Cisleithania
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Cisleithania, also ''Zisleithanien''
sl, Cislajtanija
hu, Ciszlajtánia
cs, Předlitavsko
sk, Predlitavsko
pl, Przedlitawia
hr, Cislajtanija
sh, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, script=cyrl, italic=no
ro, Cisleithania
uk, Цислейтанія, Tsysleitaniia
it, Cisleitania was a common yet unofficial name for the northern and western part of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a and in between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the and was dissolved following its defeat in the . At its core was the which was a between th ...

Austria-Hungary
, the Dual Monarchy created in the
Compromise of 1867 300px, Photo of the coronation oath in Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) ">Inner City Parish Church in Pest">Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (german: Ausgleich, hu, Kiegyezés) established th ...
—as distinguished from ''
Transleithania The internal official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ( hu, "a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918) ...
'' (i.e., the Hungarian
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen The internal official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ( hu, "a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monar ...
east of beyond"the
Leitha The Leitha (, ; Hungarian: , , formerly ; Czech and Slovak: ''Litava'') is a river in Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern ...
River). The Cisleithanian capital was
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
, the residence of the Austrian emperor. The territory had a population of 28,571,900 in 1910. It reached from
Vorarlberg Vorarlberg ( , ; gsw, label=Vorarlbergisch, Vorarlbearg, , or ) is the westernmost States of Austria, state () of Austria. It has the second-smallest geographical area after Vienna and, although it has the second-smallest population, it also has ...

Vorarlberg
in the west to the
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Austrian Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumo ...
and the
Duchy of Bukovina The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary from 1867 until 1918. Name The name ''Bukovina'' came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the ...
(today part of
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
and
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
) in the east, as well as from the
Kingdom of Bohemia The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom ( cs, České království; german: link=no, Königreich Böhmen; la, Regnum Bohemiae), was a medieval and History of the Czech lands, early modern m ...
in the north to the
Kingdom of Dalmatia The Kingdom of Dalmatia ( hr, Kraljevina Dalmacija; german: Königreich Dalmatien; it, Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). It encompassed the entir ...

Kingdom of Dalmatia
(today part of
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
) in the south. It comprised the current
States of Austria Austria is a federation, federal republic made up of nine states (German language, German: ''Länder''). Since ''Land'' is also the German word for "country", the term ''Bundesländer'' (literally ''federal states'') is often used instead to avoid ...
(except for
Burgenland Burgenland (; hu, Őrvidék; hr, Gradišće; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bava ...
), as well as most of the territories of the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
and
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
(except for
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur Ri ...
), southern
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in . It is divided into 16 , covering an area of , and has a largely climate. Poland has a population of nearly 38.5 million people, and is the fifth-most populous . ...

Poland
and parts of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
(
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is the capital city, and largest city, of the Regions of Italy#Autonomous regions with special statute, autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia, one of t ...

Trieste
,
Gorizia Gorizia (; sl, Gorica , colloquially 'old Gorizia' to distinguish it from Nova Gorica; fur, label=Standard Friulian, Gurize, fur, label=Friulian language#Variants of Friulian, Southeastern Friulian, Guriza; vec, label=Venetian language#Regio ...

Gorizia
,
Tarvisio Tarvisio (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Tarvisio
,
Trentino Trentino ( lld, Trentin) officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capit ...
, and
South Tyrol it, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige lld, Provinzia Autonoma de Balsan/Bulsan – Südtirol , settlement_type = Autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject ...
),
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
(
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...

Istria
,
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
),
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Црна Гора, Crna Gora, lit. "Black Mountain", ) is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is o ...

Montenegro
( Kotor Bay),
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
(Southern
Bukovina Bukovina ro, Bucovina; german: Bukowina or ; pl, Bukowina; hu, Bukovina; uk, Буковина, ; see also other languages Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also re ...

Bukovina
), and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
(Northern
Bukovina Bukovina ro, Bucovina; german: Bukowina or ; pl, Bukowina; hu, Bukovina; uk, Буковина, ; see also other languages Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also re ...

Bukovina
and
Halychyna Galicia (; Ukrainian and rue, Галичина, ''Halychyna''; pl, Galicja; Czech and sk, Halič; german: Galizien; hu, Galícia/Gácsország/Halics; ro, Galiția/Halici; yi, גאַליציע ''Galitsiye'') was a historical and geograp ...
).


