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Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
(pronounced [ˈsiŋko ðe ˈmaʝo]; Spanish for "Fifth of May") is an annual celebration held on May 5. The date is observed to commemorate the Mexican Army's unlikely victory over the French Empire at the Battle of Puebla, on May 5, 1862, under the leadership of General Ignacio Zaragoza.[1][2] In the United States, Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
has taken on a significance beyond that in Mexico.[3][4][5][6] In the U.S. the date has become associated with the celebration of Mexican-American
Mexican-American
culture. In Mexico, the commemoration of the battle continues to be mostly ceremonial, such as through military parades. In the United States, Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
is sometimes mistaken for Mexico's Independence Day—the most important national holiday in Mexico—which is celebrated on September 16, commemorating the Cry of Dolores that initiated the war of Mexican independence from Spain.[1][7]

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Events leading to the Battle of Puebla 1.2 French invasion and Mexican victory 1.3 Events after the battle 1.4 Significance

2 History of the holiday

2.1 United States 2.2 Mexico 2.3 Elsewhere

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Background

"May 5, 1862 and the siege of Puebla", a 1901 image from the Biblioteca del Niño Mexicano, a series of booklets for children detailing the history of Mexico

Events leading to the Battle of Puebla Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
has its roots in the French occupation of Mexico, which took place in the aftermath of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
of 1846–48 and the 1858–61 Reform War. The Reform War
Reform War
was a civil war which pitted Liberals (who believed in separation of church and state, and freedom of religion) against the Conservatives (who favored a tight bond between the Roman Catholic Church and the Mexican State).[8] These wars nearly bankrupted the Mexican Treasury. On July 17, 1861, Mexican President Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez
issued a moratorium in which all foreign debt payments would be suspended for two years.[3][9] In response, Britain, France, and Spain
Spain
sent naval forces to Veracruz
Veracruz
to demand reimbursement. Britain and Spain
Spain
negotiated with Mexico
Mexico
and withdrew, but France, at the time ruled by Napoleon III, decided to use the opportunity to establish an empire in Mexico
Mexico
that would favor French interests, the Second Mexican Empire. The empire was part of an envisioned "Latin America" (term used to imply cultural kinship of the region with France) that would rebuild French influence in the American continent and exclude Anglophone
Anglophone
American territories. French invasion and Mexican victory Main article: Battle of Puebla Late in 1861, a well-armed French fleet stormed Veracruz, landing a large French force and driving President Juárez and his government into retreat.[10] Moving on from Veracruz
Veracruz
towards Mexico
Mexico
City, the French army encountered heavy resistance from the Mexicans close to Puebla, at the Mexican forts of Loreto and Guadalupe.[11] The French army of 6,000 [12][13][note 1] attacked the poorly equipped Mexican army of 4,000.[14][note 2] On May 5, 1862,[15] the Mexicans decisively defeated the French army.[16][17][18] The victory represented a significant morale boost to the Mexican army and the Mexican people at large [19] [20] and helped establish a sense of national unity and patriotism.[21] Events after the battle The Mexican victory, however, was short-lived. A year later, with 30,000 troops, the French were able to defeat the Mexican army, capture Mexico
Mexico
City, and install Emperor Maximilian I as ruler of Mexico.[22] The French victory was itself short-lived, lasting only three years, from 1864 to 1867.[22] By 1865, "with the American Civil War now over, the U.S. began to provide more political and military assistance to Mexico
Mexico
to expel the French".[22] Upon the conclusion of the American Civil War, Napoleon III, facing a persistent Mexican guerilla resistance, the threat of war with Prussia, and "the prospect of a serious scrap with the United States", retreated from Mexico starting in 1866.[23] The Mexicans recaptured Mexico
Mexico
City, and Maximilian I was apprehended and executed, along with his Mexican generals Miguel Miramón
Miguel Miramón
and Tomás Mejía Camacho
Tomás Mejía Camacho
in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro.[9][22] "On June 5, 1867, Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez
finally entered Mexico City
Mexico City
where he installed a new government and reorganized his administration."[9] Significance The Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
was significant, both nationally and internationally, for several reasons. First, although considerably outnumbered, the Mexicans defeated a much-better-equipped French army. "This battle was significant in that the 4,000 Mexican soldiers were greatly outnumbered by the well-equipped French army of 8,000 that had not been defeated for almost 50 years." [24][25] [note 3] Second, since the Battle of Puebla, some have argued that no country in the Americas
Americas
has subsequently been invaded by any other European military force.[26][note 4] Historian Justo Sierra
Justo Sierra
has written in his Political Evolution of the Mexican People that, had Mexico
Mexico
not defeated the French in Puebla
Puebla
on May 5, 1862, France
France
would have gone to the aid of the Confederacy in the U.S. Civil War and the United States' destiny would have been different.[27][28] History of the holiday United States

Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
performers at the White House

According to a paper published by the UCLA
UCLA
Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture about the origin of the observance of Cinco de Mayo in the United States, the modern American focus on that day first started in California
California
in the 1860s in response to the resistance to French rule in Mexico.[29] "Far up in the gold country town of Columbia (now Columbia State Park) Mexican miners were so overjoyed at the news that they spontaneously fired off rifle shots and fireworks, sang patriotic songs and made impromptu speeches."[30] A 2007 UCLA
UCLA
Newsroom article notes that, "the holiday, which has been celebrated in California
California
continuously since 1863, is virtually ignored in Mexico."[29] TIME magazine reports that " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
started to come into vogue in 1940s America during the rise of the Chicano Movement."[20] The holiday crossed over from California
California
into the rest of the United States
United States
in the 1950s and 1960s but did not gain popularity until the 1980s when marketers, especially beer companies, capitalized on the celebratory nature of the day and began to promote it.[31][32] It grew in popularity and evolved into a celebration of Mexican culture and heritage, first in areas with large Mexican-American
Mexican-American
populations, like Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston
Houston
and San Jose.[33] In a 1998 study in the Journal of American Culture it was reported that there were more than 120 official US celebrations of Cinco de Mayo in 21 different states. An update in 2006 found that the number of official Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
events was 150 or more, according to José Alamillo, a professor of ethnic studies at Washington State University in Pullman, who has studied the cultural impact of Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
north of the border.[34] Los Angeles' Fiesta Broadway has been billed as the largest Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
celebration in the world, which it most certainly was at its peak in the 1990s when it attracted crowds of 500,000 or more. In recent years attendance has seen a dramatic decrease.[35][36]

Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
celebration in Saint Paul, Minnesota

On June 7, 2005, the United States Congress
United States Congress
issued a concurrent resolution calling on the President of the United States
President of the United States
to issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States
United States
to observe Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
with appropriate ceremonies and activities.[37] To celebrate, many display Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
banners while school districts hold special events to educate students about its historical significance. Special
Special
events and celebrations highlight Mexican culture, especially in its music and regional dancing. Examples include baile folklórico and mariachi demonstrations held annually at the Plaza del Pueblo de Los Ángeles, near Olvera Street. Commercial interests in the United States
United States
have capitalized on the celebration, advertising Mexican products and services, with an emphasis on alcoholic beverages,[38][39] foods, and music.[40][41] Mexico

The former Forts of Guadalupe and Loreto now house a museum.

On May 9, 1862, President Juárez declared that the anniversary of the Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
would be a national holiday regarded as "Battle of Puebla
Puebla
Day" or "Battle of Cinco de Mayo".[42][43][44][45][46] Today, the commemoration of the battle is not observed as a national holiday in Mexico
Mexico
(i.e. not a statutory holiday).[47] However, all public schools are closed nationwide in Mexico
Mexico
on May 5.[48][49] The day is an official holiday in the State of Puebla, where the Battle took place, and also a full holiday (no work) in the neighboring State of Veracruz.[50][51] In Puebla, historical reenactments, parades, and meals take place to commemorate the battle. Parade participants dress as French and Mexican soldiers to reenact the battle.[52] Every year the city also hosts the Festival Internacional de Puebla, which gathers national and international artists, traditional musicians and dancers.[52] As well as the Festival Internacional del Mole, with an emphasis on the city's iconic mole poblano.[52] In Mexico
Mexico
City, military commemoration is occasionally held at the Campo Marte.[53] A street, Avenida Cinco de Mayo, in the Historic Center of Mexico City
Mexico City
was named after the battle in 1862 by Benito Juárez. Elsewhere Events tied to Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
also occur outside Mexico
Mexico
and the United States. As in the United States, celebrations elsewhere also emphasize Mexican cuisine, culture and music. For example, Windsor, Ontario, Canada, holds an American-style " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
Street Festival",[54][55] some Canadian pubs play Mexican music and serve Mexican food and drink,[56] and a sky-diving club near Vancouver
Vancouver
holds a Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
skydiving event.[57] In the Cayman Islands, in the Caribbean, there is an annual Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
air guitar competition,[58] and at Montego Bay, Jamaica, there is a Cinco de Mayo celebration.[59] The city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, holds an annual Mexican Festival[60] to honor the day, and celebrations are held in London[61] and New Zealand.[62] American-style celebrations of the day can also be found in Cape Town, South Africa,[63] Lagos, Nigeria,[64] and in Paris.[65] Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
is celebrated in Japan in Osaka
Osaka
and in Tokyo's Yoyogi Park
Yoyogi Park
Event Space as a celebration of Latin American culture.[66][67][68] See also

