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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Important species: Citrus
Citrus
maxima – Pomelo Citrus medica Citron
Citron
Citrus micrantha – Papeda Citrus reticulata Mandarin orange -------------------------

Important hybrids: Citrus
Citrus
× aurantiifolia – Key lime Citrus
Citrus
× aurantium – Bitter orange
Bitter orange
Citrus
Citrus
× latifolia – Persian lime Citrus
Citrus
× limon – Lemon
Lemon
Citrus
Citrus
× limonia – Rangpur Citrus
Citrus
× paradisi – Grapefruit Citrus
Citrus
× sinensis – Sweet orange Citrus
Citrus
× tangerina – Tangerine
Tangerine
See also below for other species and hybrids.

SYNONYMS

Eremocitrus Microcitrus and see text

CITRUS is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae . Plants in the genus produce CITRUS FRUITS, including important crops like oranges , lemons , grapefruit , pomelo and limes .

The most recent research indicates an origin in Australia
Australia
, New Caledonia and New Guinea
New Guinea
. Some researchers believe that the origin is in the part of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
bordered by Northeast India
Northeast India
, Burma (Myanmar) and the Yunnan
Yunnan
province of China
China
, and it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges, mandarins, and lemons originated. Citrus
Citrus
fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Name * 1.2 Evolution

* 2 Taxonomy

* 3 Description

* 3.1 Tree
Tree
* 3.2 Fruit
Fruit

* 4 Cultivation

* 4.1 Production * 4.2 As ornamental plants

* 4.3 Pests and diseases

* 4.3.1 Deficiency diseases

* 5 Uses

* 5.1 Culinary * 5.2 Medical

* 6 Sweet and sour * 7 Fossil
Fossil
record

* 8 List of citrus fruits

* 8.1 Hybrids and cultivars

* 9 See also * 10 Footnotes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

At various times, citrus plants were thought to be native to Asia (where they were first domesticated), Europe, and Florida. But the European oranges (such as the bitter orange ) were originally brought from India
India
at around the time of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, and the "native" oranges of Florida
Florida
actually originated with the Spanish Conquistadors
Conquistadors
. The lemon reached Europe during the time of classical Rome .

NAME

The generic name originated from Latin
Latin
, where it referred to either the plant now known as Citron
Citron
(C. medica) or a conifer tree ( Thuja ). It is somehow related to the ancient Greek word for cedar , κέδρος (kédros). This may be due to perceived similarities in the smell of citrus leaves and fruit with that of cedar. Collectively, Citrus
Citrus
fruits and plants are also known by the Romance loanword AGRUMES (literally "sour fruits").

EVOLUTION

The large citrus fruit of today evolved originally from small, edible berries over millions of years. Citrus
Citrus
plants diverged from a common ancestor about 15 million years ago, which was about when it diverged from the closely related severinia , for example the Chinese box orange . About 7 million years ago, citrus plants diverged into two groups, the main citrus genus and the ancestors of the Trifoliate orange (poncirus), which is closely enough related that it can still be hybridized with all other citrus. These estimates are made using genetic mapping of plant chloroplasts , and the evolution at that time is thought to have occurred somewhere in either southeastern Asia or Australia.

The three original species in the citrus genus that have been hybridized into most modern commercial citrus fruit are the mandarin orange , pummelo , and citron . Within the last few thousand years, all common citrus fruits (sweet oranges, lemons, grapefruit, limes, and so on) were created by crossing those original species. Something similar has occurred with the wide array of chili peppers originating in the hybridization of a few initial species.

TAXONOMY

Main article: Citrus taxonomy
Citrus taxonomy
Citrus
Citrus
fruits clustered by genetic similarity of partial sequences. Ternary diagram . The same data, plus Citrus micrantha , top right (papeda ). Three-dimensional projection of a Principal component analysis
Principal component analysis
. - Hybrids are expected to plot between their parents. ML: ‘Mexican’ lime ; A: ‘ Alemow ’; V: ‘Volkamer’ lemon ; M: ‘Meyer’ lemon ; L: Regular and ‘Sweet’ lemons ; B: Bergamot orange
Bergamot orange
; H: Haploid clementine; C: Clementines ; S: Sour oranges ; O: Sweet oranges ; G: Grapefruits .

The taxonomy and systematics of the genus are complex and the precise number of natural species is unclear, as many of the named species are hybrids clonally propagated through seeds (by apomixis ), and there is genetic evidence that even some wild, true-breeding species are of hybrid origin

Most cultivated Citrus
Citrus
seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of four core ancestral species — the citron , pummelo , mandarine , and papeda (see image). Natural and cultivated citrus hybrids include commercially important fruit such as oranges , grapefruit , lemons , limes , and some tangerines .

Apart from these four core citrus species, there are Australian limes and the recently discovered Mangshanyegan . Kumquats and Clymenia sp. are now generally considered to belong within the citrus genus. Trifoliate orange , which is often used as commercial rootstock , is an outgroup and may or may not be categorized as a citrus.

Phylogenetic analysis suggests the species of Oxanthera from New Caledonia should be transferred to the genus Citrus.

