt or seize the means of production. It does possess, however,
yet unmeasured powers of subverting urban order."
^ Marshall (1989), pp. 5–6.
^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 160–164. "Indeed, the design of the
buildings often revolves around the consumable fantasy experience,
seen most markedly in the likes of Universal CityWalk, Disneyland and
Architecture critic Ada Louise Huxtable (1997) names
architectural structures built specifically as entertainment spaces as
‘Architainment’. These places are, of course, places to make
money, but they are also stages of performance for an interactive
^ Leach (1993), pp. 173–176 and passim.
^ "Knowledge Spillovers" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-16.
^ a b c d Kent E. Calder & Mariko de Freytas, "Global Political
Cities as Actors in Twenty-First Century International Affairs; "SAIS
Review of International Affairs" 29(1), Winter-Spring 2009;
doi:10.1353/sais.0.0036. "Beneath state-to-state dealings, a flurry of
activity occurs, with interpersonal networks forming policy
communities involving embassies, think tanks, academic institutions,
lobbying firms, politicians, congressional staff, research centers,
NGOs, and intelligence agencies. This interaction at the level of
'technostructure'—heavily oriented toward information gathering and
incremental policy modification—is too complex and voluminous to be
monitored by top leadership, yet nevertheless often has important
implications for policy."
^ Borowiecki, Karol J. (2015). "Agglomeration Economies in Classical
Music". Papers in Regional Science. 94 (3): 443–468.
^ Saskia Sassen, "Global Cities and Survival Circuits"; in Global
Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy ed. Barbara
Ehrenreich and Arlie Russell Hochschild; New York: Henry Holt and
^ Latham et al. (2009) 84–85.
^ Jane Zheng, "Toward a new concept of the 'cultural elite state':
Cultural capital and the urban sculpture planning authority in elite
coalition in Shanghai"; Journal of Urban Affairs 39(4), 2017;
^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §§1.04–1.05. "Almost by definition,
cities have always provided the setting for great events and have been
the focal points for social change and human development. All great
cultures have been city-born. World history is basically the history
of city dwellers."
^ Robert Redfield & Milton B. Singer, "The Cultural Role of
Economic Development and Cultural Change 3(1), October 1954.
^ Magnusson (2011), p. 21. "These statistics probably underestimate
the degree to which the world has been urbanized, since they obscure
the fact that rural areas have become so much more urban as a result
of modern transportation and communication. A farmer in Europe or
California who checks the markets every morning on the computer,
negotiates with product brokers in distant cities, buys food at a
supermarket, watches television every night, and takes vacations half
a continent away is not exactly living a traditional rural life. In
most respects such a farmer is an urbanite living in the countryside,
albeit an urbanite who has many good reasons for perceiving himself or
herself as a rural person."
^ Mumford (1961), p. 563–567. "Many of the original functions of the
city, once natural monopolies, demanding the physical presence of all
participants, have now been transposed into forms capable of swift
transportation, mechanical manifolding, electronic transmission,
^ Donald Theall, The Virtual Marshall McLuhan; McGill-Queen's
University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-7735-2119-4; p. 11. Quoting
Marshall McLuhan: "The CITY no longer exists, except as a cultural
ghost [...] The INSTANTANEOUS global coverage of radio-tv makes the
city form meaningless, functionless."
^ Ashworth, Kavaratzis, & Warnaby, "The Need to Rethink Place
Branding"; in Kavaratzis, Warnaby, & Ashworth (2015), p. 15.
^ a b c David Wachsmuth, "
City as ideology: reconciling the explosion
of the city form with the tenacity of the city concept", Environment
and planning D: Society and Space 31, 2014; doi:10.1068/d21911.
^ Adriana Campelo, "Rethinking Sense of Place: Sense of One and Sense
of Many"; in Kavaratzis, Warnaby, & Ashworth (2015).
^ a b Greg Kerr & Jessica Oliver, "Rethinking Place Identities",
in Kavaratzis, Warnaby, & Ashworth (2015).
^ Latham et al. (2009), 186–189.
^ Latham, et al. (2009), pp. 41, 189–192.
^ Fred Coalter, "The FIFA World Cup and Social Cohesion: Bread and
Circuses or Bread and Butter?"; International Council of Sport Science
Education Bulletin 53, May 2008 (Feature: Feature: "Mega
Sport Events in Developing Countries").