Term

The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
name ''Cisleithania'' derives from that of the Leitha River, a tributary of the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the in Europe, after the in . It flows through much of and , from the into the . Its longest headstream rises in , while the river carries its name from its source confluence in onwards. The Danube was once a long-s ...

Danube
forming the historical boundary between the
Archduchy of Austria Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: ''Erzherzog'', feminine form: ''Erzherzogin'') was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de H ...
and the Hungarian Kingdom in the area southeast of Vienna (on the way to
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the of , and the in the by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is both a and , and forms the centre of the , which has an ar ...

Budapest
). Much of its territory lay west (or, from a Viennese perspective, on "this" side) of the Leitha. After the constitutional changes of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Cisleithanian
crown lands Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms ...
(''Kronländer'') continued to constitute the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
, but the latter term was rarely used to avoid confusion with the era before 1867, when the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...
had been a constituent part of that empire. The somewhat cumbersome official name was ''Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder'' ("The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council"). The phrase was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status until 1915; the press and the general public seldom used it and then with a derogatory connotation. In general, the lands were just called Austria, but the term "Austrian lands" (''Österreichische Länder'') originally did not apply to the
Lands of the Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. T ...
(i.e.,
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, o ...

Bohemia
proper, the
Margraviate of Moravia The Margraviate of Moravia ( cs, Markrabství moravské; german: Markgrafschaft Mähren) was one of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. ...
and
Duchy of Silesia The Duchy of Silesia ( pl, Księstwo śląskie, german: Herzogtum Schlesien) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385), Poland. Soon after it was formed under the P ...
) or to the territories annexed in the 18th-century
Partitions of Poland The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish–Lithuanian can refer to: * Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569) * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) * Polish-Lithuanian identity as ...

Partitions of Poland
(
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...
) or the former Venetian Dalmatia. From 1867, the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...
, the
Kingdom of Croatia
Kingdom of Croatia
, the
Kingdom of Slavonia The Kingdom of Slavonia ( hr, Kraljevina Slavonija, la, Regnum Sclavoniae, hu, Szlavón Királyság, german: Königreich Slawonien) was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy ...
and the Principality of Transylvania were no longer "Austrian" crown lands. Rather, they constituted an autonomous state, officially called the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St Stephen" ( hu, Szent István Koronájának Országai or ''A Magyar Szent Korona Országai'', german: Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone) and commonly known as ''Transleithania'' or just Hungary. The
Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure A building, or edifice, is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, ...
, occupied in 1878, formed a separate part. Both the "Austrian" and "Hungarian" lands of the Dual Monarchy had large Slavic-settled territories in the north (
Czechs , native_name_lang = cs The Czechs ( cs, Češi, ; singular masculine: ''Čech'' , singular feminine: ''Češka'' ), or the Czech people (), are a West Slavs, West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe ...
,
Slovaks The Slovaks ( sk, Slováci, singular: ''Slovák'', feminine: ''Slovenka'', plural: ''Slovenky'') are a West Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the ...
,
Poles The Poles,, ; singular masculine: ''Polak'', singular feminine: ''Polka'' or Polish people, are a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a combination of shared features such as language, history, ethnicity, culture ...

Poles
and
Ruthenians Ruthenians and Ruthenes ( la, Rutheni) are exonyms An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sout ...
) as well as in the south (
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research ta ...
,
Croats Croats (; hr, Hrvati, ), also known as Croatians, are a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more over ...

Croats
and
Serbs Serbs ( sr-Cyr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from ...
).


Crown lands

Cisleithania consisted of 15 crown lands which had representatives in the Imperial Council (''Reichsrat''), the Cisleithanian parliament in Vienna. The crown lands centered on the
Archduchy of Austria Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: ''Erzherzog'', feminine form: ''Erzherzogin'') was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de H ...
(''Erzherzogtum Österreich'') were not states, but provinces in the modern sense. However, they were areas with unique historic political and legal characteristics and were therefore more than mere administrative districts. They have been conceived of as "historical-political entities". Each crown land had a regional assembly, the
Landtag A Landtag (State Diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition), the sum of the food consumed by an organism or group * Dieting, the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake ** Diet food, foods that aid in creating ...

