The Info List - Christy Clark

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CHRISTINA JOAN "CHRISTY" CLARK, (born October 29, 1965) is a Canadian politician who served as the 35th Premier of British Columbia
Premier of British Columbia
, Canada from 2011 to 2017. Clark was sworn in as premier on March 14, 2011, after she won the leadership of the British Columbia Liberal Party
British Columbia Liberal Party
in the 2011 leadership election on February 26, 2011. She was the second woman to serve as premier of British Columbia, after Rita Johnston in 1991; and the first female premier in Canada to lead her party to a plurality of seats in two consecutive general elections. While she lost her own seat in her first election, she led the BC Liberals to win an additional 5 seats for a larger majority in the BC legislature. Subsequently, an elected member of the Liberal Party caucus stepped aside so there could be a by-election in a riding, to provide her with a seat in the House. During her second election as leader, she lead her party to win 43 out of 87 ridings. Due to an historic coalition agreement between the NDP and BC Green Party, her party lost the confidence of the House by one vote, forcing her government's resignation.

Clark served as a Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) from 1996 to 2005, serving as deputy premier from 2001 to 2005 during the first term of Gordon Campbell\'s government. She left politics in 2005, and became the host of an afternoon radio talk show . At the time of her leadership victory, Clark was not an MLA. She re-entered the legislature after winning a by-election on May 11, 2011, in Vancouver-Point Grey , the seat left vacant by Campbell.

Her government was re-elected in the 2013 provincial election , but Clark was defeated by NDP candidate David Eby
David Eby
in her own riding of Vancouver-Point Grey. She was subsequently returned to the legislature in a by-election in Westside-Kelowna
on July 10, 2013.

In the 2017 provincial election she was re-elected in Westside-Kelowna. The Liberals were reduced to 43 seats -- one short of a majority. After the election, the Liberals entered negotiations with the Green Party of British Columbia, which held the balance of power in the legislature. On May 29, 2017 the Green Party reached a supply agreement with the NDP. Clark subsequently recalled the Legislature, to present a Provincial Budget.

On June 29, 2017, her minority government was defeated 44–42, on a motion of non-confidence by the NDP-Green alliance. Subsequently, Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon
Judith Guichon
turned down Clark's request for a snap election and instead asked NDP leader John Horgan to form a minority government. Horgan succeeded Clark as the 36th premier of British Columbia on July 18, 2017, and Clark became Leader of the Opposition . On July 28, Clark announced that she was resigning as Liberal leader effective August 4, 2017, and that she was leaving politics.


* 1 Early life and family

* 2 Early political career

* 2.1 Opposition * 2.2 Government * 2.3 Campaign for mayor of Vancouver

* 3 Radio show and columnist * 4 Leadership campaign

* 5 Premier of British Columbia
Premier of British Columbia

* 5.1 2013 re-election * 5.2 Race relations * 5.3 Behind The Smile biography

* 6 Federal politics

* 6.1 Missing and murdered indigenous women * 6.2 Senate

* 7 Controversies

* 7.1 B.C. Liberal "Ethnic Vote Plan"

* 8 2017 campaign * 9 Return to the Opposition * 10 References * 11 External links


Clark was born on October 29, 1965, in Burnaby
, British Columbia, the daughter of Mavis Audrey (née Bain) and Jim Clark. Her father was a teacher and a three-time candidate for the legislative assembly, and her mother, who was born in Glasgow, Scotland, was a marriage and family therapist in Vancouver. On June 8, 2016, she shared that, as a 13-year-old girl on her way to work at her first job, she was forcibly grabbed and pulled into some bushes; she also shared that she had been subject to other sexual offences throughout her life and that she had not felt able to share this until a campus sexual assault bill proposed by the Green Party came up.

Clark graduated from Burnaby
South Senior Secondary before attending Simon Fraser University
Simon Fraser University
(SFU), the Sorbonne
in France
and the University of Edinburgh in Scotland
to major in political science and religious studies . She did not graduate from any post-secondary institution.

In 2001, Clark gave birth to her only child, Hamish Marissen-Clark, with then husband Mark Marissen . Clark was the second woman in Canadian history to give birth to a child while serving as a cabinet minister, after Pauline Marois
Pauline Marois
, then a Quebec provincial minister, in 1985.



Clark was first elected to the legislature in the 1996 election , representing the riding of Port Moody- Burnaby
Mountain. During the next five years, she served as the Official Opposition critic for the environment, children and families and for the public service. She also served as the campaign co-chair for the BC Liberals during the 2001 election , in which the party won 77 of 79 seats in the legislature.


