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A CIRCUS is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that include clowns , acrobats , trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians , dancers , hoopers , tightrope walkers , jugglers , magicians , unicyclists , as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists. The term 'circus' also describes the performance which has followed various formats through its 250-year modern history. Philip Astley is credited with being the 'father' of the modern circus when he opened the first circus in 1768 in England. A skilled equestrian, Astley demonstrated trick riding, riding in a circle rather than a straight line as his rivals did, and thus chanced on the format which was later named a 'circus'. In 1770 he hired acrobats, tightrope walkers, jugglers and a clown to fill in the pauses between acts. Performances developed significantly through the next fifty years, with large-scale theatrical battle reenactments becoming a significant feature. The 'traditional' format, whereby a ringmaster introduces a varied selection of acts that mostly perform choreographed acts to traditional music, developed in the latter part of the 19th century and continued almost universally to be the main style of circus up until the 1970s.

As styles of performance have developed since the time of Astley, so too have the types of venues where these circuses have performed. The earliest modern circuses were performed in open air structures with limited covered seating. From the late 18th to late 19th century, custom-made circus buildings (often wooden) were built with various types of seating, a centre ring, and sometimes a stage. The 'traditional' large tents, commonly known as 'Big Tops' were introduced in the mid-19th century as touring circuses superseded static venues. These tents eventually became the most common venue and remain so to the present day. Contemporary circuses perform in a variety of venues including tents, theatres and casinos. Many circus performances are still held in a ring usually 13 m (42 ft) in diameter. This dimension was adopted by Astley in the late 18th century as the minimum diameter that enabled an acrobatic horse rider to stand upright on a cantering horse to perform their tricks.

Contemporary circus has been credited with reviving the circus tradition since the 1980s when a number of groups introduced circus based almost solely on human skills and which drew from other performing art skills and styles.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins

* 2.2 Modern format

* 2.2.1 Astley and early British circus * 2.2.2 Ricketts and the first American circus * 2.2.3 Expansion of American format * 2.2.4 Touring * 2.2.5 Russia * 2.2.6 China

* 2.3 International awards * 2.4 Contemporary types

* 3 Performance

* 3.1 Acts

* 3.2 Animal acts

* 3.2.1 Controversy

* 4 Buildings * 5 In art, music, films, plays and books * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

ETYMOLOGY

First attested in English 14th century, the word circus derives from Latin
Latin
circus, which is the romanization of the Greek κίρκος (kirkos), itself a metathesis of the Homeric Greek κρίκος (krikos), meaning "circle" or "ring". In the book De Spectaculis early Christian writer Tertullian claimed that the first circus games were staged by the goddess Circe in honour of her father Helios, the Sun God.

HISTORY

Sells Brothers Circus with Great Danes Play media Video of a circus from 1954.

The modern and commonly held idea of a 'circus' is of a Big Top with various acts providing entertainment therein. However, the history of circuses is more complex, with historians disagreeing on its origin, as well as revisions being done about the history due to the changing nature of historical research, and the ongoing 'circus' phenomenon. For many, circus history begins with Englishman Philip Astley , while for others its origins go back much further—to Roman times.

ORIGINS

In Ancient Rome, the CIRCUS was a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, gladiatorial combat and displays of (and fights with) trained animals. The circus of Rome were similar to the ancient Greek hippodromes , although circuses served varying purposes and differed in design and construction, and for events that involved re-enactments of naval battles, the circus was flooded with water. The Roman circus buildings were, however, not circular but rectangular with semi circular ends. The lower seats were reserved for persons of rank, There were also various state boxes for the giver of the games and his friends. The circus was the only public spectacle at which men and women were not separated. Some circus historians such as George Speaight have stated "these performances may have taken place in the great arenas that were called 'circuses' by the Romans, but it is a mistake to equate these places, or the entertainments presented there, with the modern circus" Others have argued that the lineage of the circus does go back to the Roman 'circuses' and a chronology of circus related entertainment can be traced from Roman times through medieval and renaissance jesters, minstrels and troubadours to the late 18th century and the time of Astley

The first circus in the city of Rome was the Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus
, in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills. It was constructed during the monarchy and, at first, built completely from wood. After being rebuilt several times, the final version of the Circus
Circus
Maximus could seat 250,000 people; it was built of stone and measured 400m in length and 90m in width. Next in importance were the Circus
Circus
Flaminius and the Circus
Circus
Neronis , from the notoriety which it obtained through the Circensian pleasures of Nero. A fourth circus was constructed by Maxentius ; its ruins have helped archaeologists reconstruct the Roman circus.

