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Cieszyn
Cieszyn
[ˈt͡ɕɛʂɨn] ( listen) (Czech: Těšín, German: Teschen, Yiddish: טעשין‎, Teschin, Latin: Tessin) is a border-town in southern Poland
Poland
on the east bank of the Olza River, and the administrative seat of Cieszyn
Cieszyn
County, Silesian Voivodeship. The town has about 36,100 inhabitants (as of 2013[update]), and lies opposite Český Těšín
Český Těšín
in the Czech Republic's Karviná
Karviná
District, Moravian-Silesian Region. Both towns belonged to the historical region of Austrian Silesia
Austrian Silesia
and are the historical capital of the region of Cieszyn/Těšín Silesia.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Culture 4 Industry 5 Sites of interest 6 People 7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

8 Gallery 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Geography[edit]

Divided town: Cieszyn
Cieszyn
(left), Olza River
Olza River
(centre) and Český Těšín (right)

The town is situated on the Olza river, a tributary of the Oder
Oder
River, which forms the border with the Czech Republic. It is located within the western Silesian Foothills
Silesian Foothills
north of the Silesian Beskids
Silesian Beskids
and Mt. Czantoria Wielka, a popular ski resort. Cieszyn
Cieszyn
is the heart of the historical region of Cieszyn
Cieszyn
Silesia, the southeasternmost part of Upper Silesia. Until the end of World War I
World War I
in 1918 it was a seat of the Dukes of Teschen. In 1920 Cieszyn Silesia
Cieszyn Silesia
was divided between the two newly created states of Poland
Poland
and Czechoslovakia, with the smaller western suburbs of Teschen becoming part of Czechoslovakia as a new town called Český Těšín. The larger part of the town joined Poland
Poland
as Cieszyn.[1] Three bridges connect the twin towns. After Poland
Poland
and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
joined the European Union
European Union
and its passport-free Schengen zone, border controls were abolished and residents of both the Polish and Czech part could move freely across the border. The combined population of Polish and Czech parts of the city is 61,201 inhabitants. Cieszyn
Cieszyn
is the southern terminus of the Polish National road 1 leading to Gdańsk
Gdańsk
on the Baltic coast. The town combines both Polish and Old–Austrian peculiarities in the style of its buildings. Because of several major fires and subsequent reconstructions (the last one in the late 18th century), the picturesque old town is sometimes called Little Vienna. The only relic of the ancient castle is a square tower, dating from the 14th century and 11th century romanesque chapel. History[edit] Main article: History of Cieszyn

The District Court of Cieszyn
Cieszyn
from 1905, an ideal example of the town's long prosperous history and its impact on architecture

The area has been populated by Slavic peoples since at least the 7th century. According to legend, in 810 three sons of a prince – Bolko, Leszko and Cieszko, met here after a long pilgrimage, found a spring, and decided to found a new settlement. They called it Cieszyn, from the words cieszym się ("I'm happy"). This well can be found at ulica Trzech Braci ("Three Brothers Street"), just west of the town square.[2][3] The town was the capital of the Duchy of Teschen
Duchy of Teschen
since 1290, which was ruled by Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
until 1653 and by the Habsburg Dynasty
Habsburg Dynasty
of Austria to 1918. It was in Teschen that Maria Theresa and Frederick II on in May 1779 signed the Teschen Peace Treaty, which put an end to the War of the Bavarian Succession. In the 19th century Teschen was known for its ethnic, religious and cultural diversity, containing mostly German, Polish, Jewish and Czech communities.[4] There was also a small Hungarian community in the town consisting mostly of officers and clerks.[5] The town was divided in July 1920, by the Spa Conference, a body formed by the Versailles Treaty, leaving a Polish minority on the Czechoslovak side. Its smaller western suburbs became what is now the town of Český Těšín
Český Těšín
in the Czech Republic. During the interwar period two villages were merged into Cieszyn: Błogocice in 1923 and Bobrek in 1932. After 1920 many ethnic Germans left the town, while many Poles from the Czechoslovakian part of the region moved in. According to the Polish census of 1921, Cieszyn
Cieszyn
had 15,268 inhabitants, of whom 9,241 (60,5%) were Poles, 4,777 (31,2%) were Germans, 1014 (6,6%) were Jews, and 195 (1,3%) were Czechs. The census from 1931 indicated 14,707 inhabitants, of whom 12,145 (82,7%) were Poles, while the rest consisted mostly of Germans and Jews (in 1937 estimated to be 12 and 8% respectively).[6] Cieszyn
Cieszyn
and Český Těšín
Český Těšín
were merged again in October 1938 when Poland
Poland
annexed the Zaolzie
Zaolzie
area together with Český Těšín. In 1939 Cieszyn Silesia
Cieszyn Silesia
was occupied by German forces and during World War II it was part of Nazi Germany. Almost the entire Jewish community was murdered by the Nazis. After World War II, the border between Poland
Poland
and Czechoslovakia was restored to that of 1920. Most Germans fled or were expelled and were replaced with Poles expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. Signs of the former German presence in the town were obliterated by a special committee.[7] On 19 July 1970, five firefighters from Cieszyn
Cieszyn
died when a bridge they were on fell into the Olza River, due to heavy flooding. In 1977, Boguszowice, Gułdowy, Kalembice, Krasna, Mnisztwo, Pastwiska were amalgamated with Cieszyn
Cieszyn
and Marklowice. Culture[edit] Since the 18th century Cieszyn Silesia
Cieszyn Silesia
has been an important centre of Polish Protestantism
Protestantism
when the Jesus Church was built as the only one in Upper Silesia. Currently Cieszyn
Cieszyn
is also the site of the Cieszyn Summer Film Festival, one of the most influential film festivals in Poland. There is also an earlier established Czech-Polish-Slovak film festival. Industry[edit] Cieszyn
Cieszyn
is an important centre of the electromechanical industry. It is also the site of the Olza Cieszyn
Cieszyn
sweets factory (where the famous Prince Polo
Prince Polo
wafers are made) and the Brackie Browar, where Żywiec Porter is brewed. The main source of income for many citizens is trade with the nearby Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and retail trade associated with transit across the two bridges over the Olza to Český Těšín. In the past, the city was home to many furniture factories.[8] Sites of interest[edit]

