Throne (皇位, kōi, lit. "Imperial seat") is the
term used to identify the throne of the
Emperor of Japan. The term
also can refer to very specific seating, such as the takamikura
(高御座) throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace.
Various other thrones or seats that are used by the
official functions, such as those used in the
Tokyo Imperial Palace
Tokyo Imperial Palace or
the throne used in the Speech from the
Throne ceremony in the National
Diet, are, however, not known as the "Chrysanthemum Throne".
In a metonymic sense, the "Chrysanthemum Throne" also refers
rhetorically to the head of state and the institution of the
Japanese monarchy itself.
4 See also
7 External links
Meiji period throne room was used by
Emperor Hirohito. This room
was destroyed in World War II.
Japan is the oldest continuing hereditary monarchy in the world.
In much the same sense as the British Crown, the Chrysanthemum Throne
is an abstract metonymic concept that represents the monarch and the
legal authority for the existence of the government. Unlike its
British counterpart, the concepts of Japanese monarchy evolved
differently before 1947 when there was, for example, no perceived
separation of the property of the nation-state from the person and
personal holdings of the Emperor.
According to legend, the Japanese monarchy is said to have been
founded in 660 BC by
Akihito is the 125th monarch to
occupy the Chrysanthemum Throne. The extant historical records only
reach back to
Emperor Ōjin, who is considered to have reigned into
the early 4th century.
The chrysanthemum is a symbol of the emperor and the imperial house.
In particular, a "chrysanthemum crest" (菊花紋章, kikukamonshō or
kikkamonshō), i.e. a mon of chrysanthemum blossom design, indicates a
link to the emperor. Notable uses of and reference to the imperial
chrysanthemum include the Imperial Seal of Japan, a number of formerly
state-endowed shrines (官国弊社, kankokuheisha) have adopted a
chrysanthemum crest, and the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum.
Constitution of Japan
Constitution of Japan considers the
Emperor as "the symbol
of the State and of the unity of the people." The modern
Emperor is a
constitutional monarch. The metonymic meanings of "Chrysanthemum
Throne" encompass the modern monarchy and the chronological list of
legendary and historical monarchs of Japan.
The Takamikura throne kept in the Kyoto Imperial Palace.
The throne Takamikura (高御座) is located in the Kyoto Imperial
Palace. It is the oldest surviving throne used by the monarchy. It
sits on an octagonal dais, 5 metres (16 ft) above the floor. It
is separated from the rest of the room by a curtain. The sliding door
that hides the
Emperor from view is called the kenjō no shōji
(賢聖障子), and has an image of 32 celestial saints painted upon
it, which became one of the primary models for all of Heian period
painting. The throne is used mainly for the enthronement ceremony,
along with the twin throne michodai (御帳台, august seat of the
This flexible English term is also a rhetorical trope. Depending on
context, the Chrysanthemum
Throne can be construed as a metonymy,
which is a rhetorical device for an allusion relying on proximity or
correspondence, as for example referring to actions of the
as "actions of the Chrysanthemum Throne." The Chrysanthemum throne
is also understood as a synecdoche, which is related to metonymy and
metaphor in suggesting a play on words by identifying a closely
related conceptualization, e.g.,
referring to a part with the name of the whole, such as "Chrysanthemum
Throne" for the mystic process of transferring Imperial authority—as
December 18, 876 (
Jōgan 18, on the 29th day of the 11th month): In
the 18th year of
Emperor Seiwa's reign (清和天皇18年), he ceded
Throne to his son, which meant that the young child
received the succession (‘‘senso’’). Shortly thereafter,
Emperor Yōzei is said to have formally acceded to the throne
referring to the whole with the name of a part, such as "Chrysanthemum
Throne" for the serial symbols and ceremonies of enthronement—as in:
January 20, 877 (
Gangyō 1, on the 3rd day of the 1st month) Yōzei
was formally installed on the Chrysanthemum Throne; and the
beginning of a new nengō was proclaimed.
referring to the general with the specific, such as "Chrysanthemum
Throne" for Emperorship or senso—as in:
Emperor Yōzei ascended to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his
personal name (his imina) was Sadakira Shinnō (貞明親王).
referring to the specific with the general, such as "Chrysanthemum
Throne" for the short reign of
Emperor Yōzei or equally as well for
the ambit of the Imperial system.
During the State Visit in 2007 of the
Empress of Japan
Empress of Japan to
the United Kingdom, the Times reported that "last night’s dinner was
as informal as it could get when the House of Windsor entertains the
Order of the Chrysanthemum
List of Emperors of Japan
Imperial Regalia of Japan
National seals of Japan
Imperial House of Japan
Throne of the Emperors of China
Throne of England and the Kings of England
Throne of the Kings of Korea
Throne of the
Dalai Lama of Tibet
Throne of the Mughal Empire
Throne of the
Persian Empire and Iran
Throne - the
Throne of Sweden
^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 337.
^ McLaren, Walter Wallace. (1916). A Political History of Japan During
the Meiji Era - 1867-1912, p. 361.
^ Williams, David. (1858). The preceptor's assistant, or,
Miscellaneous questions in general history, literature, and science,
^ Shûji, Takashina. "An Empress on the Chrysanthemum Throne?" Japan
Echo. Vol. 31, No. 6, December 2004.
^ Green, Shane. "Chrysanthemum
Throne a Closely Guarded Secret,"
Sydney Morning Herald (New South Wales). December 7, 2002.
^ Spector, Ronald. "The Chrysanthemum Throne," (book review of
Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan by Herbert P. Bix). New York
Times. November 19, 2000.
^ McNeill, David. "The Sadness Behind the Chrysanthemum Throne," The
Independent (London). May 22, 2004.
^ McCurry, Justin. "Baby Boy Ends 40-year Wait for Heir to
Chrysanthemum Throne," The Guardian (London). September 6, 2006.
^ "The Chrysanthemum Throne," Hello Magazine.
^ McNeill, David. "The Girl who May Sit on Chrysanthemum Throne," The
Independent (London). February 23, 2005.
^ Williams, David. (1858). The preceptor's assistant, or,
Miscellaneous questions in general history, literature and science, p.
^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 19-21;
Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 103-110; Aston, William
George. (1998). Nihongi, pp. 254-271.
^ Weisman, Steven R. "Japan Enthrones
Emperor Today in Old Rite With
New Twist," New York Times. November 12, 1990
^ Martin, Peter. (1997). The Chrysanthemum Throne, p. 132.
^ Titsigh, p. 122; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 288;
Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to
Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and
Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of
^ Note: The enthronement ceremony (sokui) is something of a misnomer
in English since no throne is used, but the throne is used in a larger
and more public ceremony that follows later. See Berry, Mary
Elizabeth. (1989). Hideyoshi, p. 245 n6.
^ Titsingh, p. 122.
^ Brown, p. 264; up until the time of
Emperor Jomei, the personal
names of the Emperors (their imina) were very long and people did not
generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished
after Jomei's reign.
^ Titsingh, p. 121; Varley, p. 170.
^ Watts, Jonathan. "The Emperor's new roots: The Japanese
finally laid to rest rumours that he has Korean blood, by admitting
that it is true," The Guardian (London). 28 December 2001.
^ Hamilton, Alan. "Palace small talk problem solved: royal guest is a
goby fish fanatic," The Times (London). May 30, 2007.]
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NYPL Digital Gallery: Trono del imperator del Giapone. by Andrea
Bernieri (artist). Source: Ferrario, Giulio (1823). Il costume antico
e moderno, o, storia del governo, della milizia, della religione,
delle arti, scienze ed usanze di tutti i popoli antichi e moderni.