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Kumquats (or cumquats in Australian English; UK: /ˈkʌmkwɒt/;[2] US: /ˈkʌmˌkwɑːt/ or /ˈkʌmkwɔːt/[3]) ( Citrus
Citrus
japonica) are a group of small fruit-bearing trees in the flowering plant family Rutaceae. They were previously classified as forming the now historical genus Fortunella, or placed within Citrus
Citrus
sensu lato. The edible fruit closely resembles the orange ( Citrus
Citrus
sinensis), but it is much smaller, being approximately the size and shape of a large olive. Kumquat
Kumquat
is a fairly cold-hardy citrus.

Contents

1 Name 2 Origin 3 Description 4 Varieties

4.1 Round kumquat 4.2 Oval kumquat 4.3 Jiangsu kumquat 4.4 'Centennial Variegated' kumquat

5 Cultivation and uses

5.1 Propagation and pollination

6 Composition 7 Hybrids 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Name[edit] The English name "kumquat" derives from the Cantonese
Cantonese
gām-gwāt 金橘, literally meaning "golden orange" or "golden tangerine". Though loquats are not botanically related to kumquats, the terms derive from the same Chinese word for "orange". Lou4gwat1, literally "black orange", originally referred to unripe kumquats, which are dark green, but due to a misunderstanding by poet Su Shi, Cantonese
Cantonese
regions widely took up the new name for the non-citrus fruit known in Mandarin Chinese as a pipa.[citation needed] Origin[edit] The kumquat plant is native to south Asia and the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region. The earliest historical reference to kumquats appears in literature of China
China
in the 12th century. They have long been cultivated in India, Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, and southeast Asia. They were introduced to Europe
Europe
in 1846 by Robert Fortune, collector for the London Horticultural Society, and shortly thereafter into North America. Description[edit]

Illustration by Walter Hood Fitch

They are slow-growing evergreen shrubs or short trees, from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (8 to 15 ft) tall, with dense branches, sometimes bearing small thorns. The leaves are dark glossy green, and the flowers are white, similar to other citrus flowers, borne singly or clustered in the leaf-axils. Depending on size, the kumquat tree can produce hundreds or even thousands of fruits each year.[4] Varieties[edit] Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy is complicated and controversial. Different systems place different types of kumquat in different species, or unite them in a single genus. Historically they were viewed as within the genus Citrus, but the Swingle system of citrus taxonomy elevated them to their own genus, Fortunella. Recent phylogenetics suggests they indeed fall within Citrus. Round kumquat[edit] When the kumquats are divided into multiple species, the name Fortunella japonica (or Citrus
Citrus
japonica) is retained by this group. The round kumquat also called Marumi kumquat or Morgani kumquat, is an evergreen tree, producing edible golden-yellow fruit. The round Hawaiian varietal, the "Meiwa kumquat", is eaten raw. The fruit is small and usually round but can be oval shaped. The peel has a sweet flavor but the fruit has a sour center. The fruit can be eaten cooked but is mainly used to make marmalades and jellies. It is grown as an ornamental plant and can be used in bonsai. The plant symbolizes good luck in China
China
and other Asian countries, where it is kept as a houseplant and given as a gift during the Lunar New Year. Round kumquats are more commonly cultivated than other species due to their cold tolerance. Oval kumquat[edit] When the kumquats are divided into multiple species, the name Fortunella margarita (or Citrus
Citrus
margarita) is used for this group. The oval kumquat is also called the Nagami kumquat.[5] The unusual feature of the Nagami kumquat is in the eating of the fruit. The fruit is eaten whole, skin and all. The inside is still quite sour, but the skin has the sweeter flavour, when eaten together it produces an unusual tart-sweet, refreshing flavour. Fruit
Fruit
ripens mid to late winter and always crops very heavily, making a spectacular display against the dark green foliage. The tree is smaller growing and dwarf in nature, making it ideal for pots and has even been used in bonsai. Jiangsu kumquat[edit] When the kumquats are divided into multiple species the name Fortunella obovata (or Citrus
Citrus
obovata) is used for this group. The Jiangsu kumquat or Fukushu kumquat bears edible fruit that can be eaten raw. The fruit can be made into jelly and marmalade. The fruit can be round or bell shaped; it is bright orange when fully ripe. It may be distinguished from other kumquats by its round leaves. It is grown for its edible fruit and as an ornamental plant. It cannot withstand frost. Kumquats are often seen near the Yuvraj section of the Nayak Province. 'Centennial Variegated' kumquat[edit]

