Nickname(s): Kota Udang
(City of Shrimps)
Amsterdam van Java
Amsterdam of Java)
Motto(s): "Gemah Ripah Loh Jinawi"
(Serene, Prosperous, Abundantly Fertile)
Location within West Java
Java and Indonesia
Show map of Java
Show map of Indonesia
Coordinates: 6°42′26″S 108°33′27″E / 6.7071°S
108.5574°E / -6.7071; 108.5574Coordinates: 6°42′26″S
108°33′27″E / 6.7071°S 108.5574°E / -6.7071; 108.5574
• Vice Mayor
37.36 km2 (14.42 sq mi)
1,021.88 km2 (394.55 sq mi)
8,200/km2 (21,000/sq mi)
• Metro density
2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
City Government Site
Jǐng li wèn
chiáng lî vún
zeng2 lei5 man4
chéⁿ lí bûn
Cirebon (formerly referred to as Cheribon in English) is a port city
on the north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. It is located in
the province of
West Java near the provincial border with Central
Java, approximately 297 km east of Jakarta, at 6°43′S
108°34′E / 6.717°S 108.567°E / -6.717; 108.567. The
administrative area of
Cirebon is very small in extent, however, its
dense suburbs sprawl into the surrounding regency; the official
metropolitan area encompasses this regency as well as the city, and
covers an area of 1,021.88 km2, with a 2010 Census population of
The seat of a former Sultanate, the city's West and Central Java
border location have seen its history influenced by both Sundanese and
Javanese culture as well as Arab and Chinese.
2 Administrative divisions
4.1 Arts and crafts
4.2 Performing arts
4.4 Court culture
5.1 Port of Cirebon
7 Public service
9.1 Orientation and places
10 Twin towns – sister cities
11 Notable people
12 Campaign for
14 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
See also: Sultanate of Cirebon
The sultanate court lies near the modern day city of
Cirebon on West
Java's north coast. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the
sultanate thrived and became the region's centre of trade and
commerce, as well as served as an Islamic learning and dissemination
centre. The sultanate split into four royal houses, starting in 1677.
Today there are four kratons (palaces) in Cirebon; Keraton Kasepuhan,
Kraton Kanoman, Keraton Kacirebonan, and Keraton Keprabonan, each has
their own lineage and all are the descendants and remnants of the
According to the manuscript Purwaka Caruban Nagari, in 15th century
Cirebon started as a small fishing village named Muara Jati. At that
time the port of Muara Jati already attracted foreign traders. The
port master at that time is Ki Gedeng Alang-Alang whose appointed by
the king of
Galuh kingdom located inland in Kawali, Ciamis. He moved
the port to Lemahwungkuk, 5 kilometres southward. As the new
settlement leader, Ki Gedeng Alang-Alang was bestowed the title "Kuwu
Cerbon" (Cerbon village leader).
A 15th century prince from Pajajaran, Prince Walangsungsang, converted
to Islam, and was appointed as the Adipati (Duke) of
Cirebon with the
title Cakrabumi. He established the new kingdom of
declared independence from Sunda and Galuh. The establishment of
Cirebon Sultanate marked the first Islamic rule in Western Java, that
grew from modest fishing village of Muara Jati to a busy port of Java
Cirebon grew as one of the independent sultanates
under the leadership of Sunan Gunungjati, in the early 16th century.
Sunda Kingdom collapsed, The Sultanates of Banten and
Mataram fought control over Cirebon, which declared its allegiance to
Sultan Agung of Mataram. But the later his grandson Amangkurat II
ceded the city to the Dutch in the 1677. A treaty in 1705 saw the
Cirebon area west of Cisanggarung River became a Dutch protectorate
jointly administered by three sultans whose courts rivalled those of
Central Java. The Dutch authorities later established the Cirebon
Residence (Residentie Tjirebon) which composed of present-day Cirebon,
Indramayu, and Kuningan.
During the time of the Dutch "Culture System" a flourishing trade in
colonial cash crops attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs and the
Chinese influence is still evident in the batik for which
Cirebon suffered a famine in 1844,
apparently triggered by a combination of drought and the shift from
subsistence agriculture to cash crops, particularly indigo and
sugarcane, enforced by Dutch's Cultivation system.
Being on the border of Sundanese (i.e., West Java) and Javanese (i.e.,
Central Java) cultural regions, many of Cirebon's residents speak a
dialect that is a mix of Sundanese and Javanese, known as Jawareh. It
is thought that the word "Cirebon" derives from the Javanese word,
caruban, meaning "mixed": a reference to the city's mix of Sundanese,
Javanese, Chinese, and Arabic cultural elements. Alternatively, it
could be derived from the Sundanese words "ci" (water or river) and
"rebon" ("shrimp"). (Indeed, the main product of the city is fish
Cirebon is divided into five subdistricts (kecamatan):
The city's population was 298,224 at the
Indonesia Census of 2010.