^ Kimberly S Schimmel, "Assessing the sociology of sport: On sport and
the city"; International Review for the Sociology for Sport 50(4-5),
^ a b Stephen V. Ward, "Promoting the Olympic City"; in John R. Gold
& Margaret M. Gold, eds., Olympic Cities:
City Agendas, Planning
and the World's Games, 1896–2016;
London & New York: Routledge
(Taylor & Francis), 2008/2011; ISBN 978-0-203-84074-0. "All
this media exposure, provided it is reasonably positive, influences
many tourist decisions at the time of the Games. This tourism impact
will focus on, but extend beyond, the city to the country and the
wider global region. More importantly, there is also huge long term
potential for both tourism and investment (Kasimati, 2003).
No other city marketing opportunity achieves this global exposure. At
the same time, provided it is carefully managed at the local level, it
also gives a tremendous opportunity to heighten and mobilize the
commitment of citizens to their own city. The competitive nature of
sport and its unrivalled capacity to be enjoyed as a mass cultural
activity gives it many advantages from the marketing point of view
(S.V. Ward, 1998, pp. 231–232). In a more subtle way it also becomes
a metaphor for the notion of cities having to compete in a global
marketplace, a way of reconciling citizens and local institutions to
the wider economic realities of the world."
^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 127–128.
^ Ashworth (1991). "In more recent years, planned networks of defended
settlements as part of military strategies can be found in the
pacification programmes of what has become the conventional wisdom of
anti-insurgency operations. Connected networks of protected
settlements are inserted as islands of government control into
insurgent areas—either defensively to separate existing populations
from insurgents or aggressively as a means of extending control over
areas—as used by the British in South Africa (1899–1902) and
Malaya (1950–3) and by the Americans in Cuba (1898) and Vietnam
(1965–75). These were generally small settlements and intended as
much for local security as offensive operations. / The planned
settlement policy of the State of Israel, however, has been both more
comprehensive and has longer-term objectives. [...] These settlements
provide a source of armed manpower, a defence in depth of a vulnerable
frontier area and islands of cultural and political control in the
midst of a potentially hostile population, thus continuing a tradition
of the use of such settlements as part of similar policies in that
area which is over 2,000 years old."
^ See Brigadier General J. Franklin Bell's telegraphic circular to all
station commanders, 8 December 1901, in Robert D. Ramsey III, A
Masterpiece of Counterguerrilla Warfare: BG
J. Franklin Bell in the
Philippines, 1901–1902, Long War Series, Occasion Paper 25; Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press, US Army Combined
Arms Center; pp. 45–46. "Commanding officers will also see that
orders are at once given and distributed to all the inhabitants within
the jurisdiction of towns over which they exercise supervision,
informing them of the danger of remaining outside of these limits and
that unless they move by December 25th from outlying barrios and
districts with all their movable food supplies, including rice, palay,
chickens, live stock, etc., to within the limits of the zone
established at their own or nearest town, their property (found
outside of said zone at said date) will become liable to confiscation
^ Maj. Eric Weyenberg, U.S. Army,
Population Isolation in the
Philippine War: A Case Study; School of Advanced Military Studies,
United States Army Command and General Staff College, Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas; January 2015.
^ Ashworth (1991), p. 3. Citing L.C. Peltier and G.E. Pearcy, Military
^ R. D. McLaurin & R. Miller. Urban Counterinsurgency: Case
Studies and Implications for U.S. Military Forces. Springfield, VA:
Abbott Associates, October 1989. Produced for U.S. Army Human
Engineering Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground.
^ Ashworth (1991), pp. 91–93. "However, some specific sorts of
crime, together with those antisocial activities which may or may not
be treated as crime (such as vandalism, graffiti daubing, littering
and even noisy or boisterous behavior), do play various roles in the
process of insurgency. This leads in consequence to defensive
reactions on the part of those responsible for public security, and by
individual citizens concerned for their personal safety. The
authorities react with situational crime prevention as part of the
armoury of urban defense, and individuals fashion their behavior
according to an 'urban geography of fear'."