DESCRIPTION

Slices of various citrus fruits

TREE

These plants are large shrubs or small to moderate-sized trees, reaching 5–15 m (16–49 ft) tall, with spiny shoots and alternately arranged evergreen leaves with an entire margin. The flowers are solitary or in small corymbs , each flower 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) diameter, with five (rarely four) white petals and numerous stamens; they are often very strongly scented.

FRUIT

The fruit is a hesperidium , a specialised berry, globose to elongated, 4–30 cm (1.6–11.8 in) long and 4–20 cm (1.6–7.9 in) diameter, with a leathery rind or "peel" called a pericarp . The outermost layer of the pericarp is an "exocarp" called the flavedo , commonly referred to as the zest . The middle layer of the pericarp is the mesocarp, which in citrus fruits consists of the white, spongy "albedo", or "pith". The innermost layer of the pericarp is the endocarp. The segments are also called "liths ", and the space inside each lith is a locule filled with juice vesicles , or "pulp". From the endocarp, string-like "hairs" extend into the locules, which provide nourishment to the fruit as it develops.

Citrus
Citrus
fruits are notable for their fragrance, partly due to flavonoids and limonoids (which in turn are terpenes ) contained in the rind, and most are juice-laden. The juice contains a high quantity of citric acid giving them their characteristic sharp flavour. The genus is commercially important as many species are cultivated for their fruit, which is eaten fresh, pressed for juice , or preserved in marmalades and pickles .

They are also good sources of vitamin C and flavonoids. The content of vitamin C in the fruit depends on the species, variety and mode of cultivation. Fruits produced in organic agriculture are richer in vitamin C than those produced in conventional agriculture ( ). The flavonoids include various flavanones and flavones .

CULTIVATION

Further information: Citrus production Lemons are a citrus fruit native to Asia, but now common worldwide. Persian limes in a grocery store

Citrus
Citrus
trees hybridise very readily – depending on the pollen source, plants grown from a Persian lime 's seeds can produce fruit similar to grapefruit. Thus all commercial citrus cultivation uses trees produced by grafting the desired fruiting cultivars onto rootstocks selected for disease resistance and hardiness.

The colour of citrus fruits only develops in climates with a (diurnal ) cool winter. In tropical regions with no winter at all, citrus fruits remain green until maturity, hence the tropical "green oranges". The Persian lime in particular is extremely sensitive to cool conditions, thus it is not usually exposed to cool enough conditions to develop a mature colour. If they are left in a cool place over winter, the fruits will change colour to yellow.

The terms "ripe" and "mature" are usually used synonymously, but they mean different things. A mature fruit is one that has completed its growth phase. Ripening is the changes that occur within the fruit after it is mature to the beginning of decay. These changes usually involve starches converting to sugars, a decrease in acids and a softening and change in the fruit's colour.

Citrus
Citrus
fruits are non-climacteric and respiration slowly declines and the production and release of ethylene is gradual. The fruits do not go through a ripening process in the sense that they become "tree ripe." Some fruits, for example cherries, physically mature and then continue to ripen on the tree. Other fruits, like pears, are picked when mature but before they ripen, then continue to ripen off the tree. Citrus
Citrus
fruits pass from immaturity to maturity to over-maturity while still on the tree. Once they are separated from the tree, they will not increase in sweetness or continue to ripen. The only way change may happen after being picked is that they will eventually start to decay.

With oranges, colour cannot be used as an indicator of ripeness because sometimes the rinds turn orange long before the oranges are ready to eat. Tasting them is the only way to know whether or not they are ready to eat. Mediterranean Mandarin ( Citrus
Citrus
×deliciosa plantation, Son Carrió ( Mallorca
Mallorca
)

Citrus
Citrus
trees are not generally frost hardy. Mandarin oranges (C. reticulata) tend to be the hardiest of the common Citrus
Citrus
species and can withstand short periods down to as cold as −10 °C (14 °F), but realistically temperatures not falling below −2 °C (28 °F) are required for successful cultivation. Tangerines , tangors and yuzu can be grown outside even in regions with more marked sub-freezing temperatures in winter, although this may affect fruit quality. A few hardy hybrids can withstand temperatures well below freezing, but do not produce quality fruit. Lemons can be commercially grown in cooler-summer/moderate-winter, coastal Southern California, because sweetness is neither attained nor expected in retail lemon fruit. The related trifoliate orange ( Citrus
Citrus
trifoliata) can survive below −20 °C (−4 °F); its fruit are astringent and inedible unless cooked but a few better-tasting cultivars and hybrids have been developed (see citranges ). Leaf
Leaf
of Citrus
Citrus
tree

The trees thrive in a consistently sunny, humid environment with fertile soil and adequate rainfall or irrigation. Abandoned trees in valleys may suffer, yet survive, the dry summer of Central California's Inner Coast Ranges . At any age citrus grows well enough with infrequent irrigation in partial shade, but the fruit crop is smaller. Being of tropical and sub-tropical origin, oranges, like all citrus, are broadleaved and evergreen. They do not drop leaves except when stressed. The stems of many varieties have large sharp thorns . The trees flower in the spring, and fruit is set shortly afterward. Fruit
Fruit
begins to ripen in fall or early winter months, depending on cultivar, and develops increasing sweetness afterward. Some cultivars of tangerines ripen by winter. Some, such as the grapefruit, may take up to eighteen months to ripen.