Copper engraving from c. 1640 depicting the town

Romanesque St. Nicholas' Chapel (Kaplica św. Mikołaja, a rotunda from the 11th century) Remnants of the Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
castle

Piast
Piast
Castle Tower (Wieża Piastowska, mostly 14th century) Gothical St. Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Church (Kościół Marii Magdaleny, 13th century)

Old Town Square (Rynek)

bourgeoisie houses (15th-19th centuries) Town Hall (Ratusz, early 19th century)

Former minting house (18th century) Museum of Cieszyn Silesia
Cieszyn Silesia
in the former Larisch family palace (Pałac Laryszów, Muzeum Śląska Cieszyńskiego, the first museum in Poland) Castle Brewery (Browar Zamkowy, 1846) The protestant Church of Jesus (Kościół Jezusowy), with a baroque tower and statues of the Four Evangelists
Four Evangelists
above the altar that liven up the plain interior.

People[edit] See also: Category:People from Cieszyn.

Jan Błachowicz
Jan Błachowicz
(born February 24, 1983), Polish mixed martial artist Adam Christian Agricola (born December 12, 1593), evangelical preacher Herbert Czaja
Herbert Czaja
(born November 5, 1914), German politician (CDU) Magdalena Gwizdoń
Magdalena Gwizdoń
(born August 4, 1979), Polish biathlete Hermann Heller (born July 17, 1891), jurist Ireneusz Jeleń
Ireneusz Jeleń
(born April 9, 1981), Polish footballer Carl Friedrich Kotschy
Carl Friedrich Kotschy
(born January 26, 1789), botanist and theologian Jan Łysek (et) (born July 7, 1887), Polish writer Inge Mahn (de) (born 1943), German sculptor, professor Richard Pipes
Richard Pipes
(born July 11, 1923), a Polish-American historian Rudolf Ramek
Rudolf Ramek
(born April 12, 1881), Austrian politician, Chancellor of Austria Max Rostal (born August 7, 1905), violinist and educator Tomisław Tajner
Tomisław Tajner
(born May 14, 1983), Polish ski jumper Jiří Třanovský
Jiří Třanovský
(born March 27, 1592), theologian and composer Friedrich Uhl (born May 14, 1825), journalist, writer Viktor Ullmann
Viktor Ullmann
(born January 1, 1898), a Jewish musician Piotr Żyła
Piotr Żyła
(born January 16, 1987), Polish ski jumper

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] Cieszyn
Cieszyn
is twinned with:

Český Těšín, Czech Republic Genk, Belgium

Lucerne, Switzerland[9] Puck, Poland

Rožňava, Slovakia Teuva, Finland

Gallery[edit]

Rotunda from circa 1180 / St. Nicholas Church

14th century Piast
Piast
tower

Głęboka St.

