Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational
Citibank was founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New
York, and later became First National City Bank of New York. Citibank
provides credit cards, mortgages, personal loans, commercial loans,
and lines of credit.
The bank has 2,649 branches in 19 countries, including 723 branches in
United States and 1,494 branches in Mexico. The U.S. branches
are concentrated in six metropolitan areas: New York City, Chicago,
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and Miami. In 2016,
United States accounted for 70% of revenue and
for 13% of revenue. Aside from the U.S. and Mexico, most of the
company's branches are in Poland, Russia,Pakistan,
India and the
United Arab Emirates.
Citibank's private-label credit card division, Citi Retail Services,
issues store-issued credit cards for such companies as: Costco,
ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, The Home Depot, Staples Inc., Shell Oil
and until January 2018, Hilton Hotels & Resorts.
As a result of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and huge losses in
the value of its subprime mortgage assets, Citigroup, the parent of
Citibank, received a bailout in the form of an investment from the
U.S. Treasury. On November 23, 2008, in addition to an initial
investment of $25 billion, a further $20 billion was invested in the
company along with guarantees for risky assets of $306 billion. By
Citibank had repaid the loans from the Treasury in full,
including interest, resulting in a net profit for the U.S. federal
1.1 Automated banking card
Credit card business
1.3 Early technology adoption
1.3.1 Automatic teller machines
1.3.2 Online banking
1.5 2008–2009 losses and cost-cutting measures by parent Citigroup
1.6 2010 to present
2.1 Funding of Dakota Access Pipeline
4 In media
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
View of the northeast corner of William and Wall streets. The house to
the far right became City Bank of New York's first home at 38 Wall
Street, later re-numbered as №52. (Painting by Archibald Robertson,
The National City Bank heritage located in the Bund of Wuhan, China.
52 Wall Street, Ca 1890
The City Bank of New York was founded on June 16, 1812. The first
president of the City Bank was the statesman and retired Colonel,
Samuel Osgood. In August 1813, with Osgood's death,
William Few became
President of the Bank, staying until 1817, followed by Peter Stagg
(1817–1825), Thomas Smith (1825–1827),
Isaac Wright (1827–1832),
Thomas Bloodgood (1832–1843). Ownership and management of the
bank was taken over by
Moses Taylor in 1837, a protégé of John Jacob
Astor and one of the giants of the business world in the 19th century.
During Taylor's ascendancy, the bank functioned largely as a treasury
and finance center for Taylor's own extensive business empire.
Later presidents of the bank included Gorham Worth (1843–1856),
Moses Taylor himself (1856–1882), Taylor's son-in-law Patrick Pyne,
James Stillman (1891–1909).
In 1831 City Bank was the site of one of America's first bank heists
when two thieves made off with tens of thousands of dollars' worth of
bank notes, and 398 gold doubloons.
The bank also has the distinguishable history of financing war bonds
for the war of 1812, serving as a founding member of the financial
clearing house in New York (1853), underwriting the Union, during the
American Civil War
American Civil War with $50 million in war bonds, opens the first
foreign exchange department of any bank (1897), and received a $5
million deposit to be given to Spain for the US acquisition of the
Philippines (1899). In 1865, the bank joined the national banking
system of the
United States under the
National Bank Act
National Bank Act and became The
National City Bank of New York. By 1868, it was one of the largest
banks in the United States, by 1893 it was the largest bank in New
York, and following year it was the largest within the United States.
In later years it would help finance the Panama Canal (1904) and
Stillman, then the bank's chairman, would intervene, along with J. P.
Morgan and George Fisher Baker, in the Panic of 1907.
Federal Reserve Act
Federal Reserve Act allowed it, National City Bank became
the first U.S. national bank to open an overseas banking office when
it opened a branch in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1914. Many of Citi's
present international offices are older; offices in London, Shanghai,
Calcutta, and elsewhere were opened in 1901 and 1902 by the
Corporation (IBC), a company chartered to
conduct banking business outside the U.S., which was forbidden to U.S.
national banks. In 1918, IBC became a wholly owned subsidiary and was
subsequently merged into the bank. The same year, the bank evacuated
all of its employees from
Moscow and Petrograd as the Russian Civil
War had begun, but also established a branch in Puerto Rico. By 1919,
the bank had become the first U.S. bank to have $1 billion in assets.
As of March 9, 1921, there were four national banks in New York City
operating branch offices: Catham and Phoenix National, the Mechanics
and Metals National, the Irving National, and National City Bank.