PRODUCTION

Major producer regions See also: Citrus production

According to UN 2007 data, Brazil
Brazil
, China
China
, the United States
United States
, Mexico
Mexico
, India
India
, and Spain
Spain
are the world's largest citrus-producing countries.

Major commercial citrus growing areas include southern China, the Mediterranean Basin (including southern Spain), South Africa
South Africa
, Australia
Australia
, the southern United States, Mexico
Mexico
and parts of South America . In the United States, Florida
Florida
, California
California
, Arizona
Arizona
, and Texas
Texas
are major producers, while smaller plantings are present in other Sun Belt
Sun Belt
states and in Hawaii
Hawaii
.

AS ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

Orangery
Orangery
of the Botanical Garden
Botanical Garden
in Leuven
Leuven
( Belgium
Belgium
)

Citrus
Citrus
trees grown in tubs and wintered under cover were a feature of Renaissance gardens , once glass-making technology enabled sufficient expanses of clear glass to be produced. An orangery was a feature of royal and aristocratic residences through the 17th and 18th centuries. The Orangerie at the Palace of the Louvre
Louvre
, 1617, inspired imitations that were not eclipsed until the development of the modern greenhouse in the 1840s. In the United States
United States
the earliest surviving orangery is at the Tayloe House, Mount Airy, Virginia . George Washington had an orangery at Mount Vernon .

Some modern hobbyists still grow dwarf citrus in containers or greenhouses in areas where it is too cold to grow it outdoors. Consistent climate, sufficient sunlight, and proper watering are crucial if the trees are to thrive and produce fruit. Compared to many of the usual "green shrubs", citrus trees better tolerate poor container care. For cooler winter areas, limes and lemons should not be grown, since they are more sensitive to winter cold than other citrus fruits. Hybrids with kumquats (× Citrofortunella ) have good cold resistance.

PESTS AND DISEASES

Main article: List of citrus diseases Citrus canker is caused by the gammaproteobacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis

Citrus
Citrus
plants are very liable to infestation by aphids , whitefly and scale insects (e.g. California
California
red scale ). Also rather important are the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus which when unchecked by proper methods of control is devastating to citrine plantations. The newest threat to citrus groves in the United States is the Asian citrus psyllid .

The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like plants – but the real danger lies in that it can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease.

In August 2005 citrus greening disease was discovered in the south Florida
Florida
region around Homestead and Florida
Florida
City. It has since spread to every commercial citrus grove in Florida. In 2004-2005 USDA Ag statistics reported the total Florida
Florida
citrus production to be 169.1 million boxes of fruit. The estimate for all Florida
Florida
citrus production in the 2015-2016 season is 86.4 million boxes—a 51% drop.

In June 2008, the psyllid was spotted dangerously close to California – right across the international border in Tijuana
Tijuana
, Mexico. Only a few months later, it was detected in San Diego and Imperial counties, and has since spread to Riverside, San Bernardino, Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura counties sparking quarantines in those areas. The Asian citrus psyllid has also been intercepted coming into California
California
in packages of fruit and plants, including citrus, ornamentals, herbs and bouquets of cut flowers, shipped from other states and countries.

The foliage is also used as a food plant by the larvae of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth ) species such as the Geometridae
Geometridae
common emerald (Hemithea aestivaria) and double-striped pug (Gymnoscelis rufifasciata), the Arctiidae
Arctiidae
giant leopard moth (Hypercompe scribonia), H. eridanus , H. icasia and H. indecisa , many species in the family Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies), and the black-lyre leafroller moth ("Cnephasia" jactatana), a tortrix moth .

Since 2000, the citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella) has been a pest in California, boring meandering patterns through leaves.

In eastern Australia, the bronze-orange bug (Musgraveia sulciventris ) can be a major pest of citrus trees, particularly grapefruit. In heavy infestations it can cause flower and fruit drop and general tree stress.

European brown snails ( Cornu aspersum ) can be a problem in California, though laying female Khaki Campbell and other mallard -related ducks can be used for control.

Deficiency Diseases

Citrus
Citrus
plants can also develop a deficiency condition called chlorosis , characterized by yellowing leaves highlighted by contrasting leaf veins . The shriveling leaves eventually fall, and if the plant loses too many, it will slowly die. This condition is often caused by an excessively high pH (alkaline soil ), which prevents the plant from absorbing iron , magnesium , zinc , or other nutrients it needs to produce chlorophyll . This condition can be cured by adding an appropriate acidic fertilizer formulated for citrus, which can sometimes revive a plant to produce new leaves and even flower buds within a few weeks under optimum conditions. A soil which is too acidic can also cause problems; citrus prefers neutral soil (pH between 6 and 8). Citrus
Citrus
plants are also sensitive to excessive salt in the soil. Soil testing may be necessary to properly diagnose nutrient deficiency diseases.