For some time after the fall of Rome, large circus buildings fell out of use as centres of mass entertainment. Instead, itinerant performers, animal trainers and showmen travelled between towns throughout Europe, performing at local fairs.

MODERN FORMAT

Astley And Early British Circus

Astley\'s Amphitheatre in London c.1808

The origin of the modern circus has been attributed to Philip Astley , a cavalry officer from England who set up the first modern amphitheatre for the display of horse riding tricks in Lambeth, London on 4 April 1768. Astley did not originate trick horse riding, nor was he first to introduce acts such as acrobats and clowns to the English public, but he was the first to create a space where all these acts were brought together to perform a show. Astley rode in a circle rather than a straight line as his rivals did, and thus chanced on the format of performing in a circle. Astley performed stunts in a 42 ft diameter ring, which is the standard size used by circuses ever since. Astley referred to the performance arena as a Circle and the building as an amphitheatre but these were to later be known as a Circus. In 1770 Astley hired acrobats , tightrope walkers , jugglers and a clown to fill in the pauses between acts.

Astley was followed by Andrew Ducrow , whose feats of horsemanship had much to do with establishing the traditions of the circus, which were perpetuated by Henglers and Sangers celebrated shows in a later generation. In England circuses were often held in purpose built buildings in large cities, such as the London Hippodrome
Hippodrome
, which was built as a combination of the circus, the menagerie and the variety theatre, where wild animals such as lions and elephants from time to time appeared in the ring, and where convulsions of nature such as floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been produced with an extraordinary wealth of realistic display. Joseph Grimaldi
Joseph Grimaldi
, the first mainstream clown , had his first major role as Little Clown
Clown
in the pantomime The Triumph of Mirth; or, Harlequin's Wedding in 1781. The Royal Circus
Royal Circus
opened in London on 4 November 1782 by Charles Dibdin
Charles Dibdin
and his partner Charles Hughes. In 1782, Astley established the Amphithéâtre Anglais in Paris, the first purpose-built circus in France, followed by 18 other permanent circuses in cities throughout Europe. Astley leased his Parisian circus to the Italian Antonio Franconi in 1793. In 1826, the first circus took place under a canvas big top. Trapeze artists, in lithograph by Calvert Litho. Co., 1890

Ricketts And The First American Circus

The Scotsman John Bill Ricketts brought the first modern circus to the United States. He began his theatrical career with Hughes Royal Circus
Circus
in London in the 1780s, and travelled from England in 1792 to establish his first circus in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. The first circus building in the US opened on April 3, 1793 in Philadelphia, where Ricketts gave America's first complete circus performance. George Washington attended a performance there later that season.

Expansion Of American Format

In the Americas during the first two decades of the 19th century, the Circus of Pepin and Breschard toured from Montreal to Havana, building circus theatres in many of the cities it visited. Victor Pépin , a native New Yorker, was the first American to operate a major circus in the United States. Later the establishments of Purdy, Welch & Co., and of van Amburgh gave a wider popularity to the circus in the United States. In 1825, Joshuah Purdy Brown was the first circus owner to use a large canvas tent for the circus performance. Circus
Circus
pioneer Dan Rice was the most famous pre-Civil War circus clown, popularizing such expressions as "The One- Horse
Horse
Show" and " Hey, Rube! ". The American circus was revolutionized by P. T. Barnum and William Cameron Coup , who launched the travelling P. T. Barnum\'s Museum, Menagerie "> Circus
Circus
parade around tents, in lithograph by Gibson "> Lion tamer , in lithograph by Gibson & Co., 1873

Following Barnum's death, his circus merged with that of James Anthony Bailey , and travelled to Europe as the Barnum "> Painting by Venezuelan Arturo Michelena , c. 1891, depicting a backstage area at the circus

Russia

In 1919, Lenin
Lenin
, head of the USSR
USSR
, expressed a wish for the circus to become 'the people's art-form', with facilities and status on par with theatre, opera and ballet. The USSR
USSR
nationalized Russian circuses. In 1927, the State University of Circus
Circus
and Variety Arts, better known as the Moscow Circus
Circus
School, was established; performers were trained using methods developed from the Soviet gymnastics program. When the Moscow State Circus company began international tours in the 1950s, its levels of originality and artistic skill were widely applauded.