'Centennial Variegated' kumquat tree

'Centennial Variegated' kumquat fruit

The 'Centennial Variegated' kumquat cultivar arose spontaneously from the Nagami kumquat. It produces a greater portion of fruit versus the thinner peel than the Nagami kumquat, and the fruit are also rounder and sometimes necked. Fruit
Fruit
are distinguishable by their variegation in color of green and yellow stripes. The tree is thornless.[6] Cultivation and uses[edit] Kumquats are cultivated in the Philippines, China, Chile, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, Nepal, southern Pakistan, Iran, the Middle East, Europe
Europe
(notably Corfu, Greece), and the United States (notably Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, California and Hawaii, but also Nevada, Arizona, and many areas throughout the Eastern U.S. and as far north as the Southern Midwest and barrier islands of Massachusetts.)[citation needed] They are much hardier than other citrus plants such as oranges. The 'Nagami' kumquat requires a hot summer, ranging from 25 °C to 38 °C (77 °F to 100 °F), but can withstand frost down to about −10 °C (14 °F) without injury. In cultivation in the UK, Citrus
Citrus
japonica has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit[7] (confirmed 2017).[8] Propagation and pollination[edit] Kumquats do not grow well from seeds and so are vegetatively propagated, using rootstock of another citrus fruit,[9] air layering or cuttings (using a rooting gel/powder).[10] They are self-pollinating as are most citrus. Composition[edit] The essential oil of kumquat peel contains much of the aroma of the fruit, and is composed principally of limonene, which makes up around 93% of the total.[11] Besides limonene and alpha-pinene (0.34%), both monoterpenes, the oil is unusually rich (0.38% total) in sesquiterpenes such as α-bergamotene (0.021%), caryophyllene (0.18%), α-humulene (0.07%) and α-muurolene (0.06%), and these contribute to the spicy and woody flavor of the fruit. Carbonyl
Carbonyl
compounds make up much of the remainder, and these are responsible for much of the distinctive flavor. These compounds include esters such as isopropyl propanoate (1.8%) and terpinyl acetate (1.26%); ketones such as carvone (0.175%); and a range of aldehydes such as citronellal (0.6%) and 2-methylundecanal. Other oxygenated compounds include nerol (0.22%) and trans-linalool oxide (0.15%).[11] Hybrids[edit] Main article: Citrofortunella Hybrid forms of the kumquat include the following:

Calamondin: mandarin orange x kumquat[12] Citrangequat: citrange x kumquat Limequat: key lime x kumquat Orangequat: Satsuma mandarin
Satsuma mandarin
x kumquat Procimequat: limequat x kumquat Sunquat: Meyer lemon
Meyer lemon
(?) x kumquat Yuzuquat: yuzu x kumquat

Kumquat
Kumquat
flower

Kumquat
Kumquat
fruit cross-section

Kumquat
Kumquat
whole and sectioned

Common kumquat

Round kumquats (or citrofortunella)

Round kumquats (or citrofortunella)

Koum Quat liqueurs from Corfu, Greece

Potted kumquat trees at a kumquat liqueur distillery in Corfu.

Slices of kumquat pie at the Kumquat Festival
Kumquat Festival
in Dade City, Florida

Bags of kumquat for sale at the Kumquat
Kumquat
Festival

Kumquat
Kumquat
Preserves

Flowers and fruit

Green fruit and leaves

Kumquat
Kumquat
tree

Closeup from fruit in growth

Kumquats in growth

Ready to pick

Ripening

Kumquat
Kumquat
or kumquat hybrid

See also[edit]

Kumquat
Kumquat
Festival

References[edit]

^ "The Plant
Plant
List: A Working List of All Plant
Plant
Species". Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ "Britain: Kumquat". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "American: Kumquat". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ Morton, Julia (1987). "Kumquat". Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL. pp. 182–185. A mature specimen on rough lemon rootstock at Oneco, Florida, in 1901, bore a crop of 3,000 to 3,500 fruits.  ^ Fortunella margarita: oval kumquat, Nagami kumquat, coolexotics.com ^ Centennial at the Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection

‘Centennial’ Variegated
Variegated
Kumquat
Kumquat
Hybrid

^ "RHS Plantfinder - Citrus
Citrus
japonica". Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.  ^ "Kumquat". purdue.edu.  ^ VanZile, Jon. "Fortunella—How to Grow Kumquats Indoors". HousePlants.About.com. [dubious – discuss] ^ a b Koyasako, A.; Bernhard, R.A. (1983). "Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oil of Kumquat". Journal of Food Science. Wiley & Sons. 48 (6): 1807–1812. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb05090.x.  ^ "× Citrofortunella
Citrofortunella
microcarpa". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 1 June 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Burkill, I. H. (1931). An enumeration of the species of Paramignya, Atalantia and Citrus, found in Malaya. Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 5: 212–220. Mabberley, D. J. (1998). Australian Citreae with notes on other Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). Telopea 7 (4): 333–344. Available online (pdf). Fruits of warm climates Fortunella crassifolia Swingle – Fruits and Seeds Flavon's Wild herb and Alpine plants International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo Code)

External links[edit]

Look up kumquat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fortunella (Kumquat).

Data related to Fortunella at Wikispecies Growing an Orange Tree
Tree
in Hydroponic How to grow kumquats and other citrus from seed How to propagate by air layering. Kumquat
Kumquat
Marmalade

v t e

Citrus

True species

Australian and Papuan wild limes Byeonggyul Citron Clymenia Indian wild orange Ichang papeda Kumquat Mandarin Mangshanyegan Micrantha Pomelo

Major hybrids

Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

Alemow Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bizzaria Bitter orange Blood lime Blood orange Buddha's hand Cam sành Cara cara navel Cherry orange Citrange Citrumelo Clementine Daidai Dekopon Fairchild tangerine Florentine citron Hassaku orange Hebesu Hyuganatsu Imperial lemon Iyokan Jabara Jaffa orange Kabbad Kabosu Kaffir lime Kakadu lime Kalpi Key lime Khasi papeda Kinnow Kishumikan Kiyomi Komikan Laraha Lumia Mandelo Mandora Melanesian papeda Melogold Meyer lemon Murcott Myrtle-leaved orange tree Ōgonkan Orangelo/Chironja Oroblanco Palestinian sweet lime Persian lime Pixie mandarin Ponderosa lemon Ponkan Rangpur Reikou Rhobs el Arsa Rough lemon Sanboken Satsuma mandarin Setoka Shangjuan Shonan Gold Sudachi Sweet lemon Sweet limetta Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli fruit Valencia orange Variegated
Variegated
pink lemon Winged lime Xã Đoài orange Yuukou mandarin Yuzu

Citrons

Balady citron Corsican citron Diamante citron Fingered citron Greek citron Moroccan citron Yemenite citron

Mandarin oranges

Cleopatra mandarin Shīkwāsā Nanfengmiju

Papedas

Citrus
Citrus
halimii or Mountain "citron" Ichang papeda

Pomelos

Banpeiyu Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus, Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)

Australian outback lime Australian round lime Brown River finger lime Desert lime Mount white lime (Microcitrus) New Guinea wild lime Russell River lime Clymenia Oxanthera

Kumquat
Kumquat
hybrids (×Citrofortunella)

Calamondin Citrangequat Limequat Orangequat Procimequat Sunquat Yuzuquat

Related genus

Poncirus/Trifoliate orange

Drinks

Chūhai Curaçao Grapefruit
Grapefruit
juice Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Yuja-hwachae Yuja tea

Products

Calcium citrate Citric acid Lemonene Limonene Neroli Orange flower water Orange oil Orangeat Succade Zest

Diseases

Black spot CTV/Tristeza Exocortis Greening Mal secco Phytophthora

citricola

Related topics

The Citrus
Citrus
Industry Citrus
Citrus
production Citrus
Citrus
rootstock Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy Cold-hardy citrus Hesperidium Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mother Orange Tree Orangery University of California Citrus
Citrus
Experiment Station University of California, Riverside Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection

Book Category Production Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q106090 EoL: 61105 EPPO: 1FOLG GBIF: 3190137 GRIN: 4737 iNaturalist: 123358 IPNI: 35735-1 ITIS: 500284 NCBI: 76965 NZOR: bfa1019c-463c-46c8-b4b8-5b6db8ddfccb PLANTS: FORTU Tropicos: 40010499

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