USES

CULINARY

Wedges of pink grapefruit , lime , and lemon , and a half orange (clockwise from top) Citrus aurantifolia in Kerala
Kerala

Many citrus fruits, such as oranges , tangerines , grapefruits , and clementines , are generally eaten fresh. They are typically peeled and can be easily split into segments. Grapefruit is more commonly halved and eaten out of the skin with a spoon. There are special spoons (grapefruit spoons ) with serrated tips designed for this purpose. Orange and grapefruit juices are also very popular breakfast beverages. More acidic citrus, such as lemons and limes , are generally not eaten on their own. Meyer lemons can be eaten out of hand with the fragrant skin; they are both sweet and sour. Lemonade
Lemonade
or limeade are popular beverages prepared by diluting the juices of these fruits and adding sugar. Lemons and limes are also used as garnishes or in cooked dishes. Their juice is used as an ingredient in a variety of dishes; it can commonly be found in salad dressings and squeezed over cooked meat or vegetables.

A variety of flavours can be derived from different parts and treatments of citrus fruits. The rind and oil of the fruit is generally very bitter, especially when cooked, and so is often combined with sugar. The fruit pulp can vary from sweet and tart to extremely sour. Marmalade , a condiment derived from cooked orange and lemon, can be especially bitter, but is usually sweetened to cut the bitterness and produce a jam-like result. Lemon
Lemon
or lime is commonly used as a garnish for water, soft drinks, or cocktails. Citrus
Citrus
juices, rinds, or slices are used in a variety of mixed drinks. The colourful outer skin of some citrus fruits, known as zest , is used as a flavouring in cooking; the white inner portion of the peel, the pith, is usually avoided due to its bitterness. The zest of a citrus fruit, typically lemon or an orange, can also be soaked in water in a coffee filter , and drunk.

MEDICAL

Citrus
Citrus
fruit intake has been associated with a 10% reduction in odds of developing breast cancer.

Oranges were historically used for their high content of vitamin C , which prevents scurvy . Scurvy
Scurvy
is caused by vitamin C deficiency, and can be prevented by having 10 milligrams of vitamin C a day. An early sign of scurvy is fatigue. If ignored, later symptoms are bleeding and bruising easily. British sailors were given a ration of citrus fruits on long voyages to prevent the onset of scurvy, hence the British nickname of Limey .

Pectin
Pectin
is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of plants. Limes and lemons as well as oranges and grapefruits are among the highest in this level.

After consumption, the peel is sometimes used as a facial cleanser.

Before the development of fermentation -based processes, lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid .

Citrus
Citrus
fruit intake is associated with a reduced risk of stomach cancer . Also, citrus fruit juices, such as orange, lime and lemon, may be useful for lowering the risk of specific types of kidney stones . Grapefruit is another fruit juice that can be used to lower blood pressure because it interferes with the metabolism of calcium channel blockers. Lemons have the highest concentration of citrate of any citrus fruit, and daily consumption of lemonade has been shown to decrease the rate of kidney stone formation.

SWEET AND SOUR

The Moroccan professor Henri Chapot discovered that the acidity in the more common citrons or lemons is represented by red on the inner coat of seeds specifically on the chalazal spot, violet pigmentation on the outer side of the flower blossom, and also by the new buds that are reddish-purplish. The acidless varieties of citrus are completely lacking the red color in all the mentioned spots. This designation was cited by Herbert John Webber and Leon Dexter Batchelor , the editors of the fundamental treatise on citrus, namely The Citrus Industry , which was published by the University of California, Riverside in 1967.

FOSSIL RECORD

A fossil leaf from the Pliocene
Pliocene
of Valdarno ( Italy
Italy
) is described as †CITRUS MELETENSIS. In China
China
fossil leaf specimens of †CITRUS LINCZANGENSIS have been collected from coal-bearing strata of the Bangmai Formation in the Bangmai village, about 10 km northwest of Lincang City , Yunnan
Yunnan
. The Bangmai Formation contains abundant fossil plants and is considered to be of late Miocene
Miocene
age, Citrus linczangensis and C. meletensis share some important characters, such as an intramarginal vein, an entire margin, and an articulated and distinctly winged petiole .

LIST OF CITRUS FRUITS

This is a list by scientific names; there exists a list by COMMON NAMES Main article: List of citrus fruits Citrons (Citrus medica) for sale in Germany Red Finger Lime (Citrus australasica), a rare delicacy from Australia
Australia

The genus Citrus
Citrus
has been suggested to originate in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. Prior to human cultivation, it consisted of just a few species, namely:

* Citrus crenatifolia – species name is unresolved, from Sri Lanka

* Citrus japonica
Citrus japonica
– Kumquats , from East Asia ranging into Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
(sometimes separated in 4–5 Fortunella species) * Citrus mangshanensis – species name is unresolved, from Hunan Province , China. * Citrus
Citrus
maxima – Pomelo (pummelo, shaddock), from the Malay Archipelago * Citrus medica Citron
Citron
, from India * Citrus
Citrus
platymamma – Byeonggyul , from Jeju Island , Korea
Korea
* Citrus reticulata Mandarin orange , from China
China
* Citrus trifoliata Trifoliate orange , from Korea
Korea
and adjacent China
China
(often separated as Poncirus)

* Australian limes

* Citrus australasica – Australian Finger Lime * Citrus australis Australian Round lime * Citrus glauca Australian Desert Lime * Citrus garrawayae
Citrus garrawayae
Mount White Lime * Citrus gracilis Kakadu Lime or Humpty Doo Lime * Citrus inodora Russel River Lime * Citrus warburgiana New Guinea
New Guinea
Wild Lime * Citrus wintersii – Brown River Finger Lime