China

Circuses from China, drawing on Chinese traditions of acrobatics , like the Chinese State Circus are also popular touring acts.

INTERNATIONAL AWARDS

The International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo has been held in Monte Carlo since 1974 and was the first of many international awards for circus performers. From the late 19th century through the first half of the 20th century, travelling circuses were a major form of spectator entertainment in the US and attracted huge attention whenever they arrived in a city. After World War II, the popularity of the circus declined as new forms of entertainment (such as television) arrived and the public's tastes became more sophisticated. From the 1960s onward, circuses attracted growing criticism from animal rights activists. Many circuses went out of business or were forced to merge with other circus companies. Nonetheless, a good number of travelling circuses are still active in various parts of the world, ranging from small family enterprises to three-ring extravaganzas. Other companies found new ways to draw in the public with innovative new approaches to the circus form itself.

CONTEMPORARY TYPES

Main article: Contemporary circus Cirque du Soleil performing Dralion
Dralion
in Vienna
Vienna
, 2004

Contemporary circus (originally known as nouveau cirque) is a recent performing arts movement that originated in the 1970s in Australia, Canada, France, the West Coast of the United States, and the United Kingdom. Contemporary circus combines traditional circus skills and theatrical techniques to convey a story or theme. Compared with the traditional circus, the contemporary genre of circus tends to focus more attention on the overall aesthetic impact, on character and story development, and on the use of lighting design , original music, and costume design to convey thematic or narrative content. For aesthetic or economic reasons, contemporary circus productions may sometimes be staged in theatres rather than in large outdoor tents. Music
Music
used in the production is often composed exclusively for that production, and aesthetic influences are drawn as much from contemporary culture as from circus history. Animal acts appear rarely in contemporary circus in contrast to traditional circus where animal acts have been a significant part of circus entertainment.

Early examples of nouveau cirque companies include: Circus Oz , forged in Australia in 1978 from SoapBox Circus
Circus
and New Circus, both founded in the early 1970s; the Pickle Family Circus , founded in San Francisco in 1975; Ra-Ra Zoo in the UK in 1983, Nofit State Circus in 1984 from Wales
Wales
; Cirque du Soleil , founded in Quebec
Quebec
in 1984; and Archaos in 1986. More recent examples include: Teatro ZinZanni , founded in Seattle in 1998; Quebec's Cirque Éloize ; Les 7 doigts de la main (also known as The 7 Fingers); and the West African Circus Baobab in the late 1990s. The genre includes other circus troupes such as the Vermont-based Circus Smirkus
Circus Smirkus
(founded in 1987 by Rob Mermin ), Le Cirque Imaginaire (later renamed Le Cirque Invisible, both founded and directed by Victoria Chaplin , daughter of Charlie Chaplin ), the Tiger Lillies , Dislocate, and Vulcana Women's Circus, while The Jim Rose Circus is an interesting take on the sideshow . Swedish contemporary circus company Cirkus Cirkör was founded in 1995. U.S. Company PURE Cirkus was founded in the subgenre of "cirque noir" in 2004, and in Northern England , (United Kingdom), Skewed Circus
Circus
combines punk, rap, dance music, comedy, and stunts to deliver "pop-circus" entertainment to young urban audiences.

The most conspicuous success story in the contemporary genre has been that of Cirque du Soleil , the Canadian circus company whose estimated annual revenue now exceeds US$810 million, and whose nouveau cirque shows have been seen by nearly 90 million spectators in over 200 cities on five continents. Despite the contemporary circus' shift toward more theatrical techniques and its emphasis on human rather than animal performance, traditional circus companies still exist alongside the new movement. Numerous circuses continue to maintain animal performers, including Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus
Circus
, UniverSoul Circus , and the Big Apple Circus from the United States, Circus Krone from Munich, Circus Royale and Lennon Bros Circus from Australia, Vazquez Hermanos Circus , Circo Atayde Hermanos, and Hermanos Mayaror Circus
Circus
from Mexico, and Moira Orfei Circus
Circus
from Italy, to name just a few.

PERFORMANCE

Ticket Sale of Sirkus Finlandia in Jyväskylä , Finland Fire breathers risk burns, both internal and external, as well as poisoning in the pursuit of their art.