Landtag
, which enacted laws (''Landesgesetze'') on matters of regional and mostly minor importance. Until 1848, the ''Landtage'' had been traditional
diets The Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in no ...
(assemblies of the
estates of the realm 250px, A 13th-century French representation of the tripartite social order of the Middle Ages – ''Oratores'' ("those who pray"), ''Bellatores'' ("those who fight"), and ''Laboratores'' ("those who work"). The estates of the realm, or three est ...
). They were disbanded after the
Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history ...
and reformed after 1860. Some members held their position as ''ex officio'' members (e.g., bishops), while others were elected. There was no universal and equal suffrage, but a mixture of privilege and limited franchise. The executive committee of a Landtag was called ''Landesausschuss'' and headed by a ''
Landeshauptmann Landeshauptmann (if male) or Landeshauptfrau (if female) (, "state captain", plural ''Landeshauptleute'') is the chairman of a state government and the supreme official of an Austrian states and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol ...
'', being president of the Landtag as well. From 1868 onwards Emperor
Franz Joseph en, Francis Joseph Charles , mother = Princess Sophie of Bavaria Princess Sophie of Bavaria (Sophie Friederike Dorothea Wilhelmine; 27 January 1805 – 28 May 1872) was born to King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and his second wife Ca ...

Franz Joseph
himself (in his function as monarch of a crown land, being king, archduke, grandduke, duke or count) and his
Imperial–Royal The adjective (usually abbreviated to ), German for imperial–royal, was applied to the authorities and state institutions of the Austrian Empire until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which established the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Therea ...
(''k.k.'') government headed by the Minister-President of Austria were represented at the capital cities of the crown lands—except for Vorarlberg which was administered with Tyrol, and Istria and Gorizia-Gradisca which were administered together with Trieste under the common name of Austro-Illyrian Littoral— by a
stadtholder In the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Nor ...
(''Statthalter''), in few crown lands called ''Landespräsident'', who acted as chief executive.


Kingdoms

*
Kingdom of Bohemia The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom ( cs, České království; german: link=no, Königreich Böhmen; la, Regnum Bohemiae), was a medieval and History of the Czech lands, early modern m ...
(Land of the Bohemian Crown) *
Kingdom of Dalmatia The Kingdom of Dalmatia ( hr, Kraljevina Dalmacija; german: Königreich Dalmatien; it, Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). It encompassed the entir ...

Kingdom of Dalmatia
*
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Austrian Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumo ...


Archduchies

* Archduchy of Austria above the Enns (unofficially Upper Austria) * Archduchy of Austria below the Enns (unofficially Lower Austria)


Grand duchies

*
Grand Duchy of Cracow Grand may refer to: People with the name * Grand (surname) * Grand L. Bush (born 1955), American actor * Grand Mixer DXT, American turntablist * Grand Puba (born 1966), American rapper * Places * Grand, Oklahoma * Grand, Vosges, village and commun ...
(Subdivision of Galicia and Lodomeria)


Duchies

*
Duchy of Bukovina The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary from 1867 until 1918. Name The name ''Bukovina'' came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the ...
*
Duchy of Carinthia The Duchy of Carinthia (german: Herzogtum Kärnten; sl, Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization a ...

Duchy of Carinthia
*
Duchy of Carniola The Duchy of Carniola ( sl, Vojvodina Kranjska, german: Herzogtum Krain, hu, Krajna) was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire, established under House of Habsburg, Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carnio ...
*
Duchy of Salzburg The Duchy of Salzburg () was a Cisleithania Cisleithania (german: Cisleithanien, also ''Zisleithanien'', sl, Cislajtanija, hu, Ciszlajtánia, cz, Předlitavsko, sk, Predlitavsko, pl, Przedlitawia, hr, Cislajtanija, sr, Цислајтани ...
*
Duchy of Silesia The Duchy of Silesia ( pl, Księstwo śląskie, german: Herzogtum Schlesien) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385), Poland. Soon after it was formed under the P ...
(Land of the Bohemian Crown) *
Duchy of Styria The Duchy of Styria (german: Herzogtum Steiermark; sl, Vojvodina Štajerska; hu, Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection ...