^ Adams (1981), p. 132 "Physical destruction and ensuing decline of
population were certain to be particularly severe in the case of
cities that joined unsuccessful rebellions, or whose ruling dynasts
were overcome by others in abbtle. The traditional lamentations
provide eloquently stylized literary accounts of this, while in other
cases the combinations of archaeological evidence with the testimony
of a city's like Ur's victorious opponent as to its destruction
grounds the world of metaphor in harsh reality (Brinkman 1969, pp.
^ Fabien Limonier, "
Rome et la destruction de Carthage: un crime
gratuit?" Revue des Études Anciennes 101(3).
^ Ben Kiernan, "The First Genocide: Carthage, 146 BC"; Diogenes 203,
^ Burns H. Westou, "Nuclear Weapons Versus International Law: A
Contextual Reassessment"; McGill
Law Journal 28, p. 577. "As noted
above, nulcear weapons designed for countervalue or city-killing
purposes tend to be of the strategic class, with known yields of
deployed warheads averaging somewhere between two and three times and
1500 times the firepower of the bombs dropped on
^ Dallas Boyd, "Revealed Preference and the Minimum Requirements of
Nuclear Deterrence"; Strategic Studies Quarterly, Spring 2016.
^ a b Joel A. Tarr, "The Evolution of the Urban
Infrastructure in the
Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries"; in Hanson (1984).
^ a b c Wellman & Spiller, "Introduction", in Wellman &
^ a b c Kath Wellman & Frederik Pretorius, "Urban Infrastructure:
Productivity, Project Evaluation, and Finance"; in Wellman &
^ Thomas DiLorenzo, "The Myth of Natural Monopoly"; Review of
Economics 9(2), 1996.
^ Jean-Michel Guldmann, "Economies of Scale and Natural
Urban Utilities: The Case of Natural Gas Distribution"; Geographical
Analysis 17(4), October 1985; doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1985.tb00852.x.
^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 70.
^ Kath Wellman & Frederik Pretorius, "Urban Infrastructure:
Productivity, Project Evaluation, and Finance"; in Wellman &
Spiller (2012), pp. 73–74. "The NCP established a legislative regime
at Federal and State levels to facilitate third-party access to
provision and operation of infrastructure facilities, including
electricity and telecommunications networks, gas and water pipelines,
railroad terminals and networks, airports, and ports. Following these
reforms, few countries embarked on a larger scale initiative than
Australia to privatize delivery and management of public
infrastructure at all levels of government."
^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 75. "By the 1960s, however, this
'integrated ideal' was being challenged, public infrastructure
entering into crisis. There is now a new orthodoxy in many branches of
urban planning: 'The logic is now for planners to fight for the best
possible networked infrastructures for their specialized district, in
partnership with (often privatised and internationalised network)
operators, rather than seeking to orchestrate how networks roll out
through the city as a whole' (Graham and Marvin, 2001: 113).
In the context of development theory, these 'secessionary'
infrastructures physically by-pass sectors of cities unable to afford
the necessary cabling, pipe-laying, or streetscaping that underpins
service provision. Cities such as Manila,
Mumbai are thus
increasingly characterized by a two-speed mode of urbanisation.
^ "public, adj. and n.", Oxford English Dictionary, September 2007.
^ Emanuele Lobina, David Hall, & Vladimir Popov, "List of water
Asia and worldwide – As of April 2014";
Public Services International Research Unit,
University of Greenwich.
^ Michael Goldman, "How '
Water for All!' policy became hegemonic: The
power of the World
Bank and its transnational policy networks";
Geoforum 38(5), September 2007; doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2005.10.008.
^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 169–170.
^ Grava (2003), pp. 1–2.
^ a b c d Tom Hart, "
Transport and the City"; in Paddison (2001).
^ Grava (2003), pp. 15–18.
^ Grava (2003),
^ Smethurst pp. 67–71.
^ Smethurst pp. 105–171.
^ a b J. Allen Whitt & Glenn Yago, "Corporate Strategies and the
Decline of Transit in U.S. Cities"; Urban Affairs Quarterly 21(1),
^ a b Iain Borden, "Automobile Interstices: Driving and the In-Between
Spaces of the City"; in Brighenti (2013).