A traditional circus performance is often led by a ringmaster who has a role similar to a Master of Ceremonies . The ringmaster presents performers, speaks to the audience, and generally keeps the show moving. The activity of the circus traditionally takes place within a ring; large circuses may have multiple rings, like the six-ringed Moscow State Circus . A circus often travels with its own band, whose instrumentation in the United States has traditionally included brass instruments , drums, glockenspiel , and sometimes the distinctive sound of the calliope .

ACTS

Common acts include a variety of acrobatics , gymnastics (including tumbling and trampoline ), aerial acts (such as trapeze , aerial silk , corde lisse ), contortion , stilts , and a variety of other routines. Juggling
Juggling
is one of the most common acts in a circus; the combination of juggling and gymnastics is called equilibristics and include acts like plate spinning and the rolling globe . Acts like these are some of the most common, and the most traditional. Clowns are common to most circuses and are typically skilled in many circus acts; "clowns getting into the act" is a very familiar theme in any circus. Famous circus clowns have included Austin Miles , the Fratellini Family , Rusty Russell , Emmett Kelly , Grock , and Bill Irwin .

Daredevil stunt acts and sideshow acts are also parts of some circus acts, these activities may include human cannonball , chapeaugraphy , fire eating , breathing , and dancing , knife throwing , magic shows , sword swallowing , or strongman . Famous sideshow performers include Zip the Pinhead and The Doll Family . A popular sideshow attraction from the early 19th century was the flea circus , where fleas were attached to props and viewed through a Fresnel lens .

ANIMAL ACTS

Female lion tamer and leopard. Elephants from Cole Brothers Circus
Circus
parade through downtown Los Angeles, 1953 Circus
Circus
horse act

A variety of animals have historically been used in acts. While the types of animals used vary from circus to circus, big cats , elephants , horses , birds , sea lions , bears , and domestic animals such as cats and dogs are the most common.

The earliest involvement of animals in circus was just the display of exotic creatures in a menagerie . Going as far back as the early eighteenth century, exotic animals were transported to North America for display, and menageries were a popular form of entertainment. The first true animals acts in the circus were equestrian acts. Soon elephants and big cats were displayed as well. Isaac A. Van Amburgh entered a cage with several big cats in 1833, and is generally considered to be the first wild animal trainer in American circus history. Mabel Stark was a famous female tiger-tamer.

Controversy

Elephant
Elephant
act at a 2009 circus in Pachuca , Hidalgo , Mexico. In December 2014, as a response to reports of animal mistreatment, the Mexican Congress passed a law banning the use of animals in any circus in the country. The law set fines for violations and required circuses to submit lists of the wildlife they possessed, which would then be made available to zoos interested in taking the animals.

Animal welfare groups have documented many cases of animal cruelty in the training of performing circus animals. The animal rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) contends that animals in circuses are frequently beaten into submission and that physical abuse has always been the method for training circus animals. According to PETA, although the US Animal Welfare Act does not permit the use of electric shock prods, whips, hooks, or similar instruments by trainers, these are still used today. According to PETA, during an undercover investigation of Carson white-space:nowrap;">

Based on these findings, the researchers called for more stringent regulation regarding the welfare of circus animals. In 2012, the Dutch government announced a ban on the use of wild circus animals.

In testimony in U.S. District Court in 2009, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus
Circus
CEO Kenneth Feld acknowledged that circus elephants are struck behind the ears, under the chin and on their legs with metal tipped prods, called bull hooks. Feld stated that these practices are necessary to protect circus workers. Feld also acknowledged that an elephant trainer was reprimanded for using an electric shock device, known as a hot shot or electric prod, on an elephant, which Feld also stated was appropriate practice. Feld denied that any of these practices harm elephants. In its January 2010 verdict on the case, brought against Feld Entertainment International by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 'et al.', the Court ruled that evidence against the circus company was "not credible with regard to the allegations". In lieu of a USDA hearing, Feld Entertainment Inc . (parent of Ringling Bros.) agreed to pay an unprecedented $270,000 fine for violations of the Animal Welfare Act that allegedly occurred between June 2007 and August 2011.