Margraviates

*
Margraviate of Istria The March of Istria (or Margraviate of Istria ) was originally a Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Franks, Frankish noble family founded by Charles Ma ...
(Part of the
Austrian Littoral The Austrian Littoral (german: Österreichisches Küstenland, it, Litorale Austriaco, hr, Austrijsko primorje, sl, Avstrijsko primorje, hu, Osztrák Partvidék) was a crown land (''Kronland'') of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849. It co ...
)
*
Margraviate of Moravia The Margraviate of Moravia ( cs, Markrabství moravské; german: Markgrafschaft Mähren) was one of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. ...
(Land of the Bohemian Crown)


Princely Counties

*
Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (german: Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; it, Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; sl, Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska), historically sometimes shortened to and spelled "Go ...
(Part of the Austrian Littoral) * Princely County of Tyrol *
Princely County of Vorarlberg
Princely County of Vorarlberg


Free Cities

* Free City of Trieste (Part of the Austrian Littoral)


Condominium

*
Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina A condominium (or condo for short) is a building structure A building, or edifice, is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, ...
(Governed Jointly by ''Cisleithania'' and ''Transleithania'')


Politics

According to the "December Constitution", a redraft of the emperor's 1861
February Patent The February Patent was a constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human ...
, the Austrian government was generally responsible in all affairs concerning the Cisleithanian lands, except for the common
Austro-Hungarian Army The Austro-Hungarian Army (german: Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; hu, Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the jo ...
, the
Austro-Hungarian Navy The Austro-Hungarian Navy or Imperial and Royal War Navy (german: Kaiserlich und königlich, kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine, in short ''k.u.k. Kriegsmarine'', hu, Császári és Királyi Haditengerészet) was the navy, naval force of ...
and the
Foreign Ministry A foreign affairs minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly minister for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawer ...
, these '' k.u.k.'' matters remained reserved for the Imperial and Royal Ministers' Council for Common Affairs of Austria-Hungary. The Austrian '' Reichsrat'', a
bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interac ...
legislature implemented in 1861, became the Cisleithanian parliament. Originally consisting of delegates of the ''Landtage'', in 1873 direct election of the House of Deputies (''Abgeordnetenhaus'') was introduced with a four-class franchise
suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in orde ...

suffrage
for male landowners and bourgeois. Equal, direct, secret and universal suffrage—for men—was not introduced until a 1907 electoral reform. In this
Lower House A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, Wes ...
(with 353 members in 1873 and 516 in 1907), at first German-speaking deputies dominated, but with the extension of the suffrage the Slavs gained a majority. An ethnic nationalist struggle between German-speaking and Slavic deputies, especially in the context of the
Czech National Revival The Czech National Revival was a cultural movement which took place in the Czech lands during the 18th and 19th centuries. The purpose of this movement was to revive the Czech Czech language, language, culture and national identity. The most pro ...
, was played out. Leaders of the movement like
František Palacký
František Palacký
advocated the
emancipation Emancipation is any effort to procure Economic, social and cultural rights, economic and social rights, civil and political rights, political rights or Egalitarianism, equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, i ...