^ Moshe Safdie with Wendy Kohn, The
City After the Automobile;
BasicBooks (Harper Collins), 1997; ISBN 0-465-09836-3; pp. 3–6.
^ Grava (2003), pp. 128–132; 152–157.
^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 30–32.
^ Grava (2003), 301–305. "There are a great many places where
[buses] are the only public service mode offered; to the best of the
author's knowledge, no city that has transit operates without a bus
component. Leaving aside private cars, all indicators—passengers
carried, vehicle kilometers accumulated, size of fleet, accidents
recorded, pollution caused, workers employed, or whatever else—show
the dominance of buses among all transit modes, in this country as
well as anywhere else around the world. […] At the global scale,
there are probably 8000 to 10,000 communities and cities that provide
organized bus transit. The larger places have other modes as well, but
the bulk of these cities offers buses as their sole public means of
^ Herbert S. Levinson, Samuel Zimmerman, Jennifer Clinger, & C.
Scott Rutherford, "Bus Rapid Transit: An Overview"; Journal of Public
Transportation 5(2), 2002.
^ Yvonne Rydin et al., "Shaping cities for health: complexity and the
planning of urban environments in the 21st century"; The Lancet
379(9831), 2012; PMID 3428861.
^ Anthony Walmsley, "Greenways: multiplying and diversifying in the
21st century"; Landscape and Urban
Planning 76, 2006;
^ McQuillin (1937/1987), §1.74. "It cannot be too strongly emphasized
that no city begins to be well-planned until it has solved its housing
problem. The problems of living and working are of primary importance.
These include sanitation, sufficient sewers, clean, well lighted
streets, rehabilitation of slum areas, and health protection through
provision for pure water and wholesome food.
^ Ray Forrest & Peter Williams,
Housing in the Twentieth Century";
in Paddison (2001).
^ Franz Rebele, "Urban Ecology and
Special Features of Urban
Ecosystems", Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 4(6), November
^ Herbert Sukopp, "On the Early History of Urban Ecology in Europe";
in Marzluff et al. (2008).
^ a b c d e S.T.A. Pickett, M.L. Cadenasso, J.M. Grove, C.H. Nilon,
R.V. Pouyat, W.C. Zipperer, & R. Costanza, "Urban Ecological
Systems: Linking Terrestrial Ecological, Physical, and Socioeconomic
Components of Metropolitan Areas"; in Marzluff et al. (2008).
^ Ingo Kowarik, "On the Role of Alien Species in Urban Flora and
Vegetation"; in Marzluff et al. (2008).
^ Robert Campagni, Roberta Capello, & Peter Nijamp, "Managing
Sustainable Urban Environments"; in Paddison (2001).
^ "National Geographic Magazine;
Special report 2008: Changing
Village Green". Michelle Nijhuis. 2008-08-26. Retrieved
^ "Indoor Air Quality – American Lung Association of Alaska".
Aklung.org. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
^ "Newsminer.com; EPA to put Fairbanks on air pollution problem list".
Newsminer.com. 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2009-02-07. [permanent dead
^ Peter Adey, "Coming up for Air: Comfort, Conflict and the Air of the
Megacity"; in Brighenti (2013), p. 103.
^ Anthony Brazel, Nancy Selover, Russel Vose, & Gordon Heisler,
"The tale of two climates – Baltimore and Phoenix urban LTER sites";
Climate Research 15, 2000.
^ Sharon L. Harlan, Anthony J. Brazel, G. Darrel Jenerette, Nancy S.
Jones, Larissa Larsen, Lela Prashad, & William L. Stefanov, "In
the Shade of Affluence: The Inequitable Distribution of the Urban Heat
Island"; in Robert C. Wilkinson & William R. Freudenburg, eds.,
Equity and the Environment (Research in Social Problems and Public
Policy, Volume 15); Oxford: JAI Press (Elsevier);
^ Abrahamson (2004), pp. 2–4. "The linkages among cities cutting
across nations became a global network. It is important to note here
that the key nodes in the international system are (global) cities,
not nations. [...] Once the linkages among cities became a global
network, nations became dependent upon their major cities for
connections to the rest of the world."