A 14-year litigation against the Ringling Bros. and Barnum "> Circus
Circus
building Paper postcard of the Old Kharkov Wood Circus
Circus

In some towns, there are circus buildings where regular performances are held. The best known are:

* Blackpool Tower Circus * Budapest Circus * Circus Krone Building in Munich
Munich
* Cirque d\'hiver, Paris * Cirque Jules Verne in Amiens * Hippodrome
Hippodrome
Circus, Great Yarmouth * La Tohu in Montreal * Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard in Moscow * Shanghai Circus World in Shanghai
Shanghai
* Turkmen State Circus in Ashgabat * Riga Circus
Circus
in Riga * "Globus" Circus
Circus
in Bucharest

In other countries, purpose-built circus buildings still exist which are no longer used as circuses, or are used for circus only occasionally among a wider programme of events; for example, the Cirkusbygningen (The Circus
Circus
Building) in Copenhagen, Denmark, Cirkus in Stockholm, Sweden, or Carré Theatre
Theatre
in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

IN ART, MUSIC, FILMS, PLAYS AND BOOKS

See also: Circus music The Circus, by Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
, painted 1891. Original in Musée d\'Orsay , Paris. Circus
Circus
seals

The atmosphere of the circus has served as a dramatic setting for many musicians. The most famous circus theme song is called "Entrance of the Gladiators ", and was composed in 1904 by Julius Fučík . Other circus music includes "El Caballero", "Quality Plus", "Sunnyland Waltzes", "The Storming of El Caney", "Pahjamah", "Bull Trombone", "Big Time Boogie", "Royal Bridesmaid March", "The Baby Elephant
Elephant
Walk", "Liberty Bell March", "Java", Strauss's "Radetsky March", and "Pageant of Progress". A poster for Pablo Fanque 's Circus
Circus
Royal, one of the most popular circuses of Victorian England, inspired John Lennon
John Lennon
to write Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite! on The Beatles
The Beatles
' album, Sgt. Pepper\'s Lonely Hearts Club Band . The song title refers to William Kite , a well-known circus performer in the 19th century. Producer George Martin
George Martin
and EMI engineers created the song's fairground atmosphere by assembling a sound collage of collected recordings of calliopes and fairground organs, which they cut into strips of various lengths, threw into a box, and then mixed up and edited together randomly, creating a long loop which was mixed into the final production. Another traditional circus song is the John Philip Sousa march " Stars and Stripes Forever ", which is played only to alert circus performers of an emergency.

Plays set in a circus include the 1896 musical The Circus
Circus
Girl by Lionel Monckton , Polly of the Circus
Circus
written in 1907 by Margaret Mayo , He Who Gets Slapped written by Russian Leonid Andreyev 1916 and later adapted into one of the first circus films, Katharina Knie written in 1928 by Carl Zuckmayer and adapted for the English stage in 1932 as Caravan by playwright Cecily Hamilton, the revue Big Top written by Herbert Farjeon in 1942, Top of the Ladder written by Tyrone Guthrie in 1950, Stop the World, I Want to Get Off written by Anthony Newley in 1961, and Barnum with music by Cy Coleman and lyrics and book by Mark Bramble , Roustabout: The Great Circus
Circus
Train Wreck written by Jay Torrence in 2006.

Following World War I, circus films became popular. In 1924 He Who Gets Slapped was the first film released by MGM ; in 1925 Sally of the Sawdust (remade 1930), Variety, and Vaudeville were produced, followed by The Devil's Circus
Circus
in 1926 and The Circus
Circus
starring Charlie Chaplin , Circus
Circus
Rookies, 4 Devils ; and Laugh Clown
Clown
Laugh in 1928. German film Salto Mortale about trapeze artists was released in 1930 and remade in the United States and released as Trapeze starring Burt Lancaster in 1956; in 1932 Freaks was released; Charlie Chan at the Circus, Circus
Circus
(USSR) and The Three Maxiums were released in 1936 and At the Circus starring the Marx Brothers and You Can't Cheat an Honest Man in 1939. Circus
Circus
films continued to be popular during the Second World War; films from this era included The Great Profile starring John Barrymore (1940), the animated Disney film Dumbo (1941), Road Show (1941), The Wagons Roll at Night (1941) and Captive Wild Woman (1943).