Following the BC Liberal Party's election victory in 2001, Premier Gordon Campbell
Gordon Campbell
appointed Clark Minister of Education and Deputy Premier . She brought in a number of changes that were claimed to increase accountability, strengthen parental power in the decision-making process, and provide parents greater choice and flexibility in the school system. These changes were unpopular amongst teachers, school board members, opposition politicians, and union officials who argued that the decision not to fund the pay increases agreed to by the government resulted in funding gaps. The changes made were challenged by the BC Teacher's Federation, and were later found to be unconstitutional.

As Education Minister, Clark sought to increase the independence of the BC College of Teachers against heavy opposition from the British Columbia Teachers\' Federation . In 2002 the BC Liberals and Education Minister Christie Clark introduced Bills 27 "> BC Liberal Party leadership candidate Christy Clark
Christy Clark
at a Vancouver
arts and community centre

On December 8, 2010, Clark officially announced her intent to seek the leadership of the BC Liberal Party. While Clark had long been touted as a potential successor to BC Premier Gordon Campbell
Gordon Campbell
, she often claimed she had no further interest in a political career. Public polling conducted prior to and after the announcement of her candidacy showed that Clark was the frontrunner to succeed Campbell as leader of the BC Liberals and premier. Clark launched her leadership bid saying she wanted a “family-first agenda”. During the campaign she tried to cast herself as an outsider from the current caucus, and as the only candidate who could provide the change voters were looking for. Clark's policy proposals included observing a provincial Family Day in February, establishing an Office of the Municipal Auditor General to monitor local government taxation, and to provide a more open government by holding 12 town hall meetings a year to hear from residents. Regarding the controversial Harmonized Sales Tax (HST), she campaigned early on to cancel the referendum scheduled for September 2011. She suggested a free vote in the legislature by MLAs, believing the HST referendum has little chance of success. "Let our MLAs do their jobs and let our MLAs vote down the HST. Do it by March 31 and get it over with and get on with life in B.C.", Clark told a crowd of about 40 in Pitt Meadows . However, she eventually decided to continue with the planned referendum.

Despite her perceived frontrunner status, backbench MLA Harry Bloy was the only sitting member of BC Liberal caucus to endorse her candidacy for leader. The majority of the caucus supported the campaigns of Kevin Falcon and George Abbott , who were each endorsed by 19 MLAs. While many saw Clark as the best hope for the party there were fears that Clark's past background with the federal Liberal Party could fracture the party. The BC Liberals are not affiliated with any party at the federal level and is considered a "free-enterprise coalition" made up of both federal Conservatives and Liberals, and there were fears that right-wing supporters would move to the British Columbia Conservative Party which had started to make a comeback in the province after decades of dormancy.

Her campaign faced questions regarding her involvement in the sale of BC Rail due to her cabinet position and family connection to people "mentioned prominently in court documents, including search warrants", with opposition members stating that she "wants to shut down the public's questions about the scandal". It was in the wake of the controversial Basi-Virk guilty pleas that ended the trial proceedings that she declared her candidacy for the party leadership on her radio show. Clark had called for more questions to be answered about BC Rail, but since then has said that there is no need for a public inquiry, as have the other Liberal Party leadership contenders.

At the leadership convention held on February 26, 2011, Clark was elected leader of the BC Liberals on the third ballot, over former Health Minister Kevin Falcon. She won 52 per cent of the vote, compared to 48 per cent for Falcon.


Premier Christy Clark
Christy Clark
at a 2011 World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
meeting in India

Clark was sworn in as premier of British Columbia on March 14, 2011, and unveiled a new smaller cabinet on the same day. At the time of her swearing in, she did not hold a seat in the legislature. Clark ran in former Premier Gordon Campbell's riding of Vancouver-Point Grey and defeated NDP candidate David Eby
David Eby
by 595 votes. Her win marked the first time that a governing party won a by-election in 30 years.

After Clark became premier, the Liberal Party saw a bounce in support and lead in opinion polls, after falling behind the Official Opposition NDP under Campbell. However, the increase in support was short lived and within months the party had fallen behind the NDP once again. Several polls eventually showed a statistical tie between the Liberals and the Conservative Party with support for each party in the low twenties, while support for the NDP was in the high 40s. Internal problems within the Conservative Party towards the end of 2012 saw the party bleed support to the Liberals.