Charles E. Mitchell, also called "Sunshine" Charlie Mitchell, was
elected president in 1921. In 1929, he was made chairman, a position
he held until 1933. Under Mitchell, the bank expanded rapidly and by
1930 had 100 branches in 23 countries outside the United States. The
policies pursued by the bank under Mitchell's leadership are seen by
many people as one of the prime causes of the stock market crash of
1929, which led ultimately to the Great
In 1933, a Senate committee, the Pecora Commission, investigated
Mitchell for his part in tens of millions of dollars in losses,
excessive pay, and tax avoidance, later leading to his
Carter Glass said of him:
"Mitchell, more than any 50 men, is responsible for this stock
On December 24, 1927, its headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina,
were blown-up by the Italian anarchist Severino Di Giovanni, in the
frame of the international campaign supporting Sacco and Vanzetti.
In 1940 and 1941, branches in Germany and Japan closed. In 1945, the
bank handled $5.6 billion in Treasury securities for War and Victory
Loan drives for the U.S. government.
James Stillman Rockefeller was elected president and then
chairman in 1959, serving until 1967. Stillman was a direct descendant
Rockefeller family through the
William Rockefeller (the brother
of John D.) branch. In 1960, his second cousin, David Rockefeller,
became president of Chase Manhattan Bank, National City's long-time
New York rival for dominance in the banking industry in the United
Following its merger with the First National Bank in 1955, the bank
changed its name to The First National City Bank of New York, then
shortened it to First National City Bank in 1962. It is also worth
noting that the bank began recruiting at
Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School in
1957, arranged the financing of the 1958 Hollywood film, South
Pacific, and had its branches in Cuba nationalized in 1959 by the new
socialist government, and has its first African-American director in
1969, Franklin A. Thomas.
The company organically entered the leasing and credit card sectors,
and its introduction of US dollar denominated certificates of deposit
London marked the first new negotiable instrument in the market
since 1888. Later to become part of MasterCard, the bank introduced
First National City Charge Service credit card—popularly known
as the "Everything Card"—in 1967.
In 1967, Walter B. Wriston became chairman and chief executive officer
of the bank.
Citibank logo used from 1976 until 2001 in the United States, and
internationally until 2002, designed by Dan Friedman from Anspach
Grossman Portugal of New York.
In 1968, Citicorp was set-up as a holding company and in 1976, First
National City Bank was renamed Citibank, N.A. The name change also
helped to avoid confusion in
Ohio with Cleveland-based National City
Corp., though the banks never had any significant overlapping areas
except for Citi credit cards issued in National City territory. In
addition, at the time of the name change to Citicorp, in 1998,
National City of
Ohio was mostly a Cleveland-area bank and had not
gone on its acquisition spree that it would occur in the 1990s and
2000s. Any possible name confusion had Citi not changed its name from
National City eventually became completely moot when PNC Financial
Services acquired National City in 2008 during the subprime mortgage
In 1987, the bank set aside $3 billion in reserves for loan losses in
Brazil and other developing countries. In 1990, the bank
established a subsidiary in Poland. In 1994, it became the world's
biggest card issuer.
Automated banking card
Shortly afterward, the bank launched the Citicard, which allowed
customers to perform all transactions without a passbook. Branches
also had terminals with simple one-line displays that allowed
customers to get basic account information without a bank teller.
Credit card business
In the 1960s the bank entered into the credit card business. In 1965,
First National City Bank bought Carte Blanche from Hilton Hotels.
Three years later, the bank (under pressure from the U.S. government)
sold this division. By 1968, the company created its own credit card.
The card, known as "The Everything Card", was promoted as a kind of
East Coast version of the BankAmericard. By 1969, First National City
Bank decided that the Everything Card was too costly to promote as an
independent brand and joined Master Charge (now MasterCard). Citibank
unsuccessfully tried again from 1977 to 1987 to create a separate
credit card brand, the Choice Card.
John S. Reed was selected CEO in 1984, and Citi became a founding
member of the
CHAPS clearing house in London. Under his leadership,
the next 14 years would see
Citibank become the largest bank in the
United States, the largest issuer of credit cards and charge cards in
the world, and expand its global reach to over 90 countries.
As the bank's expansion continued, the Narre Warren-Caroline
Springs[dubious – discuss] credit card company was purchased in
1981. In 1981,
Citibank chartered a
South Dakota subsidiary to take
advantage of new laws that raised the state's maximum permissible
interest rate on loans to 25% (then the highest in the nation). In
many other states, usury laws prevented banks from charging interest
that aligned with the extremely high costs of lending money in the
late 1970s and early 1980s, making consumer lending unprofitable.
Currently, there is no maximum interest rate or usury restriction
South Dakota law when a written agreement is formed.
In 2005, Federated Department Stores (now Macy's, Inc.), sold its
consumer credit portfolio to Citigroup, which reissued its cards under
the name Department Stores National Bank (DSNB).
Citibank purchased the credit card portfolio of
Best Buy from
On April 1, 2016,
Citigroup became the exclusive issuer of Costco's
branded credit cards.