Siege of Puebla
Puebla
(1863), fall of Puebla
Puebla
to the Imperialists Third Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
(1867), recapture of Puebla
Puebla
and decisive victory for the restoration of the Republic

References Notes

^ Other sources give the size of the French force as 6,500. [1] ^ According to Mexico's National Institute of Historical Studies on the Mexican Revolution the Mexican force consisted of 4,802 soldiers.[2] And Peter Hicks of the French Fondation Napoléon and other French sources state the size of the Mexican force was 12,000 men. [3][4]. Hayes-Batista clarifies on page 60 of his El Cinco de Mayo: An American Tradition that after the smaller Mexican force had defeated the French on May 5, they received reinforcements on May 6 and 7 to the tune of 12,000 additional Mexican soldiers. ^ It has been pointed out that, contrary to reports on PBS
PBS
and in Philadelphia's The Bulletin, the French were in fact considered to have been defeated by the Russians at the Siege of Petropavlovsk
Siege of Petropavlovsk
in 1854. ^ The statement in The Bulletin is, "This was the last time any army from another continent invaded the Americas."[24] Note it says "invaded", and not "attacked." Thus, since Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
no army from another continent has invaded the Americas. The War of the Falklands War, for example, was fought in the Americas
Americas
but the Islands were invaded by a military from the Americas
Americas
(the Argentine military). They were subsequently attacked (not invaded) by the UK. Another example, Pearl Harbor, experienced an attack, not an invasion by the Japanese. The only possible exception to the Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
claim above might be the brief occupation/invasion of two of the Alaskan Aleutian Islands by the Japanese military during WWII. This event, however, was so insignificant as to be virtually negligible: the islands invaded had a total population of 12 Americans and some 45 natives, the invasion was short-lived, and the battle fought there had no notoriety other than the psychological effect on the Americans that the Japanese had invaded American territory again (Alaska was not yet a full-fledged state). In short, the military importance of these small pieces of land was nowhere comparable to the superior military significance of the Battle of Puebla.