As with other coastal cities in Indonesia, a large population of
ethnic Chinese has flocked into the city as a result of long-term
Chinese immigration since the 17th century. Significant suburbs lie
within densely populated
Cirebon Regency, and the official
metropolitan area encompasses this entire regency as well as the city.
Although surrounded by Sundanese-speaking areas in West Java,
linguists have stated clearly that
Cirebon (and the historically
related region of
Serang city in Banten Province) are inside its own
Cirebonese language area. In addition, this is supported by a large
portion of the
Cirebon people referring to themselves as "Wong
Cirebon" ("Cirebonese people"), and to their language as "Basa
Cirebon" ("Cirebonese"). Cirebonese language is related to Javanese
and Banyumasan with dialects such as the Jawareh, Plered, and
A batik motif on a skirt from Cirebon.
Cirebon itself is known as Grage in the
Cirebon dialect of Javanese
language, which came from the words "Negara Gede", meaning "Great
Kingdom." As a port city,
Cirebon attracts visitors and settlers from
Indonesia and from other nations as well.
was described as
Java Pasisiran (coastal) culture, similar to the
cultures of Banten, Pekalongan, and Semarang, with notable mixtures of
Sundanese, Chinese, Arabic-Islamic, and European influences.
Arts and crafts
Batik textiles from Cirebon, especially
Cirebon batik with vivid
colors with motifs and patterns, that demonstrate Chinese and local
influences, are well known. Chinese influences can be seen in
Cirebon's culture, most notably the
Cirebon batik Megamendung pattern
that resembles Chinese cloud imagery. The Trusmi area is the
production center of
Cirebon Glass Painting is another
Cirebon arts and crafts. The imagery in glass painting is
usually derived from wayang theme to Islamic calligraphy.
Topeng Cirebon, or
Cirebon mask dance, is a dance style
peculiar to the city.
Cirebon mask dance, inspired by Javanese
Panji cycles is one of notable
Cirebon traditional dance and quite
famous within Indonesian dances.
Cirebon culture is also influenced by Islamic Middle Eastern culture,
such as the Burokan tradition where people exhibit the image of buraq
— traditionally made from bamboo frame and paper skin, or other
materials — in processions around the village accompanied with
music. The traditions of the bamboo statues borne in these processions
is similar to Sundanese Sisingaan, Betawi Ondel-ondel, or Balinese
Ogoh-ogohprocessions, yet differ in their Islamic theme. Burokan are
usually held during festive occasions such as circumcision or
marriage, and are accompanied by popular
Cirebon folk songs, such as
Tarling is a musical tradition reminiscent of Bandung's kecapi suling
music with except that it features guitar, suling (bamboo flute) and
voice. The name derived from gitar (guitar), and suling (flute).
Cirebon is the home town of the PSGJ
Cirebon football team, the club
plays in the Liga Nusantara. Another team,
Cirebon Football Club, the
team also plays in the Liga Nusantara is based in the Bima stadium
Cirebon. Other popular sports in
Cirebon include Futsal.
The remnants of
Cirebon sultanate; Kasepuhan, Kanoman, Kaprabonan, and
Kacirebonan kratons are now run as cultural institutions to preserve
Cirebon culture. Each still hold their traditional ceremonies and
have become the patrons of
Cirebon arts. Some of the royal symbols of
Cirebon Sultanate describe their legacy and influences. The banner of
Cirebon Sultanate is called "Macan Ali" (Ali's panther) with Arabic
calligraphy arranged to resemble a panther or tiger. These indicate
both Islamic influence and that of the Hindu Pajajaran Sundanese King
Siliwangi's tiger banner. The royal lineage of
Cirebon is still well
respected and is held in high prestige among the people of Cirebon,
although it does not hold real political power anymore,.
The royal carriage of Kasepuhan's Singa Barong and Kanoman's Paksi
Naga Liman carriage resembles the chimera of three animals; eagle,
elephant, and dragon. These symbolyze Indian Hinduism, Arabic Islam,
and Chinese influences. The images of Macan Ali, Singa Barong and
Paksi Naga Liman are also often featured as patterns in
As a coastal city, Cirebon's main industry is fishery. Its products
include terasi (shrimp paste), petis, krupuk udang (shrimp crackers)
and various salted fish.