Tromba, a film about a tiger trainer, was released in 1948. In 1952 Cecil B. de Mille 's Oscar-winning film The Greatest Show on Earth was first shown. Released in 1953 were Man on a Tightrope and Ingmar Bergman 's Gycklarnas afton (released as Sawdust and Tinsel in the United States); these were followed by Life Is a Circus; Ring of Fear; 3 Ring Circus (1954) and La Strada (1954), an Oscar-winning film by Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
about a girl who is sold to a circus strongman. Fellini made a second film set in the circus called The Clowns in 1970. Films about the circus made since 1959 include Disney's Toby Tyler (1960), the B-movie Circus of Horrors (also in 1960); the musical film Billy Rose\'s Jumbo (1962); A Tiger Walks, a Disney film about a tiger that escapes from the circus; and Circus
Circus
World (1964), starring John Wayne
John Wayne
. Mera Naam Joker (1970) a Hindi drama film directed by Raj Kapoor which was about a clown who must make his audience laugh at the cost of his own sorrows. In the film Jungle Emperor Leo (1997), Leo's son Lune is captured and placed in a circus, which burns down when a tiger knocks down a ring of fire while jumping through it.

The TV series Circus
Circus
Humberto , based on the novel by Eduard Bass , follows the history of the circus family Humberto between 1826 and 1924. The setting of the HBO television series Carnivàle , which ran from 2003 to 2005, is also largely set in a travelling circus. The circus has also inspired many writers. Numerous books, both non-fiction and fiction, have been published about circus life. Notable examples of circus-based fiction include Circus
Circus
Humberto by Eduard Bass , Cirque du Freak
Cirque du Freak
by Darren Shan , and Spangle by Gary Jennings . The novel Water for Elephants by Sara Gruen tells the fictional tale of a circus veterinarian and was made into a movie with the same title , starring Robert Pattinson and Reese Witherspoon .

Circus
Circus
is the central theme in comic books of Super Commando Dhruva , an Indian comic book superhero. According to this series, Dhruva was born and brought up in a fictional Indian circus called Jupiter Circus. When a rival circus burnt down Jupiter Circus, killing everyone in it, including Dhruva's parents, Dhruva vowed to become a crime fighter. A circus-based television series called Circus
Circus
was also telecast in India in 1989 on DD National
DD National
, starring Shahrukh Khan
Shahrukh Khan
as the lead actor.

SEE ALSO

* Animal training * Chautauqua , tent shows that preceded American circus * Circus clown * Circus skills * Cirque du Soleil * Clown
Clown
* Contemporary circus * Dog
Dog
and pony show * Flea circus * Lion taming * List of circuses and circus owners

NOTES

* ^ circus, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin
Latin
Dictionary, on Perseus * ^ krikos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus * ^ Speaight, George (1980). A History of the Circus. London: The Tantivy Press. p. 11. ISBN 0498024709 . * ^ Croft-Cooke & Cotes, Rupert & Peter (1976). Circus: A World History. London: Paul Elek. p. 27. ISBN 0236400517 . * ^ "History of the Ludi". Novaroma.org. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ Marius Kwint, ‘Astley, Philip (1742–1814)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 7 Jan 2014 * ^ Speaight, George (1980). A History of the Circus. London: Tantivy Press. * ^ The Oxford English Dictionary lists the 1791 book The History of the Royal Circus
Royal Circus
about Philip Astley's troupe as the first written use of the word to describe the modern circus. * ^ A B C "The circus comes to the Circus". BBC News. Retrieved December 13, 2014 * ^ Joe Nickell (2005). "Secrets of the sideshows". p.8. University Press of Kentucky, 2005 * ^ Stoddart, Helen (2000). Rings of Desire: Circus
Circus
History and Representation. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 13–15. ISBN 0719052343 . * ^ McConnell Stott, Andrew (2009), The Pantomime Life of Joseph Grimaldi, Canongate Books, p. 28. * ^ Mr Philip Astley\'s Introduction to The First Circus
Circus
in England Archived 2008-11-08 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. PeoplePlay UK. Retrieved 18 March 2007. * ^ Philip Astley (British circus manager), Encyclopædia Britannica. * ^ Leathers, Victor L. (1959). British Entertainers in France, University of Toronto Press, 1959, p. 29. * ^ Banham, Martin (1995). The Cambridge Guide to Theatre, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.216. * ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness World Records 2014. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9 . * ^ "Historical Markers". Explore PA History. Retrieved 2012-04-20.

