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Christopher Columbus[a] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/[3] c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Born in the Republic of Genoa,[4] under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
of Spain
Spain
he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the permanent European colonization of the New World. At a time when European kingdoms were beginning to establish new trade routes and colonies, motivated by imperialism and economic competition, Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies
East Indies
(South and Southeast Asia) by sailing westward. This eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown, which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia
Asia
through this new route. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World
New World
instead of arriving in Japan
Japan
as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela
Venezuela
and Central America, claiming all of it for the Crown of Castile. Though preceded by short-lived Norse colonization of North America
Norse colonization of North America
led by Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
in the 11th century,[5][6] Columbus is the European explorer credited with establishing and documenting routes to the Americas, securing lasting European ties to the Americas, and inaugurating a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries. His exertions thereby strongly contributed to the development of the modern Western world. He also founded the transatlantic slave trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola
Hispaniola
natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Catholic religion.[7] Columbus had set course in hopes of finding a western route to the Indies
Indies
(Asia). He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios (Spanish for "Indians").[8][9][10] His strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and dismissal as governor of the settlements on the island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Quest for Asia

2.1 Background 2.2 Geographical considerations 2.3 Nautical considerations 2.4 Quest for financial support for a voyage 2.5 Agreement with the Spanish crown

3 Voyages

3.1 First voyage 3.2 Second voyage 3.3 Third voyage 3.4 Fourth voyage

4 Accusations of tyranny 5 Later life 6 Illness and death 7 Commemoration 8 Legacy

8.1 Discoverer 8.2 Flat Earth
Flat Earth
mythology 8.3 America as a distinct land 8.4 Criticism in modern scholarship

9 Physical appearance 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Bibliography

13 Further reading 14 External links

Early life Further information on Columbus's birthplace and family background: Origin theories of Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
at the gates of the monastery of Santa María de la Rábida with his son Diego, by Benet Mercadé

The name Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Ligurian is Cristòffa Cónbo, in Italian Cristoforo Colombo and in Spanish Cristóbal Colón.[4] He was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa (now part of modern Italy), though the exact location remains disputed.[11][b] His father was Domenico Colombo,[4] a middle-class wool weaver who worked both in Genoa
Genoa
and Savona
Savona
and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa.[4] Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon
Lisbon
for at least part of his adulthood.[12] He also had a sister named Bianchinetta.[13] Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian (his name would translate in the 16th-century Genoese language as Christoffa[14] Corombo[15] Ligurian pronunciation: [kriˈʃtɔffa kuˈɹuŋbu][16][17]). In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10. In 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead, from the Aragon
Aragon
region of Spain[18] or from Portugal.[19] These competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars.[20][21]

Columbus's copy of The Travels of Marco Polo, with his handwritten notes in Latin
Latin
written on the margins

In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa. Later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island then ruled by Genoa.[22] In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe. He docked in Bristol, England[23] and Galway, Ireland. In 1477, he was possibly in Iceland.[4] In the autumn of 1477, he sailed on a Portuguese ship from Galway
Galway
to Lisbon, where he found his brother Bartolomeo, and they continued trading for the Centurione family. Columbus based himself in Lisbon
Lisbon
from 1477 to 1485. He married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, daughter of the Porto Santo
Porto Santo
governor and Portuguese nobleman of Lombard origin Bartolomeu Perestrello.[24] In 1479 or 1480, his son Diego Columbus
Diego Columbus
was born. Between 1482 and 1485, Columbus traded along the coasts of West Africa, reaching the Portuguese trading post of Elmina
Elmina
at the Guinea coast.[7] Some records report that Filipa died sometime around 1485, while Columbus was away in Castile. He returned to Portugal
Portugal
to settle her estate and take his son Diego with him.[25] He had left Portugal
Portugal
for Castile in 1485, where he found a mistress in 1487, a 20-year-old orphan named Beatriz Enríquez de Arana.[26] It is likely that Beatriz met Columbus when he was in Córdoba, a gathering site of many Genoese merchants and where the court of the Catholic monarchs was located at intervals. Beatriz, unmarried at the time, gave birth to Columbus's natural son Fernando Columbus in July 1488, named for the monarch of Aragón. Columbus recognized the boy as his offspring. Columbus entrusted his older, legitimate son Diego to take care of Beatriz and pay the pension set aside for her following his death, but Diego was negligent in his duties.[27] Ambitious, Columbus eventually learned Latin, Portuguese, and Castilian. He read widely about astronomy, geography, and history, including the works of Claudius Ptolemy, Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly's Imago Mundi, the travels of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and Sir John Mandeville, Pliny's Natural History, and Pope Pius II's Historia Rerum Ubique Gestarum. According to historian Edmund Morgan,