* Papedas , including

* Citrus halimii – limau kadangsa , limau kedut kera , from Thailand
Thailand
and Malaya * Citrus indica Indian wild orange , from the Indian subcontinent * Citrus macroptera from Indochina and Melanesia * Citrus micrantha from the southern Philippines * Citrus latipes – Khasi Papeda , from Assam
Assam
, Meghalaya
Meghalaya
, Burma
Burma

HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

See also: Citrus hybrid Sweetie or Oroblanco is a pomelo -grapefruit hybrid. The Etrog
Etrog
, or Citron, is central to the ritual of the Jewish Sukkot
Sukkot
festival. Many varieties are used for this purpose (including the Yemenite variety pictured). Clementines ( Citrus
Citrus
×clementina) have thinner skins than oranges. Mikan ( Citrus
Citrus
×unshiu), also known as satsumas Sweet oranges (Citrus ×sinensis) are used in many foods. Their ancestors were probably pomelos and mandarin oranges . Cross section of Odichukuthi lime. Odichukuthi fruit A pompia fruit

Sorted by parentage. As each hybrid is the product of (at least) two parent species, they are listed multiple times.

CITRUS MAXIMA-BASED

* Amanatsu , natsumikan – Citrus
Citrus
×natsudaidai (C. maxima × unknown) * Cam sành – (C. reticulata × C. ×sinensis) * Dangyuja – ( Citrus
Citrus
grandis Osbeck) * Grapefruit Citrus
Citrus
×paradisi (C. maxima × C. ×sinensis) * Imperial lemon – (C. ×limon × C. ×paradisi) * Kinnow – (C. ×nobilis × C. ×deliciosa) * Kiyomi – (C. ×sinensis × C. ×unshiu) * Lemon
Lemon
Citrus
Citrus
×limon (probably C. maxima × C. medica) * Minneola tangelo – (C. reticulata × C. ×paradisi) * Orangelo , Chironja – (C. ×paradisi × C. ×sinensis) * Oroblanco , Sweetie – (C. maxima × C. ×paradisi) * Sweet orange Citrus
Citrus
×sinensis (probably C. maxima × C. reticulata) * Tangelo Citrus
Citrus
×tangelo (C. reticulata × C. maxima or C. ×paradisi) * Tangor Citrus
Citrus
×nobilis (C. reticulata × C. ×sinensis) * Ugli – (C. reticulata × C. maxima or C. ×paradisi)

CITRUS MEDICA-BASED

* Buddha\'s hand – Citrus medica var. sarcodactylus, a fingered citron. * Citron
Citron
varieties with sour pulp – Diamante citron , Florentine citron , Greek citron and Balady citron * Citron
Citron
varieties with sweet pulp – Corsican citron and Moroccan citron . * Etrog
Etrog
, a group of citron cultivars that are traditionally used for a Jewish ritual. Etrog
Etrog
is Hebrew
Hebrew
for citron in general. * Fernandina – Citrus
Citrus
×limonimedica (probably (C. medica × C. maxima) × C. medica) * Ponderosa lemon – (probably (C. medica × C. maxima) × C. medica) * Lemon
Lemon
Citrus
Citrus
×limon (probably C. medica × C. maxima) * Key lime , Mexican lime, Omani lime - Citrus
Citrus
×aurantiifolia (C. medica × C. micrantha) * Lumia - a pear shaped lemon hybrid, (probably C. medica x C. limon) * Rhobs el Arsa - bread of the garden, a Moroccan citron x lemon hybrid. * Yemenite citron – a pulpless true citron.

CITRUS RETICULATA–BASED

* Bergamot orange
Bergamot orange
Citrus
Citrus
×bergamia (C. limetta × C. ×aurantium) * Bitter orange
Bitter orange
, Seville Orange – Citrus
Citrus
×aurantium (C. maxima × C. reticulata) * Blood orange Citrus
Citrus
×sinensis cultivars * Calamondin , Calamansi – ( Citrus reticulata × Citrus
Citrus
japonica) * Cam sành – (C. reticulata × C. ×sinensis) * Chinotto Citrus
Citrus
×aurantium var. myrtifolia or Citrus ×myrtifolia * ChungGyun – Citrus reticulata cultivar * Clementine
Clementine
Citrus
Citrus
×clementina * Cleopatra Mandarin Citrus
Citrus
×reshni * Siranui – Citrus reticulata cv. 'Dekopon' (ChungGyun × Ponkan) * Daidai Citrus
Citrus
×aurantium var. daidai or Citrus
Citrus
×daidai * Grapefruit Citrus
Citrus
×paradisi (C. maxima × C. ×sinensis) * Hermandina – Citrus reticulata cv. 'Hermandina' * Imperial lemon – ((C. maxima × C. medica) × C. ×paradisi) * Kinnow , Wilking – (C. ×nobilis × C. ×deliciosa) * Kiyomi – (C. sinensis × C. ×unshiu) * Laraha – ''C. ×aurantium ssp. currassuviencis * Mediterranean mandarin , Willow Leaf
Leaf
Citrus
Citrus
×deliciosa * Meyer lemon , Valley Lemon
Lemon
Citrus
Citrus
×meyeri ((C. maxima × C. medica) × C. ×paradisi or C. ×sinensis) * Michal mandarin – Citrus reticulata cv. 'Michal' * Mikan , Satsuma – Citrus
Citrus
×unshiu * Naartjie – (C. reticulata × C. nobilis) * Nova mandarin , Clemenvilla * Orangelo , Chironja – (C. ×paradisi × C. ×sinensis) * Oroblanco , Sweetie – (C. maxima × C. ×paradisi) * Ponkan Citrus reticulata cv. 'Ponkan' * Rangpur , Lemanderin, Mandarin Lime – Citrus
Citrus
×limonia ((C. reticulata × C. maxima) × C. medica) * Sweet orange Citrus
Citrus
×sinensis (probably C. maxima × C. reticulata) * Tangelo Citrus
Citrus
×tangelo (C. reticulata × C. maxima or C. ×paradisi) * Tangerine
Tangerine
Citrus
Citrus
×tangerina * Tangor Citrus
Citrus
×nobilis (C. reticulata × C. ×sinensis) * Ugli – (C. reticulata × C. maxima or C. ×paradisi) * Yuzu Citrus
Citrus
×junos (C. reticulata × C. ×ichangensis)