Citations

^ a b Lovgren, Stefan (May 5, 2006). "Cinco de Mayo, From Mexican Fiesta to Popular U.S. Holiday". National Geographic News.  ^ "RECOGNIZING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CINCO DE MAYO". Congress.gov. House of Representatives. 4 May 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2017.  ^ a b "Cinco de Mayo". University of California
California
at Los Angeles. Archived from the original on April 8, 2006. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
celebrations run all weekend". Deseret News. Retrieved May 8, 2007.  ^ " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
has become a day for celebrating Mexican culture in the United States, and celebrations there easily outshine those in Mexico". About.com. Retrieved May 8, 2007.  ^ Krogstad, Jens (May 5, 2003). "University community celebrates Cinco de Mayo". The Minnesota Daily. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on November 18, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2016. Today, the holiday is celebrated more in the United States
United States
than in Mexico  ^ Lauren Effron (May 5, 2010). "Cinco de Mayo: NOT Mexico's Independence Day". Discovery Channel. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ Minster, Christopher (December 16, 2013). "Cinco De Mayo/The Battle of Puebla". About.com. Retrieved April 25, 2016.  ^ a b c Herz, May. "Cinco de Mayo". Inside Mexico. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ "Cinco de Mayo". History.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico
Mexico
Online. April 25, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ "Cinco de Mayo: What's all the fuss about?" Julia Goralka. The Washington Times. May 2, 2012. Retrieved November 15, 2012. ^ Happy Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
– Sorta. Ray Suarez. PBS
PBS
News Hour. May 4, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012. ^ Cinco de Mayo. Mexico
Mexico
Online: The Oldest and most trusted online guide to Mexico. Retrieved November 13, 2012. ^ Cinco de Mayo. 2011. The History Channel website. Retrieved May 5, 2011. ^ The Significance of "Cinco de Mayo". Ignacio González. 1996. Retrieved November 15, 2012. ^ Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
-The Backstory. Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Tony Azios. 'Llero. Jaws Communications. 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2012. ^ Cheryl VanBuskirk (May 7, 2009). "Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May". The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2010.  ^ History Channel.com. Retrieved May 14, 2010. ^ a b Happy Cinco de Mayo: Top 10 Drunkest Holidays.. Time. By Frances Romero. Wednesday, May. 05, 2010.. Retrieved May 14, 2010. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico
Mexico
Online. April 25, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ a b c d "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico
Mexico
Online: The Oldest and most trusted online guide to Mexico.  ^ Michael C. Meyer; William H. Beezley (2000). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press. pp. 387–8.  ^ a b Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May. Archived May 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Cheryl VanBuskirk. The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US. May 7, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009. ^ The Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
and Cinco de Mayo. PBS. Retrieved February 6, 2009. ^ Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May. Archived May 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Cheryl VanBuskirk. The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper, May 7, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009. ^ "Mexico's Lasting European Influence. By Jose Antonio Burciaga. Free Lance-Star Publishing. May, 2007. (First released in The Hispanic News Link. 1981.)". Banderasnews.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ Robert L. Bidwell (Apr 1971). "The Political Evolution of the Mexican People. By Justo Sierra. Translated by Charles Ramsdell. Austin, TX: The University of Texas Press. 1969". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Miami. 13 (2): 306–308. JSTOR 174689.  ^ a b Southern California
California
Quarterly "Cinco de Mayo's First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937" Spring 2007 (see American observation of Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
started in California) Retrieved October 30, 2007. ^ Hayes-Bautista, David E. (April 2009). "Cinco de Mayo: The Real Story". EGP News. Eastern Group Publications. Retrieved June 2, 2016. Far up in the gold country town of Columbia (now Columbia State Park) Mexican miners were so overjoyed at the news that they spontaneously fired off rifles shots and fireworks, sang patriotic songs and made impromptu speeches.  ^ Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
minor holiday in Mexico. UPI. World News. May 5, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2010. Verified March 20, 2013. ^ Cesares, Oscar (May 5, 2010). "Holiday of Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
is minor event in Mexico". Houston
Houston
Chronicle. Retrieved May 15, 2010.  ^ "Cinco de Mayo". History.com. Retrieved March 10, 2013.  ^ Lovgren, Stefan. " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
History: From Bloodshed to Beer Fest". National Geographic. Los Angeles. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ Canalis, John (April 26, 1992). L.A. hosts nation's biggest Cinco de Mayo party. UPI Archives. Retrieved August 22, 2016. ^ Jamison, Peter (April 24, 2016). With thinner crowds in a smaller space, Fiesta Broadway feels deeply diminished. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved August 22, 2016. ^ Library of Congress (U.S.A.) Declaration. Retrieved February 6, 2009. ^ Kane, Courtney (May 2, 2003). "Marketers extend their holiday efforts to a Mexican celebration and even to Lent". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2016. [Cinco de Mayo] gives us an opportunity ... to really get a jump-start on the summer beer-selling season  ^ "Constellation Brands and Crown Imports Ring in Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
at New York Stock Exchange". ACNNewswire.com. Victor, New York: Asian Corporate News Network. May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2012.  ^ Salem, Nancy (May 4, 2007). "Cinco de Mayo's history neglected; it's an excuse to party". The Albuquerque Tribune. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2016. From my perspective as a marketing professional, Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
