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Ciskei
Ciskei
(/sɪsˈkeɪ/ or /sɪsˈkaɪ/) was a nominally independent state – a Bantustan
Bantustan
– in the south east of South Africa. It covered an area of 7,700 square kilometres (3,000 sq mi), almost entirely surrounded by what was then the Cape Province, and possessed a small coastline along the shore of the Indian Ocean. Under South Africa's policy of apartheid, land was set aside for black peoples in self-governing territories. Ciskei
Ciskei
was designated as one of two homelands or "Bantustans" for Xhosa-speaking people. Ngqika (Rharhabe) Xhosa people
Xhosa people
were resettled in the Ciskei, and Gcaleka Xhosa were settled in the Transkei, the other Xhosa homeland. Ciskei
Ciskei
had a succession of capitals during its existence. Originally, Zwelitsha
Zwelitsha
served as the capital with the view that Alice would become the long-term national capital. However, it was Bisho (now spelled Bhisho) that became the capital until Ciskei's reintegration into South Africa. The name Ciskei
Ciskei
means "on this side of the Kei River", and is in contrast to the neighbouring Bantustan
Bantustan
of Transkei.

Contents

1 History 2 Independence 3 Coup d'état

3.1 Bisho massacre

4 Annexation 5 Districts in 1991 6 Law enforcement and Defence 7 See also 8 Books on Ciskei 9 References 10 External links

History[edit]

A rural area in Ciskei

Map of Ciskei

By the time Sir John Cradock was appointed governor of the Cape Colony in 1811, the Zuurveld region had lapsed into disorder and many white farmers had begun to abandon their farms.[2] Early during 1812, on the instructions of the governor, Lieutenant-Colonel John Graham forced 20,000 Xhosa to cross the Fish River.[2] Subsequently, 27 military posts were erected across this border, which resulted in the establishment of the garrison towns of Grahamstown
Grahamstown
and Cradock.[2] At the end of the 19th century, the area known as British Kaffraria between the Fish and Kei rivers had been set aside[by whom?] for the "Bantu" and was from then on known as the Ciskei.[3] Europeans gave the name Ciskei
Ciskei
to the area to distinguish it from the Transkei, the area north of the Kei.[4] After the Union of South Africa
South Africa
formed in 1910, the "Bantu" rights of occupation remained unclear and differed from colony to colony within South Africa. The Native Lands Act of 1913 demarcated the reserves in the Union, and made it illegal to sell or lease these lands to Europeans (except in the Cape Colony).[3] General Hertzog pursued his segregation policy and subsequently passed the Native Trust and Land Act in 1936.[5] This act effectively abolished the right of the Cape "Bantu" to buy land outside of the existing reserves.[5] Independence[edit] In 1961 Ciskei
Ciskei
became a separate administrative region and in 1972 was declared self-governing under the rule of Chief Justice Mabandla and then Lennox Sebe. In 1978 it became a single-party state under the rule of Lennox Sebe, and after an independence referendum in 1980, in 1981 it became the fourth homeland to be declared independent by the South African government and its residents lost their South African citizenship. However, there were no border controls between South Africa and Ciskei. In common with other Bantustans its independence was not recognised by the international community. Sebe once claimed that the State of Israel
State of Israel
had granted official recognition to Ciskei, but the Israeli Foreign Ministry
Israeli Foreign Ministry
denied this.[6] Coup d'état[edit] In 1990 Brigadier Oupa Gqozo deposed Sebe and ruled as a dictator – despite an initial promise of a swift return to civilian rule. During 1991 and 1992 many of the legal foundations of apartheid in South Africa were removed, undermining the rationale for the homelands' continued existence. The African National Congress
African National Congress
pressed strongly for them to be reincorporated into South Africa. This was opposed by Gqozo and the other homeland leaders. Bisho massacre[edit] On 7 September 1992 the Ciskei Defence Force
Ciskei Defence Force
fired into a crowd (led by Ronnie Kasrils) of ANC members demanding the removal of Gqozo.[7][8] 28 people were killed and hundreds injured in the Bisho massacre outside the sports stadium in Bisho, the small capital of Ciskei.[7][8]

Historical states in present-day South Africa

before 1600

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(1050–1270) Kingdom of Mutapa
Kingdom of Mutapa
(1430–1760)

1600–1700

Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1795)

1700–1800

Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(ca. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
(ca. 1780–1817) Swellendam
Swellendam
(1795) Graaff-Reinet
Graaff-Reinet
(1795–96) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1802)