OTHER/UNRESOLVED

* Alemow , Colo – Citrus
Citrus
×macrophylla * Djeruk limau – Citrus
Citrus
×amblycarpa * Gajanimma , Carabao Lime – Citrus
Citrus
×pennivesiculata * Hyuganatsu
Hyuganatsu
, Hyuganatsu
Hyuganatsu
pumelo – Citrus
Citrus
tamurana * Ichang lemon , Ichang Papeda – Citrus
Citrus
×ichangensis * Imperial lemon – (C. ×limon × C. ×paradisi) * Iyokan
Iyokan
, anadomikan – Citrus
Citrus
×iyo * Kabosu Citrus
Citrus
×sphaerocarpa * Kaffir lime , makrut – Citrus
Citrus
×hystrix * Limetta , Sweet Lemon, Sweet Lime, mosambi – Citrus
Citrus
×limetta * Palestine sweet lime Citrus
Citrus
×limettioides Tanaka * Odichukuthi – Citrus
Citrus
Odichukuthi from Malayalam * Ougonkan – Citrus
Citrus
flaviculpus hort ex.Tanaka * Persian lime , Tahiti Lime – Citrus
Citrus
×latifolia * Pompia – Citrus
Citrus
monstruosa, a nomen nudum * Rough lemon Citrus
Citrus
×jambhiri Lush. * Sakurajima komikan orange * Shekwasha , Hirami Lemon, Taiwan Tangerine
Tangerine
Citrus
Citrus
×depressa * Shonan gold – (Ougonkan) Citrus
Citrus
flaviculpus hort ex. Tanaka × (Imamura unshiu), Citrus unshiu
Citrus unshiu
Marc * Sudachi Citrus
Citrus
×sudachi * Sunki , Suenkat – Citrus
Citrus
×sunki * Tachibana orange Citrus
Citrus
×tachibana (Mak.) Tanaka * Volkamer lemon – Citrus
Citrus
×volkameriana

For hybrids with kumquats , see × Citrofortunella . For hybrids with the Trifoliate Orange , see citrange .

SEE ALSO

* Food portal

* Book: Citrus
Citrus

* Japanese citrus * List of lemon dishes and beverages

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Liu, Y.; Heying, E.; Tanumihardjo, S. (2012). "History, Global Distribution, and Nutritional Importance of Citrus
Citrus
Fruits". Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 11: 6. doi :10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00201.x . * ^ Gmitter, Frederick; Hu, Xulan (1990). "The possible role of Yunnan, China, in the origin of contemporary Citrus
Citrus
species (Rutaceae)". Economic Botany. 44 (2): 267–277. doi :10.1007/bf02860491 . * ^ United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Market Information in the Commodities Area: Citrus
Citrus
fruits "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2010-09-24. * ^ Scora, Rainer W. (1975). "On the history and origin of citrus". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 102 (6): 369–375. JSTOR 2484763 . doi :10.2307/2484763 .