Columbus was not a scholarly man. Yet he studied these books, made hundreds of marginal notations in them and came out with ideas about the world that were characteristically simple and strong and sometimes wrong, ...[28]

Throughout his life, Columbus also showed a keen interest in the Bible and in Biblical prophecies, often quoting biblical texts in his letters and logs. For example, part of the argument that he submitted to the Spanish Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
when he sought their support for his proposed expedition to reach the Indies
Indies
by sailing west was based on his reading of the Second Book of Esdras (Ezra): see 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
6:42, which he took to mean that the Earth is made of six parts of land to one of water. Towards the end of his life, he produced a Book of Prophecies in which his career as an explorer is interpreted in the light of Christian eschatology
Christian eschatology
and of apocalypticism.[12] Quest for Asia Background

"Columbus map", drawn c. 1490 in the Lisbon
Lisbon
workshop of Bartolomeo and Christopher Columbus[29]

Under the Mongol Empire's hegemony over Asia
Asia
(the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol peace), Europeans had long enjoyed a safe land passage, the Silk Road, to the Indies
Indies
(then construed roughly as all of south and east Asia) and China, which were sources of valuable goods such as spices and silk. With the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the land route to Asia
Asia
became much more difficult and dangerous. Portuguese navigators tried to find a sea way to Asia. In 1470, the Florentine astronomer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli suggested to King Afonso V of Portugal
Portugal
that sailing west would be a quicker way to reach the Spice Islands, Cathay, and Cipangu
Cipangu
than the route around Africa. Afonso rejected his proposal.[30] Portuguese explorers, under the leadership of King John II, then developed the Cape Route
Cape Route
to Asia
Asia
around Africa. Major progress in this quest was achieved in 1488, when Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
reached the Cape of Good Hope, in what is now South Africa. Meanwhile, in the 1480s, the Columbus brothers had picked up Toscanelli's suggestion and proposed a plan to reach the Indies
Indies
by sailing west across the "Ocean Sea", i.e., the Atlantic. However, Dias's discovery had shifted the interests of Portuguese seafaring to the southeast passage, which complicated Columbus's proposals significantly.[31] Geographical considerations Washington Irving's 1828 biography of Columbus popularized the idea that Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan because many Catholic theologians insisted that the Earth was flat.[32] In fact, nearly all educated Westerners had understood, at least since the time of Aristotle, that the Earth is spherical.[33][31] The sphericity of the Earth is also accounted for in the work of Ptolemy, on which medieval astronomy was largely based. Christian writers whose works clearly reflect the conviction that the Earth is spherical include Saint Bede
Bede
the Venerable in his Reckoning of Time, written around AD 723. In Columbus's time, the techniques of celestial navigation, which use the position of the sun and the stars in the sky, together with the understanding that the Earth is a sphere, had long been in use by astronomers and were beginning to be implemented by mariners.[34] As far back as the 3rd century BC, Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
had correctly computed the circumference of the Earth by using simple geometry and studying the shadows cast by objects at two different locations: Alexandria
Alexandria
and Syene (modern-day Aswan).[35] Eratosthenes's results were confirmed by a comparison of stellar observations at Alexandria
Alexandria
and Rhodes, carried out by Posidonius
Posidonius
in the 1st century BC. These measurements were widely known among scholars, but confusion about the old-fashioned units of distance in which they were expressed had led, in Columbus's day, to some debate about the exact size of the Earth.

Toscanelli's notions of the geography of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
(shown superimposed on a modern map), which directly influenced Columbus's plans.