^ a b Herrschel & Newman (2017), pp. 3–4. "Instead, the picture
is becoming more detailed and differentiated, with a growing number of
sub-national entities, cities, city-regions and regions, becoming more
visible in their own right, either individually, or collectively as
networks, by, more or less tentatively, stepping out of the
territorial canvas and hierarchical institutional hegemony of the
state. Prominent and well-known cities, and those regions with a
strong sense of identity and often a quest for more autonomy, have
been the most enthusiastic, as they began to be represented beyond
state borders by high-profile city mayors and some regional leaders
with political courage and agency. […] This, then, became part of
the much bigger political project of the
European Union (EU), which
has offered a particularly supportive environment for international
engagement by—and among—subnational governments as part of its
inherent integrationist agenda."
^ Gupta et al. (2015), 5–11. "Current globalization, characterized
by hyper capitalism and technological revolutions, is understood as
the growing intensity of economic, demographic, social, political,
cultural and environmental interactions worldwide, leading to
increasing interdependence and homogenization of ideologies,
production and consumption patterns and lifestyles (Pieterse 1994;
Sassen 1998). […] Decentralization processes have increased
city-level capacities of city authorities to develop and implement
local social and developmental policies. Cities as homes of the rich,
and of powerful businesses, banks, stock markets, UN agencies and
NGOs, are the location from which global to local decision-making
occurs (e.g. New York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Hong Kong, São
^ Herrschel & Newman (2017), pp. 9–10. "The merchants of the
Hanseatic League, for instance, enjoyed substantial trading privileges
as a result of inter-city diplomacy and collective agreements within
the networks (Lloyd 2002), as well as with larger powers, such as
states. That way, the League could negotiate 'extra-territorial' legal
spaces with special privileges, such as the 'German Steelyard' in the
London (Schofield 2012). This special status was granted and
guaranteed by the English king as part of an agreement between the
state and a foreign city association."
^ Curtis (2016), p. 5.
^ Kaplan (2004), pp. 115–133.
^ Sassen, Saskia - The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Archived
16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (1991) - Princeton University
Press. ISBN 0-691-07063-6
^ John Friedmann and Goetz Wolff, "World
City Formation: An Agenda for
Research and Action," International Journal of Urban and Regional
Research, 6, no. 3 (1982): 319
^ Abrahamson (2004), p. 4. "The formerly major industrial cities that
were most able quickly and thoroughly to transform themselves into the
new postindustrial mode became the leading global cities—the centers
of the new global system."
^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 88.
^ James, Paul; with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred B.
(2015). Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of
Sustainability. London: Routledge. pp. 28, 30. "Against
those writers who, by emphasizing the importance of financial exchange
systems, distinguish a few special cities as 'global
cities'—commonly London, Paris, New York and Tokyo—we recognize
the uneven global dimensions of all the cities that we study. Los
Angeles, the home of Hollywood, is a globalizing city, though perhaps
more significantly in cultural than economic terms. And so is Dili
globalizing, the small and 'insignificant' capital of Timor
Leste—except this time it is predominantly in political terms..."
^ Kaplan (2004), 99–106.
^ Kaplan (2004), pp. 91–95. "The United States is also dominant in
providing high-quality, global engineering-design services, accounting
for approximately 50 percent of the world's total exports. The
disproportionate presence of these U.S.-headquartered firms is
attributable to the U.S. role in overseas automobile production, the
electronics and petroleum industries, and various kinds of
construction, including work on the country's numerous overseas air
and navy military bases."
^ Kaplan (2004), p. 90–92.
^ Michael Samers, "Immigration and the Global
City Hypothesis: Towards
an Alternative Research Agenda"; International Journal of Urban and
Regional Research 26(2), June 2002. "And not withstanding some major
world cities that do not have comparatively high levels of
immigration, like Tokyo, it may in fact be the presence of such
large-scale immigrant economic 'communities' (with their attendant
global financial remittances and their ability to incubate small
business growth, rather than simply their complementarity to producer
services employment) which partially distinguishes mega-cities from
other more nationally oriented urban centres."
