Circus Polyboroides Geranospiza
A HARRIER is any of the several species of diurnal hawks sometimes
placed in the CIRCINAE sub-family of the
* 1 Etymology
* 1.1 Ring-tails
* 2 Species * 3 Notes * 4 External links
Northern harrier, 1st year juvenile
The genus Circus was introduced by the French naturalist Bernard
Germain de Lacépède in 1799. Most harriers are placed in this
genus. The word Circus is derived from the
Ring-tail is an informal term used by birders for the juveniles and females of several harrier species when seen in the field and not identifiable to an exact species. Ring-tail harriers include the juveniles and females of Montagu\'s harrier (Circus pygargus); northern or hen harrier (Circus cyaneus); and pallid harrier (Circus macrourus).
* Montagu\'s harrier , Circus pygargus – Eurasia, winters in
Africa and India
Hen harrier , Circus cyaneus – Eurasia
Northern harrier , Circus hudsonius – North America
Western marsh harrier , Circus aeruginosus – Europe, western
Asia; winter range includes Africa and India.
Eastern marsh harrier , Circus spilonotus – Asia (migratory)
African marsh harrier , Circus ranivorus – southern and central
Swamp harrier , Circus approximans – New Zealand, Australia,
Papuan harrier , Circus spilothorax – New Guinea (formerly
treated as a subspecies of C. spilonotus, then C. approximans, but now
Malagasy harrier , Circus macrosceles (formerly in C. maillardi)
– Indian Ocean (Madagascar and the Comoro Islands)
Réunion harrier , Circus maillardi – (Indian Ocean) Réunion
Long-winged harrier , Circus buffoni – South America
Spotted harrier , Circus assimilis – Australia, Indonesia
Black harrier , Circus maurus – southern Africa
Cinereous harrier , Circus cinereus – South America
Pallid harrier , Circus macrourus – migratory: eastern Europe,
Asia, Africa (winter)
The subfamily Circinae has traditionally included the genera Polyboroides and Geranospiza which include three species - the Madagascan harrier-hawk , (Polyboroides radiatus), the African harrier-hawk , (Polyboroides typus) and the crane hawk , (Geranospiza caerulescens). This may however not be a valid subfamily as the monophyletic genus Circus is nested within the Accipiter groups while the other two genera are non-monophyletic and are part of the larger Buteonine clade. Many species in the genus Circus show very low diversity in their mitochondrial DNA due perhaps due to extreme drops in their populations. They are prone to fluctuations with varying prey densities.
* ^ Oatley, Graeme; Simmons, Robert E.; Fuchs, Jérôme (2015). "A
molecular phylogeny of the harriers (Circus, Accipitridae) indicate
the role of long distance dispersal and migration in diversification".
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 85: 150–60. doi
:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.01.013 . PMID 25701771 .
* ^ Lacépède, Bernard Germain de (1799). "Tableau des
sous-classes, divisions, sous-division, ordres et genres des oiseux".
Discours d'ouverture et de clôture du cours d'histoire naturelle (in
French). Paris: Plassan. p. 4. Page numbering starts at one for each
of the three sections.
* ^ Mayr, Ernst ; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1979). Check-list of
Birds of the World. Volume 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 316.
* ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific
* ^ Hogg, John (1845). "A catalogue of birds observed in
South-eastern Durham and in North-western Cleveland". The Zoologist.
* ^ Etherington, Graham J.; Mobley, Jason A. (2016). "Molecular
phylogeny, morphology and life-history comparisons within Circus
cyaneus reveal the presence of two distinct evolutionary lineages".
Avian Research. 7. doi :10.1186/s40657-016-0052-3 .
* ^ Griffiths, Carole S.; Barrowclough, George F.; Groth, Jeff G.;
Mertz, Lisa A. (2007). "Phylogeny, diversity, and classification of
* Harrier videos on the Internet