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The trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata or Citrus trifoliata, is a member of the family Rutaceae. Whether the species should be considered to belong to its own genus, Poncirus or included in the genus Citrus is debated. The species is unusual among citrus for having deciduous, compound leaves and pubescent (downy) fruit.[2][3] The trifolate orange was long viewed as the sole member of Poncirus, until the discovery a second species, Poncirus polyandra, in Yunnan (China) in the 1980s.[4] It is native to northern China and Korea, and is also known as the Japanese bitter-orange,[5] hardy orange[6] or Chinese bitter orange. The plant is a fairly cold-hardy citrus (USDA zone 6) and will tolerate moderate frost and snow, making a large shrub or small tree 4–8 m tall. Because of its relative hardiness, citrus grafted onto Citrus trifoliata are usually hardier than when grown on their own roots.[7]

Contents

1 Description 2 Uses

2.1 Cultivation 2.2 As food 2.3 Medicine

2.3.1 Traditional medicine

3 References

Description[edit] The trifoliate orange is recognizable by the large 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) thorns on the shoots, and its deciduous leaves with three (or rarely, five) leaflets, typically with the middle leaflet 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) long, and the two side leaflets 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) long. The flowers are white, with pink stamens, 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) in diameter, larger than those of true citrus but otherwise closely resembling them, except that the scent is much less pronounced than with true citrus. As with true citrus, the leaves give off a spicy smell when crushed. The fruits are green, ripening to yellow, and 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) in diameter, resembling a small orange, but with a finely downy surface.

Flower

Leaves and thorns

Green fruits

Uses[edit] Cultivation[edit] The cultivar "Flying Dragon" is dwarfed in size and has highly twisted, contorted stems. It makes an excellent barrier hedge due to its density and strong curved thorns. Such hedges have been grown for over 50 years at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, and are highly student-proof.[8] The plant is also highly deer resistant.[9] Recent studies have revealed that the trifoliate orange contains aurapten at a high concentration, which is one of the functional components having immunity against citrus tristeza virus (CTV).[10] As food[edit] The fruits are very bitter and most people consider them inedible fresh, but they can be made into marmalade.[9] When dried and powdered, they can be used as a condiment. Medicine[edit] Traditional medicine[edit] The fruits of the trifoliate orange are widely used in Oriental medicine as a treatment for allergic inflammation.[11] References[edit]

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^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 26 March 2016  ^ Dianxiang Zhang & David J. Mabberley, "Citrus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 782. 1753", Flora of China online, 11  ^ Dianxiang Zhang & David J. Mabberley, "Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2: 1101. 1763", Flora of China online, 11  ^ Garcia-Lor, Andres; Curk, Franck; Snoussi-Trifa, Hager; Morillon, Raphael; Ancillo, Gema; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (2011). "A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species". Annals of Botany. 111: 1–19. doi:10.1093/aob/mcs227.  ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.  ^ "Poncirus trifoliata". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 31 January 2016.  ^ "Notice to Fruit Growers and Nurseymen Related to the Naming and Release of the US-942 Citrus Rootstock" (PDF). Agricultural Research Service, USDA. 22 October 2010. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ Gerald Klingaman. "Plant of the Week. Hardy Orange or Trifoliate Orange. Latin: Poncirus trifoliat". University of Arkansas. Division of Agriculture.  ^ a b Green Deane Hardy. "Hardy Orange".  ^ Ohta, Satoshi; Endo, Tomoko; Shimada, Takehiko; Fujii, Hiroshi (2011). "Karatachi no kankitsu torisuteza wīrusu teikōsei to rensa suru DNA mākā" [PCR Primers for Marker Assisted Backcrossing to Introduce a CTV Resistance Gene from Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. into Citrus]. Shimizu, Tokuro; Kuniga, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa; Yoshida, Toshio; Omura, Mitsuo (University of Shizuoka). Japanese Society for Horticultural Science. pp. 295–307. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ Zhou H.Y.; Shin E.M.; Guo L.Y.; Zou L.B.; Xu G.H.; Lee S.-H.; Ze K.R.; Kim E.-K.; Kang S.S.; Kim Y.S. (2007), "Anti-inflammatory activity of 21(alpha, beta)-methylmelianodiols, novel compounds from Poncirus trifoliata Rafinesque.", European Journal of Pharmacology, 572 (2-3): 239–248, doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.07.005, PMID 17662711 

v t e

Citrus

True species

Australian and Papuan wild limes Byeonggyul Citron Clymenia Indian wild orange Ichang papeda Kumquat Mandarin Mangshanyegan Micrantha Pomelo

Major hybrids

Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

Alemow Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bizzaria Bitter orange Blood lime Blood orange Buddha's hand Cam sành Cara cara navel Cherry orange Citrange Citrumelo Clementine Daidai Dekopon Fairchild tangerine Florentine citron Hassaku orange Hebesu Hyuganatsu Imperial lemon Iyokan Jabara Jaffa orange Kabbad Kabosu Kaffir lime Kakadu lime Kalpi Key lime Khasi papeda Kinnow Kishumikan Kiyomi Komikan Laraha Lumia Mandelo Mandora Melanesian papeda Melogold Meyer lemon Murcott Myrtle-leaved orange tree Ōgonkan Orangelo/Chironja Oroblanco Palestinian sweet lime Persian lime Pixie mandarin Ponderosa lemon Ponkan Rangpur Reikou Rhobs el Arsa Rough lemon Sanboken Satsuma mandarin Setoka Shangjuan Shonan Gold Sudachi Sweet lemon Sweet limetta Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli fruit Valencia orange Variegated pink lemon Winged lime Xã Đoài orange Yuukou mandarin Yuzu

Citrons

Balady citron Corsican citron Diamante citron Fingered citron Greek citron Moroccan citron Yemenite citron

Mandarin oranges

Cleopatra mandarin Shīkwāsā Nanfengmiju

Papedas

Citrus halimii or Mountain "citron" Ichang papeda

Pomelos

Banpeiyu Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus, Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)

Australian outback lime Australian round lime Brown River finger lime Desert lime Mount white lime (Microcitrus) New Guinea wild lime Russell River lime Clymenia Oxanthera

Kumquat hybrids (×Citrofortunella)

Calamondin Citrangequat Limequat Orangequat Procimequat Sunquat Yuzuquat

Related genus

Poncirus/Trifoliate orange

Drinks

Chūhai Curaçao Grapefruit juice Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Yuja-hwachae Yuja tea

Products

Calcium citrate Citric acid Lemonene Limonene Neroli Orange flower water Orange oil Orangeat Succade Zest

Diseases

Black spot CTV/Tristeza Exocortis Greening Mal secco Phytophthora

citricola

Related topics

The Citrus Industry Citrus production Citrus rootstock Citrus taxonomy Cold-hardy citrus Hesperidium Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mother Orange Tree Orangery University of California Citrus Experiment Station University of California, Riverside Citrus Variety Collection

Book Category Production Commons

Taxon identifiers

Poncirus trifoliata

Wd: Q859433 EoL: 581896 EPPO: PMITR GBIF: 3190128 GRIN: 29344 iNaturalist: 128940 IPNI: 774884-1 ITIS: 28989 NZOR: bf94d599-71ca-447f-8be7-5284609698e5 PalDat: Poncirus_trifoliata PLANTS: POTR4 Tropicos: 28100519

Citrus trifoliata

Wd: Q15390761 FoC: 220002968 GBIF: 3190129 GRIN: 10791 IPNI: 772087-1 ITIS: 511079 NCBI: 37690 Plant List: kew-2724403 Tropic

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