^ Jane Willis, Kavita Datta, Yara Evans, Joanna Herbert, Jon May,
& Cathy McIlwane, Global Cities at Work: New Migrant Divisions of
Labour; London: Pluto Press, 2010; ISBN 978 0 7453 2799 0; p. 29:
"These apparently rather different takes on London's 'global city'
status are of course not so far removed from one another as they may
first appear. Holding them together is the figure of the migrant
worker. The reliance of London's financial institutions and business
services industries on the continuing flow of highly skilled labour
from overseas is now well known (Beaverstock and Smith 1996). Less
well known is the extent to which London's economy as a whole is now
dependent upon the labour power of low-paid workers from across the
^ Mattthew R. Sanderson, Ben Derudder, Michael Timberlake, & Frank
Witlox, "Are world cities also world immigrant cities? An
international, cross-city analysis of global centrality and
immigration"; International Journal of Comparative Sociology
56(3–4), 2015; doi:10.1177/0020715215604350.
^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 49–50.
^ Charlie Jeffery, "Sub-National Authorities and European Integration:
Moving Beyond the Nation-State?" Presented at the Fifth Biennial
International Conference of the European Community Studies
Association, 29 May–1 June 1997, Seattle, US.
^ Jing Pan, "The Role of Local Government in Shaping and Influencing
International Policy Frameworks", PhD thesis accepted at De Montfort
University, April 2014.
^ Herrschel & Newman (2017), p. "In Europe, the EU provides
incentives and institutional frameworks for multiple new forms of city
and regional networking and lobbying, including at the international
EU level. But a growing number of cities and regions also seek to 'go
it alone' by establishing their own representations in Brussels,
either individually or in shared accommodation, as the base for
^ Gary Marks, Richard Haesly, Heather A. D. Mbaye, "What Do
Subnational Offices Think They're Doing in Brussels?"; Regional and
Federal Studies 12(3), Autumn 2002.
^ Carola Hein, "Cities (and regions) within a city: subnational
representations and the creation of European imaginaries in Brussels";
International Journal of the Urban Sciences 19(1), 2015. See also
websites of individual city embassies cited therein, including Hanse
Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein) and
Office in Brussels"; and CoR's
of regional offices] in Brussels.
^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 45–47.
^ a b Sofie Bouteligier, "Inequality in new global governance
arrangements: the North–South divide in transnational municipal
networks"; Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research
26(3), 2013; doi:10.1080/13511610.2013.771890. "
City networks are not
a new phenomenon, but it was the 1990s that saw an explosion of such
initiatives, especially in the environmental domain. This is mostly
ascribed to (chapter 28 of) Agenda 21, which recognizes the role of
local authorities in the promotion of sustainable development and
stimulates exchange and cooperation between them."
^ a b Herrschel & Newman (2017), p. 82.
^ a b Nancy Duxbury & Sharon Jeannotte, "Global Cultural
Governance Policy"; Chapter 21 in The Ashgate Research Companion to
Planning and Culture; London: Ashgate, 2013.
^ Now the Global Covenant of Mayors; see: "Global Covenant of Mayors
– Compact of Mayors". Retrieved 13 October 2016.
^ "The Vancouver Action Plan"; Approved at Habitat: United Nations
Conference on Human Settlements, Vancouver, Canada; 31 May to 11 June
^ a b c Peter R. Walker, "Human Settlements and Urban Life: A United
Nations Perspective"; Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless 14,
^ David Satterthwaite, "Editorial: A new urban agenda?"; Environment
& Urbanization, 2016; doi:10.1177/0956247816637501.
^ a b Susan Parnell, "Defining a Global Urban Development Agenda";
World Development 78, 2015; doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.028; pp.
531–532: "Garnered by its interest in the urban poor the Bank, along
with other international donors, became an active and influential
participant in the
Habitat deliberations, confirming both
Habitat II's focus on 'development in cities' instead of the role
of 'cities in development'."
^ a b Vanessa Watson, "Locating planning in the New Urban Agenda of
the urban sustainable development goal";
Planning Theory 15(4), 2016;
^ New Urban Agenda,
Habitat III Secretariat, 2017; A/RES/71/256*;
ISBN 978-92-1-132731-1; p. 15.
^ Akin L. Mabogunje, "A New Paradigm for Urban Development";
Proceedings of the World
Bank Annual Conference on Development
Economics 1991. "Irrespective of the economic outcome, the regime of
structural adjustment being adopted in most developing countries today
is likely to spur urbanization. If structural adjustment actually
succeeds in turning around economic performance, the enhanced gross
domestic product is bound to attract more migrants to the cities; if
it fails, the deepening misery—especially in the rural areas—is
certain to push more migrants to the city."