has morphed into a national holiday designed by Fifth Avenue to sell alcohol and excite consumership around a party-type theme  ^ Alamillo, José M. "Contesting Cinco de Mayo: Cultural
Cultural
Politics and Commercialization of Ethnic Festivals, 1930–1950". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved May 8, 2007. Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
is not just a fiesta anymore, the gringos have taken it on as a good sales pitch  ^ Did You Know? Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
is more widely celebrated in USA than Mexico. Tony Burton. Mexconnect. Retrieved May 8, 2013. ^ Cultural
Cultural
adaptation: the Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
holiday is far more widely celebrated in the USA than in Mexico. Geo-Mexico. May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2013. ^ 25 Latino Craft Projects: Celebrating Culture in Your Library. Ana Elba Pabon. Diana Borrego. 2003. American Library Association. Page 14. Retrieved May 8, 2013. ^ 7 Things You May Not Know About Cinco de Mayo. Jesse Greenspan. May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2013. ^ Congressional Record – House. Page 7488. 9 May 2001. Retrieved May 8, 2013. Note that contrary to most other sources, this source states the date Juarez declared Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
to be a national holiday was September 8, 1862. ^ Holidays 2013. Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Consulate in Mexico. Retrieved April 16, 2013. ^ Los días de 2013 que, por ley, debes descansar. January 9, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013. ^ Calendario Escolar 2012–2013. Archived April 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Secretaria de Educacion Publica. Government of Mexico. Retrieved April 16, 2013. ^ Calendario Puebla
Puebla
2012.. Retrieved April 16, 2013. ^ Circular 0077-13 Calendario Oficial de Días Festivos 2013. Adelante. Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz. January 16, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013. ^ a b c "How people actually celebrate Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
in Mexico". Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-05-03.  ^ "Peña Nieto no estará en Puebla
Puebla
para desfile del 5 de Mayo; conmemora Batalla en Campo Marte". SDPnoticias.com (in Spanish). 5 May 2015.  ^ " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
at Kensington Court – Eyes on Windsor". eyesonwindsor.com. Retrieved 2017-05-03.  ^ "Windsor Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
Celebration 2017 Windsor, CA – Official Website". www.townofwindsor.com. Retrieved 2017-05-03.  ^ Canadian celebration Archived August 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.; St. Albert, Canada 2012 celebration; Montreal celebration[dead link]. Retrieved May 8, 2012. ^ " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
Skydiving Boogie 2008". Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ Cayman Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
air guitar Archived January 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved May 5, 2008. ^ Jamaica celebration Archived July 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved May 8, 2012. ^ " Brisbane
Brisbane
Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
Mexican Festival"; Brisbane
Brisbane
celebration Archived July 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Where to Celebrate Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
in London". Retrieved May 8, 2012. ^ Mexican Ambassador to New Zealand honors Cinco de Mayo. Retrieved May 8, 2012. ^ Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
in South Africa Retrieved May 5, 2016 ^ Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
in Lagos, Nigeria
Lagos, Nigeria
Retrieved May 5, 2016 ^ "El cinco de mayo – Paris
Paris
– jeudi 05 mai" After Work. Retrieved May 8, 2012. ^ Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
festivals in Osaka
Osaka
and Tokyo
Tokyo
Retrieved May 5, 2016 ^ "Cinco De Mayo Festival in Tokyo" Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. JapanBases.com. Retrieved August 16, 2013. ^ " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
2013: Celebrating the Americas" Cinco de Mayo Festival. Retrieved August 16, 2013.

Sources

Hayes-Bautista, David E. El Cinco de Mayo: An American Tradition (University of California
California
Press; 2012) 293 pages

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cinco de Mayo.

Cinco De Mayo Videos on The History Channel Cinco De Mayo Quick Facts " Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
is NOT Mexican Independence Day?" on The Law Library of Congress's blog "Origin of the Cinco De Mayo celebration" – Mexican American News / Xcano Media

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Rosh Hashanah
(religious) Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(religious)

October Breast Cancer Awareness Month Disability Employment Awareness Month Filipino American History Month LGBT History Month

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
(federal) Halloween

Alaska Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
(VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day
Leif Erikson Day
(36) Missouri Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day
Nevada Day
(NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day
White Cane Safety Day
(36)

October–November

Diwali
Diwali
(religious)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
Veterans Day
(federal) Thanksgiving (federal)

Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day
Obama Day
(Perry County, AL)

December

Christmas
Christmas
(religious, federal)

Alabama Day (AL) Christmas
Christmas
Eve (KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas
Christmas
(KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious, week) Indiana Day
Indiana Day
(IN) Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36)

Varies (year round)

Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(religious) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(religious) Ramadan
Ramadan
(religious, month)

Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico and the United Stat

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