Cirebon is famous for its good quality salted
fishes, such as jambal roti, juhi (salted cuttlefish), rebon and ebi
(dried small shrimp). These products are often sought by visitors,
especially Indonesian domestic tourists and visitors from other
cities, as oleh-oleh (food souvenirs/gift).
Cirebon is also known for its local cuisines and delicacies, such as
empal gentong (a kind of meat and offal curry ),
Mie Koclok (chicken
noodle soup made from coconut milk), Nasi Lengko (rice mixed with bean
sprouts, fried tofu, fried tempeh, topped with peanut sauce and soy
sauce), Nasi Jamblang (rice of various side dishes), tahu gejrot
(fried tofu with ground garlic, chili and shallot, topped with thin
and sweet soy sauce), tahu petis (dry fried tofu served with petis dip
sauce), Tahu Tek-tek (fried tofu topped with peanut sauce and mixed
with vegetables) and ayam panggang (barbecue chicken). Another native
food is "Docang" (lontong with sour vegetable soup).
Cirebon City economy is influenced by its strategic geographical
location and by the characteristics of natural resources. Thus, the
structure of its economy is dominated by manufacturing, trade, hotels
and restaurants, transport and communications and service sectors.
Tomé Pires in the
Suma Oriental around the year 1513 mentioned
Cirebon was one of the trade centers on the island of Java. After
Cirebon was taken over by the
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies government in 1859, it
was designated as a transit port for import-export goods and as a
communications route to the political control center for the region in
the interior of Java.
Port of Cirebon.
Until 2001, the economic contribution to the City of
characterized by processing industry (41.32%), followed by trade,
hotels and restaurants (29.8%), transport and communications sector
(13.56%), and services sector (6.06%). Other sectors (9.26%) included
mining, agriculture, construction, electricity, and gas. Aside from
fishery, its harbour, Tanjung Emas, on the
Java Sea has been a major
hub for timber from Borneo.
A small landing site, the
Cakrabhuwana Airport in Penggung, Harjamukti
subdistrict also serves the TNI-AU. The city lies on Jalur Pantura
(Pantai Utara Jawa), a major road on the northern coast of
stretches from Anyer, passes through Jakarta, and ends at Surabaya.
Port of Cirebon
Main article: Port of Cirebon
Port of Cirebon
Port of Cirebon was established by the Dutch in 1865, principally
as an export point for spices, sugar cane and raw materials from West
Java. Warehouses and open storage areas were developed by 1890, and a
British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco cigarette factory was built in the early 20th
Port activity is dominated by bulk imports of coal, liquid asphalt and
vegetable oils for the
West Java hinterland. Until 2002, the port also
catered for minor container trade and cruise shipping. In 2006 the
port handled 3.27 million metric tons (MT) of trade, more than 90
percent as imports from others Indonesian ports.
Nearly 93% of the population has been underserved by service water
from PDAM Cirebon, the majority of customers in the city's water
supply to households (90.37% or as many as 59,006) of the total number
of existing connections (65,287).
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies government,
Cirebon City has had a
hospital named Orange, which unveiled its use on August 31, 1921 and
commenced operations from September 1, 1921.
In 2009 in the city of
Cirebon has been available about 6 general
hospitals, four maternity hospitals, 21 health centers, 15 health
centers Maid, 20 Mobile Health Center, and 81 Pharmacies and Drug
Stores 31. With the number of medical personnel such as specialist
doctors about 94 people, and 116 general practitioners, 37 dentists,
847 nurses and 278 midwives.
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with
Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may
contain suggestions. (December 2014)
Keraton Kanoman Cirebon.
As one tourist destination in West Java,
Cirebon City offers many
charms ranging from a historical tour of the royal glory of Islam, the
story of the trustees, Complex
Sunan Gunung Jati
Sunan Gunung Jati in Mount Sembung
about 15 miles to the west of the city center, Great
Cirebon, Taqwa Mosque, temple ancient buildings and relics of
Cirebon is a palace at the same time in the city, namely Keraton
Kasepuhan and Kanoman. Everything has architecture a combination of
elements culture Islam, China, and Netherlands. Characteristic of the
palace buildings are always facing northern and there is a mosque
nearby. Each palace has square as a gathering place, market and
sculpture tiger in park or page forward as a symbol of King Siliwangi,
the central character formation Sultanate of Cirebon. Another feature
is the plate porcelain original
China are so trimmer wall. Some dishes
supposedly derived from
Cirebon so port trade center
Cirebon city park has some of them Waterpark Sunyaragi and Park of Ade
Irma Suryani. Water Parks Sunyaragi have technology flow water
advanced in his time, the water flow between the terraces where the
princess king preening, page grass green where the knight practice,
plus tower and room privileged that door was made of curtain water.