In the summer of 2012, several high-profile caucus members, including the Ministers of Education and Finance, announced they wouldn't seek re-election. Though Premier Clark suggested she "expected" the resignations, the news shook her government. There was public outrage and disruption within her party, including calls for her resignation, as a result of the Quick Wins ethnic outreach scandal .

During her premiership, she was accused of conflict of interest by MLA and former BC Liberal cabinet minister John van Dongen in relation to the sale of BC Rail during her service as a cabinet minister in the Campbell government. In April 2013, B.C.’s Conflict of Interest Commissioner released a decision that Clark had been in neither a real nor apparent conflict of interest.


As the 2013 general election approached, polls showed that Clark was one of the least popular premiers in Canada. Two months prior to the election, The Province
The Province
newspaper's front page featured a column by pundit Michael Smyth with the banner headline: "If This Man Kicked A Dog He Would Still Win The Election." However, Clark ran a "tightly-focused campaign that centred on jobs, LNG, and a “debt free” B.C." During the leaders' televised debate, Clark attacked NDP leader Adrian Dix for his "waffling position on the Kinder Morgan pipeline expansion". Dix's strategy of taking the "high road", similar to Jack Layton
Jack Layton
's successful approach in the 2011 federal election , left him vulnerable to "relentless Liberal attacks on the economic competence of his party".

Clark defied pollster predictions by leading her party to victory, its fourth consecutive mandate but her first, in the May 13, 2013 provincial election reversing a 20-point lead held by the BC NDP at the beginning of the campaign. However, she suffered personal defeat in Vancouver-Point Grey, losing her seat to the NDP candidate, David Eby by a margin of 785 votes. According to parliamentary precedent, she was entitled to remain premier, but had to win a by-election in order to sit in the Legislative Assembly. She did not rule out running in a riding outside the Lower Mainland in order to get back into the chamber, telling The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail
that she believed one reason she lost her own riding was that she was devoting so much time to serving the entire province.

On June 4, Clark announced she would run in a by-election for the safe Liberal seat of Westside-Kelowna
to re-enter the Legislative Assembly. The incumbent MLA, government whip Ben Stewart , resigned in Clark's favour. Clark won the by-election on July 10, 2013, taking more than 60 per cent of the vote over NDP candidate Carole Gordon.


In May 2014, Clark gave a formal apology for 160 historical racist and discriminatory policies imposed against Chinese-Canadians:

While the governments which passed these laws and policies acted in a manner that lawful at the time, today this racist discrimination is seen by British Columbians — represented by all members of the legislative assembly — as unacceptable and intolerable. The entire legislative assembly acknowledges the perseverance of Chinese Canadians
that was demonstrated with grace and dignity throughout our history while being oppressed by unfair and discriminatory historical laws.

In October 2014, the British Columbia government exonerated First Nations leaders who had been sentenced to be hanged in the Chilcotin War by Judge Begbie in 1864. Clark stated, "We confirm without reservation that these six Tsilhqot\'in chiefs are fully exonerated for any crime or wrongdoing."


In 2016, just prior to an election year, former Liberal MLA Judi Tyabji published an "unauthorized" biography Behind The Smile of Clark. Judi Tyabji, however, has received a $128,000 provincial government grant for a shearing project on the sheep farm she and her husband, former Liberal leader Gordon Wilson, own on the Sunshine Coast; $67,000 went directly to Tyabji’s supervision of the project. Clark has also had to fend off criticism involving Wilson, who is being paid $150,000 a year to run LNG-Buy B.C., a site aiming to connect B.C. businesses with LNG opportunities.



Beginning in 2014, Clark has expressed her support for a national inquiry into missing and murdered indigenous women and girls. On December 8, 2015 Clark tweeted her support of the federal government's decision to call such a national inquiry.


In December 2015, Clark expressed her disappointment over Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau
's plans for a non-partisan Senate, saying "appointing senators on merit will give legitimacy to an unelected, unaccountable upper house." She also expressed disappointment over the lack of representation from British Columbia, as of the 105-seat chamber, British Columbia only has six seats.



A leaked 17-page document dated January 10, 2012 and called Multicultural Strategy Outreach Plan was sent by Kim Haakstad, Clark's deputy chief of staff, to the personal email addresses of eight people, including Pamela Martin, who works for the premier's office; Brian Bonney, a former government multiculturalism communications director; and former Liberal caucus official Jeff Melland.