From d'Ailly's Imago Mundi Columbus learned of Alfraganus's estimate that a degree of latitude (or a degree of longitude along the equator) spanned 56⅔ miles, but did not realize that this was expressed in the Arabic mile rather than the shorter Roman mile
Roman mile
with which he was familiar (1,480 m).[36] He therefore estimated the circumference of the Earth to be about 30,200 km, whereas the correct value is 40,000 km (25,000 mi). Furthermore, most scholars accepted Ptolemy's estimate that Eurasia spanned 180° longitude, rather than the actual 130° (to the Chinese mainland) or 150° (to Japan
Japan
at the latitude of Spain). Columbus, for his part, believed the even higher estimate of Marinus of Tyre, which put the longitudinal span of the Eurasian landmass at 225°, leaving only 135° of water. He also believed that Japan
Japan
(which he called "Cipangu", following Marco Polo) was much larger, farther to the east from China
China
("Cathay"), and closer to the equator than it is, and that there were inhabited islands even farther to the east than Japan, including the mythical Antillia, which he thought might lie not much farther to the west than the Azores. In this, he was influenced by the ideas of Florentine astronomer, Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, who corresponded with Columbus in 1474[37] and who also defended the feasibility of a westward route to Asia.[38] Columbus therefore estimated the distance from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
to Japan
Japan
to be about 3,000 Italian miles (3,700 km, or 2,300 statute miles). The true figure is now known to be vastly larger: about 20,000 km.[39][c] No ship in the 15th century could have carried enough food and fresh water for such a long voyage, and the dangers involved in navigating through the uncharted ocean would have been formidable. Most European navigators reasonably concluded that a westward voyage from Europe to Asia
Asia
was unfeasible. The Catholic Monarchs, however, having completed an expensive war in the Iberian Peninsula, were eager to obtain a competitive edge over other European countries in the quest for trade with the Indies. Columbus's project, though far-fetched, held the promise of such an advantage. Nautical considerations Though Columbus was wrong about the number of degrees of longitude that separated Europe from the Far East and about the distance that each degree represented, he did possess valuable knowledge about the trade winds, which would prove to be the key to his successful navigation of the Atlantic Ocean. During his first voyage in 1492, the brisk trade winds from the east, commonly called "easterlies", propelled Columbus's fleet for five weeks, from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
to The Bahamas. The precise first land sighting and landing point was San Salvador Island.[31] To return to Spain
Spain
against this prevailing wind would have required several months of an arduous sailing technique, called beating, during which food and drinkable water would probably have been exhausted. Instead, Columbus returned home by following the curving trade winds northeastward to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic, where he was able to catch the "westerlies" that blow eastward to the coast of Western Europe. There, in turn, the winds curve southward towards the Iberian Peninsula.[40][41] It is unclear whether Columbus learned about the winds from his own sailing experience or if he had heard about them from others. The corresponding technique for efficient travel in the Atlantic appears to have been exploited first by the Portuguese, who referred to it as the Volta do mar
Volta do mar
("turn of the sea"). Columbus's knowledge of the Atlantic wind patterns was, however, imperfect at the time of his first voyage. By sailing directly due west from the Canary Islands during hurricane season, skirting the so-called horse latitudes of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus risked either being becalmed or running into a tropical cyclone, both of which, by chance, he avoided.[38] Quest for financial support for a voyage

Columbus offers his services to the King of Portugal; Chodowiecki, 17th c.

In 1485, Columbus presented his plans to King John II of Portugal. He proposed that the king equip three sturdy ships and grant Columbus one year's time to sail out into the Atlantic, search for a western route to the Orient, and return. Columbus also requested he be made "Great Admiral
Admiral
of the Ocean", appointed governor of any and all lands he discovered, and given one-tenth of all revenue from those lands. The king submitted Columbus's proposal to his experts, who rejected it. It was their considered opinion that Columbus's estimation of a travel distance of 2,400 miles (3,860 km) was, in fact, far too low.[38] In 1488, Columbus appealed to the court of Portugal
Portugal
once again and, once again, John II invited him to an audience. That meeting also proved unsuccessful, in part because not long afterwards Bartolomeu Dias returned to Portugal
Portugal
with news of his successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa (near the Cape of Good Hope). With an eastern sea route to Asia
Asia
apparently at hand, King John was no longer interested in Columbus's far-fetched project.

Columbus before the Queen, as imagined[42] by Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze, 1843

Columbus traveled from Portugal
Portugal
to both Genoa
Genoa
and Venice, but he received encouragement from neither. He had also dispatched his brother Bartholomew to the court of Henry VII of England
Henry VII of England
to inquire whether the English crown might sponsor his expedition, but also without success. Columbus had sought an audience from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon
Aragon
and Isabella I of Castile, who had united several kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
by marrying and were ruling together. On 1 May 1486, permission having been granted, Columbus presented his plans to Queen Isabella, who, in turn, referred it to a committee. After the passing of much time, the savants of Spain, like their counterparts in Portugal, replied that Columbus had grossly underestimated the distance to Asia. They pronounced the idea impractical and advised their Royal Highnesses to pass on the proposed venture. However, to keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere, and perhaps to keep their options open, the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
gave him an annual allowance of 12,000 maravedis and, in 1489, furnished him with a letter ordering all cities and towns under their domain to provide him food and lodging at no cost.[43] Agreement with the Spanish crown

The Flagship of Columbus and the Fleet of Columbus. 400th Anniversary Issues of 1893. (On ships.)