^ John Briggs and Ian E. A. Yeboah, "
Structural adjustment and the
contemporary sub-Saharan African city"; Area 33(1), 2001.
^ Claire Wanjiru Ngare, "Supporting Learning Cities: A Case Study of
the Cities Alliance"; master's thesis accepted at the
Ottawa, April 2012.
^ Alexandre Apsan Frediani, "Amartya Sen, the World Bank, and the
Redress of Urban Poverty: A Brazilian Case Study"; in Journal of Human
Development 8(1), March 2007.
^ Ellul (1970).
^ Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, "
City Imaginaries", in Bridge &
Watson, eds. (2000).
^ Herrschel & Newman (2017), pp. 7–8. "Growing inequalities as a
result of neo-liberal globalism, such as between the successful cities
and the less successful, struggling, often peripheral, cities and
regions, produce rising political discontent, such as we are now
facing across Europe and in the United States as populist accusations
of self-serving metropolitan elitism."
^ J.E. Cirlot, "City"; A Dictionary of Symbols, Second Edition,
translated from Spanish to English by Jack Read; New York:
Philosophical Library, 1971; pp. 48–49 (online).
^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 115.
^ Leach (1993), p. 345. "The German film director
Fritz Lang was
inspired to 'make a film' about 'the sensations' he felt when he first
Times Square in 1923; a place 'lit as if in full daylight by neon
lights and topping them oversized luminous advertisements moving,
turning, flashing on and off . . . something completely new and nearly
fairly-tale-like for a European . . . a luxurious cloth hung from a
dark sky to dazzle, distract, and hypnotize.' The film Lang made
turned out to be The Metropolis, an unremittingly dark vision of a
modern industrial city.
^ Curtis (2016), p. vii–x, 1.
^ Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis, Ecumenopolis: Tomorrow's City;
Brittanica Book of the Year, 1968. Chapter V: Ecumenopolis, the Real
City of Man. "Ecumenopolis, which mankind will have built 150 years
from now, can be the real city of man because, for the first time in
history, man will have one city rather than many cities belonging to
different national, racial, religious, or local groups, each ready to
protect its own members but also ready to fight those from other
cities, large and small, interconnected into a system of cities.
Ecumenopolis, the unique city of man, will form a continuous,
differentiated, but also unified texture consisting of many cells, the
human communities. "
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Publishers, 1999. 391 pp. ISBN 978-1-55786-918-0.
Reader, John (2005) Cities. Vintage, New York.
Robson, W.A., and Regan, D.E., ed., Great Cities of the World, (3d
ed., 2 vol., 1972)
Smethurst, Paul (2015). The
Bicycle – Towards a Global History.
Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-49951-6.
Thernstrom, S., and Sennett, R., ed., Nineteenth-Century Cities (1969)
Toynbee, Arnold J. (ed), Cities of Destiny, New York: McGraw-Hill,
1967. Pan historical/geographical essays, many images. Starts with
"Athens", ends with "The Coming World City-Ecumenopolis".
Weber, Max, The City, 1921. (tr. 1958)
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Designations for types of administrative territorial entities
Common English terms1
Local government area
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Metropolitan statistical area
Micropolitan statistical area
Free imperial city
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Other English terms
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Kunta / kommun
Arabic terms for country subdivisions
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Second / third-level
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City / township-level
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Baladiyah (بلدية municipality)
Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter)
Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision")
English translations given are those most commonly used.
French terms for country subdivisions
Greek terms for country subdivisions
apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ /
nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita
demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§
§ signifies a defunct institution
Portuguese terms for country subdivisions
Historical subdivisions in italics.
Slavic terms for country subdivisions
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oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast'
opština / općina / občina / obshtina
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selsoviet / silrada
voivodeship / vojvodina
guberniya / gubernia
starostwo / starostva
Spanish terms for country subdivisions
Historical subdivisions in italics.
Turkish terms for country subdivisions
ağalık (feudal district)
reya (Romanian principalities)
voyvodalık (Romanian provinces)
1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical
derivations in italics.
Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and
List of administrative divisions by country