1800–1850

Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1802–06) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1806–1910) Waterboer's Land
Waterboer's Land
(1813–71) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1818–97) Adam Kok's Land
Adam Kok's Land
(1825–61) Winburg
Winburg
(1836–44) Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
(1837–48) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43)

1850–1875

South African Republic
South African Republic
(1852–1902) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Republic of Utrecht
Republic of Utrecht
(1854–58) Lydenburg Republic
Lydenburg Republic
(1856–60) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–80) Diggers' Republic (1870-71)

1875–1900

Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Goshen (1882–83) Nieuw Republiek (1884–88) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

1900–present

Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1910) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–present)

South Africa
South Africa
portal

v t e

Annexation[edit] Gqozo refused to participate in the multiracial negotiations to agree a post-apartheid constitution for South Africa
South Africa
and initially threatened to boycott the first multiracial elections. This became unsustainable and in March 1994 Ciskei
Ciskei
government workers went on strike for fear of losing their job security and pensions in the post-apartheid era. The police then mutinied, prompting Gqozo to resign on 22 March. The South African government took control of the homeland to ensure security until the elections could be held the following month. Ciskei
Ciskei
and all of the other homelands were reincorporated into South Africa on 27 April 1994, after the first post-apartheid elections. Along with Transkei, Ciskei
Ciskei
became part of the new Eastern Cape Province, with its capital becoming the capital of the new province. Districts in 1991[edit] Districts of the province and population at the 1991 census.[9]

Alice: 43,452 Whittlesea: 50,199 Keiskammahoek: 32,740 Mdantsane: 105,117 Middledrift: 37,979 Peddie: 52,245 Zwelitsha: 142,779 Mpofu: 13,056

Law enforcement and Defence[edit]

Founded in 1981 the Ciskei Defence Force
Ciskei Defence Force
consisted of two battalions and an Air-wing. Ciskei
Ciskei
Police Ciskei
Ciskei
Police - Law Enforcement Division Ciskei
Ciskei
Prisons Service Ciskei
Ciskei
Traffic Force

See also[edit]

Fengu people List of heads of state of Ciskei Vice President of Ciskei

Books on Ciskei[edit]

Mager, A.K. (1999) Gender and the Making of a South African Bantustan: A Social History of the Ciskei, 1945–1959, Heinemann. Switzer, L. (1993) Power and Resistance in an African Society: The Ciskei
Ciskei
Xhosa and the Making of South Africa, University of Wisconsin Press.

References[edit]

^ Sally Frankental; Owen Sichone (2005-01-01). South Africa's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-57607-674-3. Retrieved 2013-09-18.  ^ a b c Cameron, Trewhella; Spies, S.B., eds. (1980) [1986]. An Illustrated History of South Africa
South Africa
(1 ed.). Jonathan Ball Publishers, Johannesburg. p. 79. ISBN 0-86850-118-2.  ^ a b Boyce, A.N. (1971) [1969]. Europe and South Africa: A history for South African High Schools (3 ed.). Juta & Company, Limited. p. 700.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Bulpin, T.V. (1980). Mayhew, Vic; Duncan, Tony; Handler, Rosemund, eds. Illustrated Guide to Southern Africa (2 ed.). Reader's Digest. p. 152. ISBN 0-620-04650-3.  ^ a b Boyce, A.N. (1971) [1969]. Europe and South Africa: A history for South African High Schools (3 ed.). Juta & Company, Limited. p. 702.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Sasha Polakow-Suransky, The Unspoken Alliance: Israel's Secret Relationship with Apartheid
Apartheid
South Africa, (New York: Pantheon Books), 2010, p. 157. ^ a b Ronnie Kasrils
Ronnie Kasrils
(7 May 2004). "A Decade of Democracy: What if Boipatong and Bisho had not happened?". FinancialMail.co.za. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2010.  ^ a b "Evidence that Ciskei
Ciskei
massacre was planned". GreenLeft. 1992-09-30. Retrieved 2010-12-22.  ^ "Census > 1991 > Ciskei
Ciskei
> Variable Description > ... > District code". Statistics South Africa
South Africa
- Nesstar WebView. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 

External links[edit]

Look up Ciskei
Ciskei
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ciskei.