emancipation
of the Slavic population within the Monarchy (
Austroslavism Austro-Slavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic peoples in the Austrian Empire. It was most influential among Czech people, Czech Liberalism, liberals around the middle of the 19th century. First proposed by K ...
), while politicians of the
Young Czech Party The Young Czech Party ( cz, Mladočeši, officially National Liberal Party, ''Národní strana svobodomyslná'') was formed in the Kingdom of Bohemia, Bohemian crown land of Austria-Hungary in 1874. It initiated the democratization of Czechs, Cz ...
principally denied the right of the ''Reichsrat'' to put any decisions relevant for the "
Czech lands#REDIRECT Czech lands The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands ( cs, České země ) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918, the Czech Soci ...
", and used means of filibustering as well as absence to torpedo its work. They were antagonized by radical
German nationalists German nationalism is an ideological notion that promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into one unified nation state. German Nationalism also emphasizes and takes pride in the patriotism and national identity of Germans as one nation ...
led by Georg von Schönerer, demanding the dissolution of the Monarchy and the unification of the "
German Austria The Republic of German-Austria (german: Republik Deutschösterreich or ) was a country created following World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that last ...
n" lands with the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
. After 1893, no ''k.k.'' government was able to rely on a parliamentary majority. Nevertheless, Polish members of parliament and politicians like
Count Kasimir Felix Badeni Count Kasimir Felix Badeni (German: ''Kasimir Felix Graf von Badeni'', Polish: ''Kazimierz Feliks hrabia Badeni''; 14 October 1846 – 9 July 1909), a member of the Polish noble House of Badeni, was an Austrian statesman, who served as Minister- ...
achieved some success involving Galician Poles by special regulations for this "developing country"; thence the ''Polenklub'' played a constructive role most of the time. Politics were frequently paralysed because of the tensions between different nationalities. When Czech obstruction at the Reichsrat prevented the parliament from working, the emperor went on to rule autocratically through imperial decrees (''Kaiserliche Verordnungen'') submitted by his government. The ''Reichsrat'' was prorogued in March 1914 at the behest of Minister-President Count Karl von Stürgkh, it did not meet during the
July Crisis The July Crisis, a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914, led to the outbreak of World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1 ...
and was not reconvened until May 1917, after the accession of Emperor
Karl Karl may refer to: People * Karl (given name) Karl (also Carl (name), Carl) is a Germanic variant of the male given name Charles meaning free man, strong man, man, manly. For further details on origin and meaning, see Churl and Charles. Notabl ...

Karl
in 1916. For representation in matters relevant to the whole
real union Real union is a union of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...

real union
of Austria-Hungary (foreign affairs, defence, and the financing thereof) the ''Reichsrat'' appointed delegations of 60 members to discuss these matters parallel to Hungarian delegations of the same size and to come, in separate votes, to the same conclusion on the recommendation of the responsible common ministry. In Cisleithania, the 60 delegates consisted of 40 elected members of the House of Representatives (''Abgeordnetenhaus'') and 20 members of the Upper House (''Herrenhaus''). The delegations convened simultaneously, both either in Vienna or in Budapest, though spatially divided. In case of not getting the same decision in three attempts, the law permitted the summoning of a common session of both delegations and the eventual counting of the votes in total, but the Hungarians, who averted any Imperial "roof" over their part of the dual monarchy, as well as the common ministers, carefully avoided reaching this situation. Austria-Hungary as a common entity had not own
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
and legislative power, which was shaped by the fact that there was no common parliament. The common diplomatic and military affairs were managed by delegations from the Imperial Council and the Hungarian parliament. According to the compromise, the members of the delegates from the two parliaments had no right to debate, they had no right to introduce new perspectives and own ideas during the meetings, they were nothing more than the extended arms of their own parliaments. All decisions had to be ratify by the Imperial council in Vienna and by the Hungarian parliament in Budapest. Without the Austrian and Hungarian parliamentary ratifications, the decisions of the delegates were not valid in Austria or in Kingdom of Hungary.


Population

The largest group within Cisleithania were
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
Germans Germans (, ) are the natives or inhabitants of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German lan ...
(including
Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic language historically spoken by Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciatio ...

Yiddish
-speaking
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...
), who made up around a third of the population. German-speakers and
Czechs , native_name_lang = cs The Czechs ( cs, Češi, ; singular masculine: ''Čech'' , singular feminine: ''Češka'' ), or the Czech people (), are a West Slavs, West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe ...
made up a majority of the population.GERMAN AUSTRIA.
''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 130 Pulit ...

The New York Times
'', August 11, 1918 (
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) Almost 60% of Cisleithania's population was ethnically Slavic.


Notes


See also

*
Imperial Crown of Austria The Imperial Crown of Austria (german: Österreichische Kaiserkrone) is a crown formerly in use by the monarchs of the Habsburg Monarchy. The crown was originally made in 1602 in Prague by Jan Vermeyen as the personal crown of Holy Roman Emperor Rud ...

Imperial Crown of Austria
*
Republic of German-Austria The Republic of German-Austria (german: Republik Deutschösterreich or ) was a country created following World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that last ...


References

{{Coord, 48, 30, N, 16, 23, E, display=title Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary, . Leitha Geography of Austria-Hungary Geography of Central Europe 1867 establishments in Austria-Hungary 1918 disestablishments in Austria-Hungary History of Austria-Hungary