After continually lobbying at the Spanish court and two years of negotiations, he finally had success in January 1492. Ferdinand and Isabella had just conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian Peninsula, and they received Columbus in Córdoba, in the Alcázar castle. Isabella turned him down on the advice of her confessor. Columbus was leaving town by mule in despair when Ferdinand intervened. Isabella then sent a royal guard to fetch him, and Ferdinand later claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered".[44] In the April 1492 "Capitulations of Santa Fe", King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella promised Columbus that if he succeeded he would be given the rank of Admiral
Admiral
of the Ocean Sea
Ocean Sea
and appointed Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor of all the new lands he could claim for Spain. He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands. He would be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity. Additionally, he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits.[38] Columbus was later arrested in 1500 and dismissed from his posts. He and his sons, Diego and Fernando, then conducted a lengthy series of court cases against the Castilian crown, known as the pleitos colombinos, alleging that the Crown had illegally reneged on its contractual obligations to Columbus and his heirs. The Columbus family had some success in their first litigation, as a judgment of 1511 confirmed Diego's position as Viceroy, but reduced his powers. Diego resumed litigation in 1512, which lasted until 1536, and further disputes continued until 1790.[45] Voyages Main article: Voyages of Christopher Columbus

The voyages of Christopher Columbus

Between 1492 and 1503, Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain
Spain
and the Americas, each voyage being sponsored by the Crown of Castile. These voyages marked the beginning of the European exploration and colonization of the American continents, and are thus of enormous significance in Western history.[12] Columbus always insisted, in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary, that the lands that he visited during those voyages were part of the Asian continent, as previously described by Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and other European travelers.[12] Columbus's refusal to accept that the lands he had visited and claimed for Spain
Spain
were not part of Asia
Asia
might explain, in part, why the American continent was named after the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
and not after Columbus.[46] First voyage

First voyage. Modern place names in black, Columbus's place names in blue

On the evening of 3 August 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships: a larger carrack, the Santa María ex-Gallega ("Galician"), and two smaller caravels, the Pinta ("The Pint", "The Look", or "The Spotted One") and the Santa Clara, nicknamed the Niña
Niña
("Girl") after her owner Juan Niño of Moguer.[47] The monarchs forced the citizens of Palos to contribute to the expedition. The Santa María was owned by Juan de la Cosa and captained by Columbus. The Pinta and the Niña
Niña
were piloted by the Pinzón brothers
Pinzón brothers
(Martín Alonso and Vicente Yáñez).[31] Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands, which belonged to Castile. He restocked provisions and made repairs in Gran Canaria, then departed from San Sebastián de La Gomera
San Sebastián de La Gomera
on 6 September, for what turned out to be a five-week voyage across the ocean. At about 2:00 in the morning of 12 October (21 October, Gregorian Calendar New Style), a lookout on the Pinta, Rodrigo de Triana
Rodrigo de Triana
(also known as Juan Rodríguez Bermeo), spotted land, and immediately alerted the rest of the crew with a shout. Thereupon, the captain of the Pinta, Martín Alonso Pinzón, verified the discovery and alerted Columbus by firing a lombard.[48] Columbus later maintained that he himself had already seen a light on the land a few hours earlier, thereby claiming for himself the lifetime pension promised by Ferdinand and Isabella to the first person to sight land.[31][49] Columbus called the island (in what is now the Bahamas) San Salvador (meaning "Holy Savior"); the natives called it Guanahani. Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is unresolved. Based on primary accounts and on what one would expect from the geographic positions of the islands given Columbus's course, the prime candidates are San Salvador Island
San Salvador Island
(so named in 1925 on the theory that it was Columbus's San Salvador),[50] Samana Cay, and Plana Cays.[31]