* ^ University of South Florida: Fruit Contrary to general belief, the orange tree is not indigenous to Florida
Florida
but was introduced into the state from Valencia by the Spanish colonists. * ^ History of the Citrus
Citrus
and Citrus
Citrus
Tree
Tree
Growing in America Many of these wild orange groves were seen by the early American explorer, William Bartram, according to his book, Travels, in 1773, while traveling down the Saint John’s River in Florida. Bartram mistakenly thought these orange trees were native to Florida; however, they were established centuries earlier by the Spanish explorers. * ^ Spiegel-Roy, Pinchas; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt (1996). Biology of Citrus. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-33321-4 . * ^ A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloroplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the genus Citrus * ^ Where Did Citrus
Citrus
Fruits Originate From? * ^ The origin and evolution of select citrus species. * ^ Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (December 2014). "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2". BMC Genetics. 15 (1). ISSN 1471-2156 . doi :10.1186/s12863-014-0152-1 . Retrieved 2017-07-08. * ^ "International Citrus
Citrus
Genomics Consortium". ucr.edu. * ^ " Citron
Citron
Cultivation, Production and Uses in the Mediterranean Region". springer.com. * ^ Andrés García Lor (2013). Organización de la diversidad genética de los cítricos (PDF) (Thesis). p. 79. * ^ Bayer, R. J., et al. (2009). A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. American Journal of Botany
Botany
96(3), 668-85. * ^ " Citrus
Citrus
fruit diagram". ucla.edu. * ^ "Lith". TheFreeDictionary.com. * ^ Duarte, A; Caixeirinho, D; Miguel, G; Nunes, C; Mendes, M; Marreiros, A (2010). " Vitamin C
Vitamin C
Content of Citrus
Citrus
from Conventional versus Organic Farming Systems". Acta Horticulturae. 868: 389-394. doi :10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.868.52 . * ^ " Flavonoid Composition of Fruit
Fruit
Tissues of Citrus
Citrus
Species". * ^ "Citrus". Retrieved 2015-04-13. * ^ Helgi Öpik; Stephen A. Rolfe; Arthur John Willis; Herbert Edward Street (2005). The physiology of flowering plants. Cambridge University Press. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-0-521-66251-2 . Retrieved 31 July 2010. * ^ Pinchas Spiegel-Roy; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt (1996). Biology of citrus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-0-521-33321-4 . Retrieved 31 July 2010. * ^ A B "About the Asian Citrus
Citrus
Psyllid and Huanglongbing". californiacitrusthreat.org. * ^ " Citrus
Citrus
Leafminer – UC Pest Management". * ^ Online at SumoGardener "How to Avoid Yellow Leaves on Citrus Trees". * ^ Mauk, Peggy A.; Tom Shea. "Questions and Answers to Citrus Management (3rd ed.)" (PDF). University of California
California
Cooperative Extension. Retrieved 2014-05-24. * ^ "American Indian Health – Health". Aihd.ku.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-17. * ^ Song, Jung-Kook; Bae, Jong-Myon (2013-03-01). " Citrus
Citrus
fruit intake and breast cancer risk: a quantitative systematic review" . Journal of Breast Cancer. 16 (1): 72–76. ISSN 1738-6756 . PMC 3625773  . PMID 23593085 . doi :10.4048/jbc.2013.16.1.72 . * ^ Morgan, Laura (15 March 2011). "What Fruits & Vegetables Contain Pectin?". Demand Media. Retrieved 2011-07-22. * ^ González CA, Sala N, Rokkas T (2013). "Gastric cancer: epidemiologic aspects". Helicobacter. 18 (Supplement 1): 34–38. PMID 24011243 . doi :10.1111/hel.12082 . * ^ " Grapefruit and Medication". Total Health. 27 (2): 39–39. 2005. * ^ Carr, Jackie (22 April 2010). "Five Ways to Prevent Kidney Stones". UC San Diego. Retrieved 2010-12-03. * ^ Un curieux cedrat Marocain (1950) Rev. Intl. Bot. Appl. Agr. Trop. 30:506–514. * ^ Available online at The Citrus Industry Archived 2012-02-05 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., see title "Sugar or Acidless Oranges" * ^ Citrus
Citrus
meletensis (Rutaceae), a new species from the Pliocene of Valdarno (Italy) Fischer, T.C. & Butzmann, Plant Systematics
Systematics
and Evolution - March 1998, Volume 210, Issue 1, pp 51–55. doi:10.1007/BF00984727 * ^ Citrus
Citrus
linczangensis sp. n., a Leaf
Leaf
Fossil
Fossil
of Rutaceae from the Late Miocene
Miocene
of Yunnan, China
China
by Sanping Xie, Steven R Manchester, Kenan Liu and Bainian Sun - International Journal of Plant Sciences 174(8):1201-1207 October 2013. * ^ A B C GRIN . " Species
Species
list in GRIN for genus Citrus". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland : USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved 6 January 2011. * ^ P. J. Wester (1915), " Citrus
Citrus
Fruits In The Philippines", Philippine Agricultural Review, 8

REFERENCES

* Andrews, A.C. (1961). "Acclimatization of citrus fruits in the Mediterranean region". Agricultural History. 35 (1): 35–46. * Araújo, De; Freitas, E.; de Queiroz, L. Paganucci; Machado, M.A. (2003). "What is Citrus? Taxonomic implications from a study of cp-DNA evolution in the tribe Citreae ( Rutaceae subfamily Aurantioideae)". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 3 (1): 55–62. doi :10.1078/1439-6092-00058 . * Nicolosi, E.; Deng, Z.N.; Gentile, A.; La Malfa, S.; Continella, G.; Tribulato, E. (2000). " Citrus
Citrus
phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 100 (8): 1155–1166. doi :10.1007/s001220051419 .