Ciskei
Ciskei
– general information African Studies Quarterly South African history site WHKMLA site Creation of tribalism in Ciskei Ciskei
Ciskei
International Airways CV-990

v t e

Apartheid
Apartheid
Bantustans in South Africa
South Africa
and South West Africa

South Africa

Nominal independence

Bophuthatswana Ciskei Transkei Venda

Self-governance

Gazankulu KaNgwane KwaNdebele KwaZulu Lebowa QwaQwa

South West Africa

Self-governance

East Caprivi Hereroland Kavangoland Ovamboland

No self-governance

Bushmanland Damaraland Kaokoland Namaland Rehoboth Tswanaland

Leaders and Administrators

After Nominal Independence

Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana

Head of State:

Lucas Mangope (1968–94) Rocky Malebane-Metsing (Feb 1988)

Administrator:

Tjaart Van der Walt and Job Mokgoro (Mar–Apr 1994)

Bushmanland

No central government established

Ciskei
Ciskei

Head of State:

Lennox Sebe (1981–90) Oupa Gqozo (1990–94)

Administrator:

Pieter van Rensburg Goosen and Bongani Blessing Finca (Mar–Apr 1994)

Damaraland
Damaraland

Head of State:

Justus ǁGaroëb
Justus ǁGaroëb
(1980–89)

Kaokoland
Kaokoland

No central government established

Namaland
Namaland

Head of State:

Cornelius Cloete (1980–85) Daniel Luipert (1985–89)

Rehoboth

Head of State:

Johannes "Hans" Diergaardt (1979–89)

Transkei
Transkei

Head of State:

Botha Sigcau (1976–78) Zwelibanzi Maneli Mabandla (1978–79) Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (1979–86) Tutor Nyangelizwe Vulindlela Ndamase (1986–94)

Administrator:

Bantu Holomisa (1987–94) (Head of Military Council)

Tswanaland

Head of State:

Constance Kgosiemang
Constance Kgosiemang
(1980–89)

Venda
Venda

Head of State:

Patrick Mphephu (1978–88) Frank N. Ravele (1988–90) Gabriel Ramushwana (1990–94) Tshamano G. Ramabulana (Jan–Apr 1994)

After Self-Governance

East Caprivi
East Caprivi

Chief Minister:

Josiah Moraliswane (Mar–Sept 1976) Richard Muhinda Mamili (1976–81)

Chairman:

Josiah Moraliswane (1981–84) H.J. Becker (Jul–Aug 1984) F.P.J. Visagie (1984–86) I.J. van der Merwe (Mar–Aug 1986) A.G. Visser
A.G. Visser
(1986–89)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu

Chief Minister:

Hudson William Edison Ntsanwisi (1973–93) Edward Mhinga (Mar-Apr 1993) Samuel Dickenson Nxumalo (1993–94)

Hereroland
Hereroland

Chairman:

Hosea Kutako (1968–70) Clemens Kapuuo (1970–78) Kuaima Riruako
Kuaima Riruako
(1978–80) Thimoteus Tjamuaha (1980–84) Erastus Tjejamba (1987–88) Gottlob Mbaukua (1984–89)

KaNgwane
KaNgwane

Chief Minister:

Enos John Mabuza (1970–81, 1984-91) Mangisi Cephas Zitha (1991–94)

Administrator:

N.J. Badenhorst (June-Dec 1982) Enos John Mabuza (1982–84)

Kavangoland
Kavangoland

Chief Minister:

Linus Shashipapo (1973–77) Alfons Shashipapo (1977–81) Sebastiaan Kamwanga (1981–89)

KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele

Chief Minister:

Simon Skosana (1981–86) Klaas Mtshiweni (Nov 1986) George Majozi Mahlangu (1986–89) Jonas Masana Mabena (1989–90) James Mahlangu (1990–94)

KwaZulu
KwaZulu

Chief Minister:

Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Mangosuthu Buthelezi
(1977–94)

Lebowa
Lebowa

Chief Minister:

Mokgama Maurice Matlala (1972–73) Cedric Namedi Phatudi (1973–87) Z.T. Seleka (Oct 1987) Mogoboya Nelson Ramodike (1987–94)

Ovamboland
Ovamboland

Chief Minister:

Filemon Elifas (1973–75) Cornelius Thuhageni Njoba (1975–81) Peter Kalangula (1981–89)

QwaQwa
QwaQwa

Chief Minister:

Wessel Motha (1974–75) Tsiame Kenneth Mopeli (1975–94)

v t e

Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azan

.