Early technology adoption
Automatic teller machines
In the 1970s,
Citibank was one of the first U.S. banks to introduce
automatic teller machines (ATMs), which gave customers 24-hour access
to cash. In April 2006,
Citibank signed a deal with
7-Eleven to offer
Citibank customers free access to ATMs in more than 5,500 convenience
stores in the United States.
The Citibank.com domain name was registered in 1991, and initially
used only for email and other internet interactions. As early as
Citibank pioneered online access to accounts using 300-baud
dial-up only.[better source needed] At first, access was
through proprietary software distributed on a 5.25-inch floppy
disk. Following the creation of the World Wide Web,
Citibank offered browser-based access as well.
Citibank branch (New York City)
Citibank branch on Michigan Avenue in Chicago
In 2002, Citigroup, the parent of Citibank, acquired Golden State
Bancorp and its California Federal Bank, which was one-third owned by
Ronald O. Perelman, for $5.8 billion.
Citibank was sued for improperly charging late fees on its
In August 2004,
Citigroup entered the Texas market with the purchase
of First American Bank of Bryan, Texas. The deal established Citi's
retail banking presence in Texas, giving
Citibank over 100 branches,
$3.5 billion in assets and approximately 120,000 customers in the
Citibank entered the Philadelphia market, opening 23 branches
in the metropolitan area. In 2013,
Citibank closed these locations for
In 2006, the company announced a naming rights sponsorship deal for
the new stadium of New York Mets, Citi Field, which opened in 2009.
The deal reportedly required payments by Citi of $20 million per year
for 20 years.
2008–2009 losses and cost-cutting measures by parent Citigroup
On April 11, 2007, Citigroup, the parent of Citibank, announced
layoffs of 17,000 employees, or 8% of its workforce.
On November 4, 2007,
Charles Prince resigned as the chairman and chief
executive of Citigroup, the parent of Citibank, following crisis
meetings with the board in New York in the wake of billions of dollars
in losses related to subprime lending. Former United States
Secretary of the Treasury
Robert Rubin took over as chairman,
Vikram Pandit as chief executive.
On November 5, 2007, several days after
Merrill Lynch announced that
it too had been losing billions from the subprime mortgage crisis in
the United States, Citi reported that it will lose between $8 billion
and $11 billion in the fourth quarter of 2007, in addition to the $6.5
billion it lost in the third quarter of 2007.
Effective November 30, 2007,
Citibank sold its 17 Puerto Rico
branches, along with $1.0 billion in deposits, to Banco Popular.
In January 2008,
Citigroup reported a $10 billion loss in the fourth
quarter of 2007, after an $18.1 billion write down.
In March 2008,
Citibank set up Mobile Money Ventures, a joint venture
with SK Telecom, to develop mobile apps for banking. It sold the
Intuit in June 2011.
In May 2008, the company closed an $87.5 million leaseback transaction
for branches in New York City.
In July 2008,
Citibank Privatkunden AG & Co. KGaA, the company's
German division, was sold to Crédit Mutuel. On February 22, 2010,
it was renamed to Targobank.
In August 2008, after a three-year investigation by the California
Citibank was ordered to repay the $14 million that
was removed from 53,000 customers accounts over an 11-year period from
1992 to 2003, plus an additional $4 million in interest and penalties.
The money was taken under an electronic "account sweeping program"
where any positive balances from over-payments or double payments were
removed without notice to the customers.
On November 23, 2008, during the financial crisis of 2007–2008,
Citigroup was forced to seek federal financing to avoid a collapse
similar to those suffered by its competitors
Bear Stearns and AIG. The
U.S. government provided $25 billion and guarantees to risky assets in
On January 16, 2009,
Citigroup announced that it was separating Citi
Holdings Inc., its non-core businesses such as brokerage, asset
management, and local consumer finance and higher-risk assets, from
Citicorp. The split was presented as allowing
Citibank to concentrate
on its core banking business.
2010 to present
On October 19, 2011, Citigroup, the parent of Citibank, agreed to a
$285 million civil fraud penalty after the U.S. Securities and
Exchange Commission accused the company of betting against risky
mortgage-related investments that it sold to its clients.
Citigroup announced it would exit retail banking in 11
markets, primarily in
Europe and Central America.
In September 2014,
Citibank exited the Texas market with the sale of
41 branches to BB&T.
In September 2015,
Citibank announced that it would close its 17
branches in Massachusetts and end sponsorship of a theater in
In 2015, the bank was ordered to pay $770 million in relief to
borrowers for illegal credit card practices. The Consumer Financial
Protection Bureau said that about 7 million customer accounts were
affected by Citibank's "deceptive marketing" practices, which included
misrepresenting costs and fees and charging customers for services
they did not receive.