The leaked strategy revealed plans to outflank the NDP in its approach to handling the ethnic media, with the objective to "match and then exceed the B.C. NDP's ethnic media efforts in a place of importance equal to that of so-called mainstream media."

The documents revealed the plan included eight strategy components, including quick wins, election readiness and community engagement.

The quick wins component involved building political capital in ethnic communities by taking what would be perceived as thoughtful and caring actions, stated the documents.

In response to criticisms, Multiculturalism Minister John Yap said the plan was more than a year old and did not completely portray the government's plans for engaging with ethnic communities. "Since coming into the role as minister responsible for multiculturalism, we're reaching out to communities and not following through on some of the ideas that were listed," he said.


On September 14, 2016 the B.C. Liberal Party named executive director Laura Miller to be the party's campaign director for the May 9, 2017 provincial election. Miller is facing criminal charges in Ontario for allegedly deleting emails in service with the Dalton McGuinty provincial government.

The BC Liberals planned a bridge to replace the Massey Tunnel. To make Vancouver
housing more affordable the Liberal government instituted taxes for Metro Vancouver
property purchases by foreigners and no-interest loans from the government to first-time home buyers.

Clark campaigned on her government's economic track record, however the opposition NDP and Greens criticized her inaction on "lax political fundraising laws" and portrayed her as "beholden to big money interests", attacking the BC Liberals on "housing, transit and other affordability issues". A video of Clark having a run-in with a disgruntled voter inside a North Vancouver
grocery store went viral with the hashtag #IamLinda. The combination of these controversies caused Liberal support in Metro Vancouver
to collapse.

In the 2017 general election , the BC Liberals held the largest number of seats (43), ahead of the NDP (41) and Greens (3), but they were one seat short of forming a majority in the Legislative Assembly.


After the election, the Liberals entered negotiations with the Green Party of British Columbia, which held the balance of power in the legislature, however on May 29, 2017 the Greens instead reached a supply agreement with the official opposition NDP. However, the Liberal government did not resign from power yet, and Clark's new cabinet is sworn in on June 8, 2017.

Clark subsequently recalled the legislature to test her government's confidence, with a Throne Speech that included billions in new funding and key policies supported by the NDP and Greens. Critics saw the throne speech as a cynical way for the Clark government to hold onto power "because it’s disrespectful to voters who rely on parties as aggregators of ideas that lead to policies they like", noted that the 30 pledges were absent from the Liberals' election platform, but also the "dramatic conversion to an NDP/Green-light version of her party appear like an overcorrection, given the modest shift in support" as the Liberals lost 4 percentage points of popular vote in the general election. However, both the NDP and Green Party leaders said they would not consider legislation by the Liberal minority government, and none of their MLAs broke ranks to support the throne speech.

On June 29, 2017, Clark's minority government was defeated 44–42 on motion of non-confidence by the NDP-Green alliance. Subsequently, Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon
Judith Guichon
turned down Clark's request for a snap election , despite Clark's argument that the legislature would be dysfunctional due to the Speaker frequently having to cast the tie-breaking vote, and instead asked NDP leader John Horgan to form a minority government. Horgan succeeded Clark as the 36th premier of British Columbia on July 18, 2017.

On July 28, 2017, Clark announced that she would resign as Liberal Party Leader and exit from politics, effective August 4, 2017.


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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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.. The Province
The Province
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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Christy Clark
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bio goes beyond the smile : Former B.C. MLA Judi Tyabji pens an unauthorized biography of the B.C. Premier". Maclean\'s Magazine. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ " Christy Clark
Christy Clark
says Trudeau legitimizing unaccountable Senate, B.C. under-representation". CBC News. December 6, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015. * ^ Bryden, Joan (December 6, 2015). "B.C.\'s Clark says Trudeau making Senate worse". MSN. Retrieved December 6, 2015. * ^ A B C D B.C. Liberals (2012). "Multicultural Strategic Plan: An internal B.C. Liberal Document". Scribd. B.C. Government. Retrieved September 19, 2016. * ^ Meissner, Dick (February 27, 2013). "Leaked BC Liberal documents reveal ethnic vote plan". Global News. Retrieved September 19, 2016. * ^ Zussman, Richard (September 14, 2016). "CanadaBC Laura Miller named B.C. Liberal election campaign director despite facing criminal charges". CBC News. Retrieved September 19, 2016. * ^ * ^ * ^ " Christy Clark
Christy Clark
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