Statue of Saint Florian

Monastery, church, and hospital of the Sisters of Saint Elizabeth

Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Dominican Church, begun in late 13th century

Hunting Palace of the Habsburgs and monument commemorating Silesian legionnaries fallen for Poland

Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz
Theatre

Hotel on the town square

Evangelical Protestant
Protestant
Church of Jesus, begun in 1710

Communal Cemetery in Cieszyn

Footnotes[edit]

^ Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, Anthony Mango. Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements - Volume 1 A-F (2003 ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 382. ISBN 0-415-93921-6.  ^ " Cieszyn
Cieszyn
- Tourism Tourist Information - Cieszyn, Poland". Staypoland.com. Retrieved 2013-07-16.  ^ The legend is inscribed on the Well of the Three Brothers[permanent dead link] in Cieszyn. ^ Wawreczka et al. 1999, 13. ^ Wawreczka et al. 1999, 10. ^ Dzieje Cieszyna..., 2010, t. III, p. 323 ^ Dzieje Cieszyna..., 2010, t. III, p. 439-440 ^ Teschen - Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1911. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "Partnerstädte der Stadt Luzern". Stadt Luzern (in German). Archived from the original on 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

References[edit]

Dzieje Cieszyna od pradziejów do czasów współczesnych. Cieszyn: Książnica Cieszyńska. 2010. ISBN 978-83-927052-6-0.  Wawreczka, Henryk; Janusz Spyra; Mariusz Makowski (1999). Těšín, Český Těšín
Český Těšín
na starých pohlednicích a fotografiích / Cieszyn, Czeski Cieszyn
Cieszyn
na starych widokówkach i fotografiach. Nebory, Třinec: Wart. ISBN 80-238-4804-6. 

Further reading[edit]

Długajczyk, Edward (1993). Tajny front na granicy cieszyńskiej. Wywiad i dywersja w latach 1919-1939. Katowice: Śląsk. ISBN 83-85831-03-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cieszyn.

Official website Museum of Cieszyn Silesia
Cieszyn Silesia
(Muzeum Śląska Cieszyńskiego) Jewish Community in Cieszyn
Cieszyn
on Virtual Shtetl

v t e

Gminas of Cieszyn
Cieszyn
County

Urban gminas

Cieszyn
Cieszyn
(seat) Ustroń Wisła

Urban-rural gminas

Gmina
Gmina
Skoczów Gmina
Gmina
Strumień

Rural gminas

Gmina
Gmina
Brenna Gmina
Gmina
Chybie Gmina
Gmina
Dębowiec Gmina
Gmina
Goleszów Gmina
Gmina
Hażlach Gmina
Gmina
Istebna Gmina
Gmina
Zebrzydowice

v t e

Cieszyn
Cieszyn
Silesia

Municipalities in the Czech Republic

Albrechtice Bocanovice Bohumín Bruzovice Bukovec Bystřice Český Těšín Chotěbuz Dětmarovice Dolní Domaslavice Dolní Lomná Dolní Lutyně Dolní Tošanovice Dobrá Dobratice Doubrava Havířov Hnojník Horní Bludovice Horní Domaslavice Horní Lomná Horní Suchá Horní Tošanovice Hrádek Hrčava Jablunkov Janovice Kaňovice Karviná Komorní Lhotka Košařiska Krásná Lučina Malenovice Milíkov Morávka Mosty u Jablunkova Návsí Nižní Lhoty Nošovice Nýdek Orlová Pazderna Petrovice u Karviné Petřvald Písečná Písek Pražmo Pržno Raškovice Řeka Řepiště Ropice Rychvald Sedliště Šenov Smilovice Soběšovice Staré Město Stonava Střítež Těrlicko Třanovice Třinec Václavovice Vělopolí Vendryně Vojkovice Vratimov Vyšní Lhoty Žermanice

partially in the region:

Baška Frýdek-Místek Ostrava Staré Hamry

Municipalities in Poland

Bąków Bażanowice Bielowicko Biery Bładnice Brenna Bronów Brzezówka Chybie Cieszyn Cisownica Czechowice-Dziedzice Dębowiec Drogomyśl Dzięgielów Frelichów Godziszów Goleszów Górki Małe Górki Wielkie Grodziec Gumna Harbutowice Hażlach Iłownica Iskrzyczyn Istebna Jasienica Jaworze Jaworzynka Kaczyce Kiczyce Kisielów Kończyce Małe Kończyce Wielkie Koniaków Kostkowice Kowale Kozakowice Łączka Landek Łazy Leszna Górna Ligota Marklowice Górne Mazańcowice Międzyrzecze Dolne Międzyrzecze Górne Międzyświeć Mnich Ochaby Ogrodzona Pierściec Pogórze Pogwizdów Pruchna Puńców Roztropice Rudnik Rudzica Simoradz Skoczów Strumień Świętoszówka Ustroń Wieszczęta Wilamowice Wiślica Wisła Zabłocie Zaborze Zabrzeg Zamarski Zarzecze Zbytków Zebrzydowice

partially in the region:

Bielsko-Biała Bystra

Related articles

Cieszyn Silesia
Cieszyn Silesia
Euroregion Cieszyn
Cieszyn
Silesian dialect Duchy of Teschen Olza (river) Zaolzie

Coordinates: 49°44′54.37″N 18°37′59.56″E / 49.7484361°N 18.6332111°E / 49.7

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