FURTHER READING

* Calabrese, Francesco (2002): Origin and history. In: Dugo, Giovanni & Di Giacomo, Angelo (eds.) (2002): Citrus. Taylor ">Ellis, R.H.; Hong, T.D. ">Frison, E.A. ">International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) (1999): Descriptors for Citrus
Citrus
(Citrus spp.). PDF fulltext * Janick, Jules (2005): Purdue University Tropical Horticulture Lecture 32: Citrus * Luro, F.; Laigret, F.; Bové, J.M. ">Molina, A.B.; Roa, V.N.; Bay-Petersen, J.; Carpio, A.T. ">Sackman. Douglas Cazaux (2005): Orange Empire: California
California
and the Fruits of Eden. * University of California
California
Division of Agricultural Sciences (UC-DAS) (1967–1989): The Citrus
Citrus
Industry. HTML fulltext of Vol. 1, 2, padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutCITRUSat Wikipedia's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Data from Wikidata * Taxonomy from Wikispecies

* Effects of pollination on Citrus
Citrus
plants Pollination of Citrus
Citrus
by Honey Bees * Citrus
Citrus
Research and Education Center of IFAS (largest citrus research center in world) * Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection by the University of California * Citrus
Citrus
(Mark Rieger, Professor of Horticulture, University of Georgia) * Fundecitrus – Fund for Citrus
Citrus
Plant Protection is an organization of citrus Brazilian producers and processors. * Citrus
Citrus
– taxonomy fruit anatomy at GeoChemBio * Porcher Michel H.; et al. (1995). "Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (M.M.P.N.D) – A Work in Progress". School of Agriculture and Food Systems, Faculty of Land & Food Resources, The University of Melbourne. Australia.

* v * t * e

Citrus
Citrus

TRUE SPECIES

* Australian and Papuan wild limes * Byeonggyul * Citron
Citron
* Clymenia * Indian wild orange * Kumquat
Kumquat
* Mandarin * Mangshanyegan * Papeda * Pomelo * Yuzu

MAJOR HYBRIDS

* Grapefruit * Lemon
Lemon
* Lime * Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

* Alemow * Amanatsu * Bergamot orange
Bergamot orange
* Bizzaria
Bizzaria
* Bitter orange
Bitter orange
* Blood lime * Blood orange * Buddha\'s hand * Cam sành * Cara cara navel * Cherry orange * Citrange * Citrumelo * Clementine
Clementine
* Daidai * Dekopon * Fairchild tangerine * Florentine citron * Hassaku orange * Hebesu * Hyuganatsu
Hyuganatsu
* Imperial lemon * Iyokan
Iyokan
* Jabara * Jaffa orange * Kabbad * Kabosu * Kaffir lime * Kakadu lime * Kalpi * Key lime * Khasi papeda * Kinnow * Kishumikan * Kiyomi * Komikan * Laraha * Lumia * Mandelo * Mandora * Melanesian papeda * Melogold * Meyer lemon * Murcott * Myrtle-leaved orange tree * Ōgonkan * Orangelo/ Chironja * Oroblanco * Palestinian sweet lime * Persian lime * Perrine lemon * Pixie mandarin * Ponderosa lemon * Ponkan * Rangpur * Reikou * Rhobs el Arsa * Rough lemon * Sanboken * Satsuma mandarin * Setoka * Shangjuan * Shonan Gold * Sudachi * Sweet lemon * Sweet limetta * Tangelo * Tangerine
Tangerine
* Tangor * Ugli fruit * Valencia orange
Valencia orange
* Variegated pink lemon * Winged lime * Xã Đoài orange * Yuukou mandarin

NON-HYBRID CITRONS

* Balady citron * Corsican citron * Diamante citron * Fingered citron * Greek citron * Moroccan citron * Yemenite citron

NON-HYBRID MANDARIN ORANGES

* Nanfengmiju * Cleopatra mandarin * Shīkwāsā

NON-HYBRID PAPEDAS

* Ichang papeda * Citrus halimii or Mountain "citron"

NON-HYBRID POMELOS

* Banpeiyu
Banpeiyu
* Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus , and Clymenia subgenera)

* Australian outback lime * Australian round lime * Brown River finger lime * Desert lime * Mount white lime (Microcitrus) * New Guinea
New Guinea
wild lime * Russell River lime * Clymenia

Kumquat
Kumquat
/Fortunella hybrids (× Citrofortunella )

* Calamondin * Citrangequat * Limequat * Orangequat * Procimequat * Sunquat * Yuzuquat

RELATED GENERA

* Citrus glauca * Poncirus / Trifoliate orange

* Triphasia

* Brassii * Grandifolia * Trifolia

DRINKS

* Chūhai * Curaçao * Grapefruit juice * Lemonade
Lemonade
* Limeade * Orange juice
Orange juice
* Yuja-hwachae * Yuja-cha

PRODUCTS

* Calcium citrate * Citric acid
Citric acid
* Lemonene * Limonene * Neroli * Orange flower water * Orange oil * Succade * Zest

DISEASES

* Black spot * CTV/Tristeza * Exocortis * Greening * Mal secco

* Phytophthora

* citricola

RELATED TOPICS

* The Citrus Industry * Citrus production * Citrus rootstock * Citrus taxonomy
Citrus taxonomy
* Cold-hardy citrus * Hesperidium * Japanese citrus * List of citrus fruits * Mother Orange Tree
Tree
* Orangery
Orangery
* University of California
California
Citrus
Citrus
Experiment Station * University of California, Riverside Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection

* BOOK * CATEGORY * PRODUCTION * COMMONS

TAXON IDENTIFIERS

* Wd : Q81513 * EoL : 61101 * FOC : 107164 * GBIF : 3190155 * GRIN : 2640 * IPNI : 35646-1 * ITIS : 28882 * NCBI : 2706 * PLANTS : CITRU2 * Tropicos

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