Orientation and places
Entrance to the tomb of Sunan Gunung Jati.
The main boulevard is Jalan Siliwangi. It runs from the train station
to the canal via the Pasar Pagi ("Morning Market"). Then the street
becomes Jalan Karanggetas along which are most of Cirebon's banks,
restaurants, and hotels. There are a number of historic buildings and
other key sites in Cirebon, some of them in an advanced state of
decay. These include the buildings of the several kratons, the Sang
Cipta Rasa Grand Mosque, and the Gua Sunyaragi Park.
Wali Songo, especially Sunan Gunung Jati, is known to have influenced
the city's history. Sunan Gunung Jati's grave is located several
kilometres outside the city in the Gunung Jati district. There are two
temples and a cave system built by two Chinese architects around the
1880s, decorated by Chinese and Western porcelain. The village of
Trusmi, about five kilometers outside of Cirebon, has been noted for
batik production. Plangon is a habitat of monkeys.
Mt Ceremai, the highest peak in West Java, is a large volcano situated
about 40 km to the south of Cirebon. Parks and other tourist
spots on the slopes of Mt Ceremai are popular places for groups from
Cirebon to visit during weekends to escape from the hotter climate on
the coast. The village of Linggajati, near the town of Cilimus, (where
Linggadjati Agreement was signed) is one such place. Public
transportation brings tourists and visitors here.
Twin towns – sister cities
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Main article: List of twin town and sister cities in Indonesia
Cirebon has sister relationships with a number of towns worldwide:
Seoul, South Korea
Suwon, South Korea
Jeonju, South Korea
Hwaseong, South Korea
Busan, South Korea
Dublin, Republic Of Ireland
Gold Coast, Australia
See more at Category:People from Cirebon
Some of the local political elite in
Cirebon and surrounding regencies
have campaigned for
Cirebon city, together with the regencies of
Majalengka to be established as a new
province - in the same way as
Banten Province was formed by splitting
it away from West Java. To be a new province it is required that
it should be proposed by at least five regencies. Leaders from four of
these administrations have given their consent, but
Majalengka Regency has turned down the idea and indicated that it
would prefer to stay part of West Java. However, the lack of support
Majalengka area does not preclude
and the other two regencies from continuing to promote the idea.
The potential size and population of this possible Province would be
The port of
Cirebon in the 17th century
The coat of arms of
Cirebon during the Dutch colonial era
The main building of the
Cirebon City Hall
The building of
Cirebon City Legislatures (DPRD)
Gate at Keraton Kasepuhan
Building inside Keraton of Kasepuhan complex
Sunyaragi meditation caves
Sculpture in Keraton Kasepuhan
Guanyin Temple in Cirebon
List of cities in Indonesia
^ a b Turner, Peter (November 1995). Java. Melbourne: Lonely Planet.
p. 229. ISBN 0-86442-314-4.
^ "Profil Sejarah Pemerintahan". Cirebonkota.go.id.
^ a b c d Turner, Peter (November 1995). Java. Melbourne: Lonely
Planet. p. 229. ISBN 0-86442-314-4.
^ Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië (in Dutch). Lands-Drukkerij.
Bandung Kota Terpadat di Jawa Barat nusa Tempo.co".
Tempointeraktif.com. 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
^ Mohamad Katavi, 'Laskar Macan Ali Turunkan Pasukannya dalam Apel
Akbar Bhinneka Tunggal Ika', Kilas Cirebon, 30 November 2016.
^ "Profile Cirebon" (PDF). Ciptakarya.pu.go.id.
Cirebon health data" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
^ Nana Rukmana, '52
Cirebon historic buildings in peril', The Jakarta
Post, 16 July 2012.
^ Arya Dipa, Council urged to endorse formation of
Jakarta Post, 31 May 2012.
Majalengka Tolak Provinsi Baru". February 21,
Graaf, H. J. de (Hermanus Johannes de Graaf), 1899-(?), "Chinese
Java in the 15th and 16th centuries: the Malay Annals of
Semarang and Cerbon / translated and provided with comments by H. J.
de Graaf and Theodoor Gautier Thomas Pigeaud; edited by M.C. Ricklefs.
Publisher: [Melbourne] Monash University, 1984. Description: xiii,
221 p. folded map ; 21 cm. ISBN 0-86746-419-4
Series: Monash papers on Southeast Asia; no. 12
Sulendraningrat, P.S. (1985). Sejarah Cirebon. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
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Regencies and cities of West Java
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Indonesian cities with a 200,000+ population
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Northeast coast of Java
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