On March 1, 2017, an article in
The Economic Times
The Economic Times of
Citibank may close its 44 branches in India, as digital
transactions made them less necessary. The articles wrote that
Citibank was “India’s most profitable foreign lender”.
On March 20, 2017,
The Guardian reported that hundreds of banks had
helped launder KGB-related funds out of Russia, as uncovered by an
investigation named Russian Laundromat.
Citibank was listed among the
American banks that were named as having handled the laundered funds,
with banks in the US processing around $63.7 million between 2010 and
Citibank was listed as having processed $37 million of that
amount, with others including Bank of America, which processed $14
million. as the bank “handled $113.1 million” in Laundromat
Funding of Dakota Access Pipeline
Citibank is one of the lead lenders to the developers of the Dakota
Access Pipeline project in North Dakota, a 1,172-mile-long
(1,886 km) oil pipeline project. The pipeline has been
controversial regarding its potential environmental impacts and
Siouan sacred lands and water supply. According to
a statement by Hugh MacMillan, a senior researcher on water, energy
and climate issues,
Citibank has been "running the books on this
project, and that's the bank that beat the bushes and got other banks
to join in."
On December 13, 2016, students of
Columbia University protested
outside of the
Citibank location on Broadway and 112th Street, by
holding cardboard signs, chanting and passing flyers. Earlier that
year, the university replaced the on-campus
Citibank ATMs with ATMs
from Santander Bank, a bank that has no ties to the Dakota Access
Citibank sponsors Citi Field, home of the
New York Mets
New York Mets baseball club
 as well as the Washington Open tennis championship.
Citibank became a sponsor of the Australian Rugby Union team in 2001
for a three-year deal, and a major sponsor of the
Sydney Swans in
2005, who play in the Australian Football League.
In the late 1970s, First National City was heavily involved in Indy
Car racing, sponsoring major drivers like Johnny Rutherford and Al
Unser, Sr. Unser won the
1978 Indianapolis 500
1978 Indianapolis 500 in First National City
Travelers Checks livery.
Referred to in Rock band Cake's "Short Skirt/Long Jacket" song on the
album Comfort Eagle, "... at
Citibank we will meet accidentally..."
Michel Kichka satirized
Citibank in his 1982
poster ...And I Love New York. The lettering above the entrance to a
New York City
New York City branch read "Citibang." Meanwhile, a stocking-wearing
bank robber exits and fires shots at NYPD officers responding to the
New York City
New York City portal
List of chairmen of Citigroup
Sanford I. Weill
Membership of ATM Industry Association (ATMIA)
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Cleveland & Thomas F. Huertas
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Crédit Agricole SA
Crédit du Nord
Crédit Mutuel Arkéa
Credit Mutuel CIC Banque
La Banque postale
Deutsche Bank AG
DZ Bank AG
Europe Arab Bank Frankfurt
Hamburger Sparkasse AG
Chase Bank AG
Landesbank Berlin Holding
SECB Swiss EURO CLEARING Bank GmbH
The Bank of New York Mellon, Frankfurt Branch
VTB Bank (Deutschland) AG
Alpha Bank SA
Eurobank Ergasias SA
National Bank of Greece
National Bank of Greece SA
Piraeus Bank SA
Hungarian Development Bank
Hungarian National Bank
Allied Irish Banks
Bank of Ireland
Banca del Fucino
Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro
Banca Popolare del Lazio
Banca Popolare di Sondrio
Cassa di Risparmio di Cesena
Cassa di Risparmio di Fermo
Cassa di Risparmio di Ravenna
Banca di Imola
Raiffeisen Landesbank Südtirol
Banque et Caisse d'Épargne de l'État
Banque Internationale à Luxembourg
Banque Internationale à Luxembourg SA
KBL European Private Bankers
Société Générale Bank & Trust
ABN Amro Bank NV
De Nederlandsche Bank
ING Bank NV
Bank BPH SA
Narodowy Bank Polski
Banco BPI SA
Banco Comercial Português
Caixa Geral de Depósitos
Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A.
Banco Popular Español, S.A.
Banco Sabadell, S.A.
Banco Santander, S.A.
CaixaBank, S.A. (La Caixa)
Catalunya Banc, S.A. (CatalunyaCaixa)
ABANCA Corporación Bancaria, S.A. (Abanca)
Caja Laboral Popular, Cooperativa de Crédito (Caja Laboral)
Banco Cooperativo Español, S.A. (Caja Rural)
Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
Nordea Bank AB
Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Ltd.
Barclays Bank PLC
DNB Bank (NOR)
HSBC Bank PLC
JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.,
Kookmin Bank International Ltd.
Lloyds Bank PLC
MashreqBank psc (UAE)
Royal Bank of Scotland
Royal Bank of Scotland PLC
Wells Fargo Bank NA