Citrus westeri Tanaka
CITRUS MICRANTHA is a species of wild citrus of subgenus Papeda
native to southern
Philippines , particularly islands of
Bohol . Two varieties are recognized: SMALL-FLOWERED PAPEDA (C.
micrantha var. micrantha), locally known as BIASONG, and SMALL-FRUITED
PAPEDA (C. micrantha var. microcarpa) or SAMUYAO.
Citrus micrantha is thought to be one of the most primitive members
of subgenus Papeda, which is the earliest branch of the
It is a progenitor species of lime . According to some sources,
Citrus micrantha is likely a synonym of
Citrus hystrix .
* 1 Description
* 1.1 Biasong
* 1.2 Samuyao
* 2 See also
* 3 References
* 4 External links
Citrus micrantha was first described in 1915 by
Peter Jansen Wester ,
who worked for the Philippine Bureau of Agriculture at the time.
Wester collected ripe fruit specimens of biasong (small-flowered
Citrus micrantha var. micrantha) on islands of Cebu, Bohol,
Dumaguete , Negros , and in the Zamboanga and Misamis provinces in
Mindanao . The fruits were collected throughout the year, indicating
that the plant is ever-bearing. Biasong is characterized by small
flowers (thus the "small-flowered" moniker) with fewer stamens than
other papedas and oblong-obovate, few-loculed fruits. Inhabitants did
not use the fruits for food, but for hair-washing, and it had little
According to Wester's botanical description, biasong fruit aroma is
similar to that of the samuyao. The tree reaches 7.5 to 9 meters in
height. Leaves are 9–12 cm long, 2.7–4.0 cm wide, broadly
elliptical to ovate , crenate , thin, with base rounded or broadly
acute; apex acutely blunt pointed. Petioles are 3.5–6 cm long,
broadly winged, up to 4 cm wide, with wings (phyllodes) sometimes
larger than the leaf. Flowers are small, four-petaled, white with thin
purple edge, 12–13 mm in diameter, forming cymes of two to five.
There are 15–17 equal stamens . The ovary is obovoid, with 6–8
slender, distinct locules . Fruits are obovate to oblong-obovate,
5–7 cm long, with diameter of 3–4 cm, averaging 26 g in weight;
their skin is rather thick, lemon-yellow, fairly smooth or with
transverse corrugations; the pulp is juicy, grayish and acid, while
juice cells are short and blunt to long, long, slender and pointed,
sometimes containing a minute, greenish nucleus. They have numerous
flat, pointed, reticulate seeds.
Wester collected ripe samuyao (small-fruited papeda,
var. microcarpa) fruit specimens from cultivation in
June, and from November to February. Samuyao is rather smaller than
biasong, with tree attaining 4.5 meters. It has small, thin leaves and
flowers comparable in size to biasong. The fruit, 15–20 mm in
diameter, is likely to be the smallest in the whole genus. Wester
also recorded a somewhat more vigorous variety, called
"samuyao-sa-amoo" in Bohol, with slightly larger fruits; there is a
possibility that this species was actually Limonellus aurarius,
Georg Eberhard Rumphius back in 1741 in a nearby area,
although his description also fits a number of related species.
Wester gave the botanical description:
A shrubby tree, 4.5 meters tall, with slender branches and small,
weak spines; leaves 55 to 80 millimeters long, 20 to 25 millimeters
broad, ovate to ovate-oblong or elliptical, crenulate, thin, of
distinct fragrance, base rounded to broadly acute; apex obtuse,
sometimes notched, petioles 20 to 30 millimeters long, broadly winged,
about 14 millimeters wide, wing area somewhat less than one-half of
the leaf blade; flowers in compact axillary or terminal cymes, 2 to 7,
small, 5 to 9 millimeters in diameter, white, with trace of purple on
the outside; calyx small, not cupped, petals 3 to 5; stamens 15 to 18,
free, equal; ovary very small, globose to obovate; locules 7 to 9,
style distinct; stigma small, knob like; fruit 15 to 20 millimeters in
diameter, roundish in outline; base sometimes nippled; apex an
irregular, wrinkly cavity; surface corrugate, greenish lemon yellow;
oil cells usually sunken; skin very thin; pulp fairly juicy, acid,
bitter with distinct aroma; juice cells very minute, blunt, containing
a small, greenish nucleus; seeds small, flattened, sometimes beaked.
Clear, intensely fragrant oil can be produced from the samuyao peel,
with potential use in cosmetics, as evidenced by usage by local women
as a hair fragrance.
Citrus hystrix , related species of Southeast Asia
Citrus micrantha was first described and published in
Philippine Agricultural Review 1915, viii. 20."Plant Name Details for
Citrus micrantha". IPNI . Retrieved 2 September 2015.
* ^ "
Citrus westeri Tanaka". Germplasm Resources Information
* ^ A B C D P. J. Wester (1915), "
Citrus Fruits In The
Philippines", Philippine Agricultural Review, 8
* ^ Jorma Koskinen, "Small-flowered and Small-fruited papeda",
* ^ A B C D Swingle, Walter T. (1943). "The Botany of
Its Wild Relatives". The
Citrus Industry, Vol 1 (rev). Berkeley: Univ
of California Press. Archived from the original on 2013-09-01.
* ^ Khan, Iqrar A.; Grosser, Jude W. (2004-05-01). "Regeneration
and characterization of somatic hybrid plants of
(sweet orange) and
Citrus micrantha, a progenitor species of lime.".
Euphytica. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 137 (2): 271–278. ISSN
1573-5060 . doi :10.1023/B:EUPH.0000041591.65333.3c .
* ^ "TPL, treatment of
Citrus hystrix DC.".
The Plant List
The Plant List ;
Version 1.1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden . 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2015.