* ^ "Person : Ricketts, John Bill". The Circus
Circus
in America, 1793 – 1940. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "PHMC: Historical Markers Program: Ricketts\' Circus". Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. * ^ " Circus
Circus
in America TimeLine: 1801 – 1824". The Circus
Circus
in America, 1793 – 1940. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ A B "Introduction". The Circus
Circus
in America, 1793 – 1940. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ David Carlyon. Dan Rice: The Most Famous Man You've Never Heard Of * ^ William L. Slout (1998). Olympians of the Sawdust Circle: A Biographical Dictionary of the Nineteenth Century American Circus. Wildside Press LLC. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-0-8095-1310-9 . Retrieved 9 June 2013. * ^ Griffin, J. "Frost, Thomas (1881), " Circus
Circus
Life and Circus Celebrities." London: Chatto and Windus". Circushistory.org. Retrieved 2011-04-09. * ^ Leeds Intelligencer, 4 March 1854, p. 5, col. 3. * ^ Victoria and Albert Museum. "Victorian Circus". V&A. Retrieved 2011-06-19. * ^ "International Circus
Circus
Festival of Monte-Carlo". Montecarlofestival.mc. 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "The 7 Fingers". Les7doigtsdelamain.com. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ " Circus
Circus
Baobab". Circus
Circus
Baobab. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "Dislocate". Dislocate. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "Vulcana Women\'s Circus". Vulcana.org.au. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "Company PURE Cirkus". Purecirkus.com. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ Skewed Circus
Circus
Archived December 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Collins, Glenn (April 28, 2009). "Run Away to the Circus? No need. It\'s Staying Here". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-30. * ^ "About Cirque du Soleil". Cirque du Soleil. Archived from the original on 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2009-09-30. * ^ Duckman, Hank (2006-01-01). "Hermanos Mayar Circus
Circus
by Hank Duckman". Mexconnect.com. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ " Moira Orfei Circo official website". Moiranonsolocirco.it. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "The history of circus in the US, \'\'HistoryMagazine\'\'". History-magazine.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-14. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ A B "Wild things: Mexico
Mexico
struggles to find new homes for outlawed circus animals". Fox News Latino. Retrieved 19 May 2015. * ^ " Circus
Circus
Incidents: Attacks, Abuse and Property Damage" (PDF). Humane Society of the United States . 2004-06-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2008-05-23. * ^ "Circuses". PETA.org. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations". Nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ A B "Circuses: Three Rings of Abuse". Peta.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-26. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "19 february 2008 – Projectvoorstel Ministerie LNV onderzoek welzijn circusdieren" (PDF). 19 February 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2013. * ^ "Dutch government announces ban on the use of wild animals in circuses". 1 November 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2013. * ^ Circus
Circus
CEO says elephants are struck, but not hurt * ^ Court Record, United States District Court for the District of Columbia, Civil Action No 03-2006 (EGS) * ^ Leigh Remizowski, " USDA
USDA
Fines Ringling Bros. Circus
Circus
Over Treatment of Animals," CNN 29 November 2011. * ^ Heath, Thomas (2014-05-16). "Ringling Circus
Circus
prevails in 14-year legal case; collects $16M from Humane Society, others". The Washington Post . Retrieved 2017-06-12.

* ^ (1) Wang, Amy B (2017-01-15). "Animal activists finally have something to applaud at Ringling Bros. circus: Its closure". The Washington Post . Retrieved 2017-06-12. In 2015, Ringling Bros. announced it would stop using elephants in its shows. The lumbering mammals delivered their final performances last May — dancing, spinning and standing on pedestals at the command of the ringmaster — and then were retired to a reserve in central Florida. The move exacerbated the show’s demise; the elephants’ departure ultimately expedited what was a “difficult business decision.” “Ringling Bros. ticket sales have been declining, but following the transition of the elephants off the road, we saw an even more dramatic drop,” Kenneth Feld said in a statement Saturday. “This, coupled with high operating costs, made the circus an unsustainable business for the company.” (2) Brulliard, Karin (2017-05-21). "Thunderous applause, tears as the ‘greatest show on Earth’ takes a final bow". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-06-12. ... Ringling had become the target of animal protection groups that claimed it mistreated its elephants, and the two sides soon locked in a 14-year legal battle so cutthroat it involved secret informants paid by animal groups and a former CIA official who was paid by Ringling’s parent company, Feld Entertainment, to spy on activists and a journalist. The litigation ended with several animal groups paying a $16 million settlement to Feld. While the animal activists never prevailed against Ringling in court, they were victorious outside. The allegations of elephant abuse prompted municipalities around the country to ban elephant bullhooks — a sharp metal tool used by handlers — or to prohibit wild animal performances altogether, as Los Angeles
Los Angeles
recently moved to do. After Ringling retired its last pachyderms to a company-owned elephant conservation center in Florida, ticket sales declined much more than Feld expected, and the company announced in January that Ringling would close for good. * ^ St. Petersburg Times (May 6, 1993). " Elephant
Elephant
incidents in recent years". Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Hawthorn Corporation". Circuses.com. * ^ "UK Politics Protect circus animals call". BBC News. 1998-10-26. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ "Wild Animals in Travelling Circuses: The Report of the Chairman of the Circus
Circus
Working Group". UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. October 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2010. * ^ "Anger after bill to ban wild animals in circuses is blocked by MP Chris Chope". Bournemouth Echo. Retrieved 22 May 2017. * ^ International., Animal Defenders. "Cameron urged to keep circus ban promise as Conservative MP blocks bill for eighth time". Animal Defenders International. Retrieved 22 May 2017. * ^ http://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lp&itemid=26088&l=1 * ^ International., Animal Defenders. "Worldwide circus bans". Animal Defenders International. Retrieved 22 May 2017. * ^ " Elephant
Elephant
Rampages" (PDF). Circuses.com. Retrieved 2012-04-20. * ^ " Bolivia
Bolivia
bans use of animals in circuses". Associated Press. July 31, 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ Berg, Emmett (2015-04-21). " San Francisco
San Francisco
board approves wild animal performance ban". Reuters
Reuters
. Retrieved 2017-06-23. * ^ Good, Kate (2017-04-26). " Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Bans Use of Wild Animals for Entertainment". One Green Planet. Retrieved 2017-06-23. * ^ Pacelle, Wayne (2017-06-21). " New York City
New York City
bans use of wild animals in circuses". Retrieved 2017-06-23. * ^ Greece bans animal circuses, Animal Defenders International * ^ "FVE position on the use of animals in travelling circuses" (PDF). Federation of Veterinarians of Europe. FVE/013/pos/007. Federation of Veterinarians of Europe. * ^ Winter, Stuart (2015-08-05). "Vets call for complete ban on wild animal acts in circuses across Europe". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-08-08. * ^ "The Cirque Jules Verne Website". Cirquejulesverne.com. Retrieved 2013-11-18. * ^ Turner, Steve, "A Hard Day's Write." HarperCollins(1984).

REFERENCES

* Assael, Brenda, " Circus
Circus
and Victorian Society", 2005, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville ISBN 0-8139-2340-9 * Croft-Cooke, Rupert and Cotes, Peter. 1976. Circus: A World History. Elek. London ISBN 0-236-40051-7 * Johnson, William M. 1990. The Rose-Tinted Menagerie. Iridescent Publishing * Nance, Susan. Entertaining Elephants: Animal Agency and the Business of the American Circus
Circus
(Johns Hopkins University Press; 2013) 304 pages; elephants as "actors" or creatures of agency in the American circus from 1800 to 1940. * Speaight, George, "A History of the Circus" 1980, The Tantivy Press, London ISBN 0-4980-2470-9 * Stoddart, Helen, "Rings of Desire: Circus
Circus
History and Representation", 2000, Manchester University Press, Manchester ISBN 0-7190-5234-3 * This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Circus". Encyclopædia Britannica . 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 390–391.

FURTHER READING

* Adams, Katherine H. (2012). Women of the American Circus, 1880-1940. McFarland and Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 9780786472284 . * Dfening, Fred D., III (November 2007). "The American Circus
Circus
in the 1870s: An Overview from Newspaper Sources". Bandwagon . Columbus, Ohio: Circus
Circus
Historical Society. 51 (6): 4–60. ISSN 0005-4968 . —provides an overview of "low-yield research" into the history of the American Circus
Circus
as covered in "ragcontent newspapers magazines White Tops" * Brooke, Bob (October–November 2001). "Step Right Up: Bob Brooke presents the history of the circus in America". History Magazine. * Simon, Linda. The Greatest Shows on Earth: A History of the Circus (Reaktion Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2014); 296 pages;

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