Landing of Columbus (12 October 1492), painting by John Vanderlyn

The indigenous people he encountered, the Lucayan, Taíno, or Arawak, were peaceful and friendly. Noting their gold ear ornaments, Columbus took some of the Arawaks prisoner and insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold.[51] From the entry in his journal of 12 October 1492, in which he wrote of them: "Many of the men I have seen have scars on their bodies, and when I made signs to them to find out how this happened, they indicated that people from other nearby islands come to San Salvador to capture them; they defend themselves the best they can. I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them. I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our Lord, I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart, in order that they may learn our language."[52] Columbus noted that their primitive weapons and military tactics made them susceptible to easy conquest, writing, "… these people are very simple in war-like matters … I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased."[53] Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba, where he landed on 28 October. On 22 November, Martín Alonso Pinzón
Martín Alonso Pinzón
took the Pinta on an unauthorized expedition in search of an island called "Babeque" or "Baneque", which the natives had told him was rich in gold. Columbus, for his part, continued to the northern coast of Hispaniola, where he landed on 5 December.[54] There, the Santa María ran aground on Christmas Day 1492 and had to be abandoned. The wreck was used as a target for cannon fire to impress the native peoples.[31] Columbus was received by the native cacique Guacanagari, who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind. Columbus left 39 men, including Luis de Torres, the Converso
Converso
interpreter, who spoke Hebrew and Arabic, and founded the settlement of La Navidad
La Navidad
at the site of present-day Bord de Mer de Limonade, Haiti.[55] Columbus took more natives prisoner and continued his exploration.[51] He kept sailing along the northern coast of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
with a single ship, until he encountered Pinzón and the Pinta on 6 January.

The return of Christopher Columbus; his audience before King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, painting by Eugène Delacroix

"The Letter of Columbus on the Discovery of America" Read by Availle for LibriVox

Audio 00:20:05 (full text)

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On 13 January 1493, Columbus made his last stop of this voyage in the New World, in the Bay of Rincón
Bay of Rincón
at the eastern end of the Samaná Peninsula in northeast Hispaniola.[56] There he encountered the warlike Cigüayos, the only natives who offered violent resistance during his first voyage to the Americas.[57] The Cigüayos refused to trade the amount of bows and arrows that Columbus desired; in the ensuing clash one Ciguayo was stabbed in the buttocks and another wounded with an arrow in his chest.[58] Because of this and because of the Cigüayos' use of arrows, he called the inlet where he met them the Bay of Arrows (or Gulf of Arrows).[59] Columbus kidnapped about 10 to 25 natives and took them back with him (only seven or eight of the natives arrived in Spain
Spain
alive).[60] Columbus headed for Spain
Spain
on the Niña, but a storm separated him from the Pinta, and forced the Niña
Niña
to stop at the island of Santa Maria in the Azores. Half of his crew went ashore to say prayers in a chapel to give thanks for having survived the storm. But while praying, they were imprisoned by the governor of the island, ostensibly on suspicion of being pirates. After a two-day standoff, the prisoners were released, and Columbus again set sail for Spain.[61] Another storm forced him into the port at Lisbon.[31] He anchored next to the King's harbor patrol ship on 4 March 1493 in Portugal. There, he was interviewed by Bartolomeu Dias, who had rounded the Cape of Good Hope a few years earlier, in 1488–1489. Dias's success had complicated Columbus's attempts to secure funding from the Portuguese court because the sure route to the Indies
Indies
that Dias pioneered made a risky, conjectural western route unnecessary.[31] Not finding King John II of Portugal
Portugal
in Lisbon, Columbus wrote a letter to him and waited for John's reply. John asked Columbus to go to Vale do Paraíso north of Lisbon
Lisbon
to meet him. Relations between Portugal
Portugal
and Castile were poor at the time. Columbus went to meet with John at Vale do Paraíso. Hearing of Columbus's discoveries, John told him that he believed the voyage to be in violation of the 1479 Treaty of Alcáçovas. After spending more than a week in Portugal, and paying his respects to Eleanor of Viseu, Columbus again set sail for Spain. Ferdinand Magellan was a young boy and a ward of Eleanor's court; it is likely he saw Columbus during this visit.[31] After departing, and after reportedly being saved from assassins by King John, Columbus crossed the bar of Saltes and entered the harbor of Palos de la Frontera
Palos de la Frontera
on 15 March 1493. Word of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. Second voyage

Columbus's second voyage

Columbus left the port of Cádiz
Cádiz
on 24 September 1493, with a fleet of 17 ships carrying 1,200 men and the supplies to establish permanent colonies in the New World. The passengers included priests, farmers, and soldiers, who would be the new colonists. This reflected the new policy of creating not just "colonies of exploitation", but also "colonies of settlement" from which to launch missions dedicated to converting the natives to Christianity.[62] Modern studies suggest that, as reported by the Washington Post, "crew members may have included free black Africans who arrived in the New World
New World
about a decade before the slave trade began."[63] As in the first voyage, the fleet stopped at the Canary Islands, from which it departed on 13 October, following a more southerly course than on the previous expedition. On 3 November, Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica
Dominica
( Latin
Latin
for Sunday); later that day, he landed at Marie-Galante, which he named Santa María la Galante. After sailing past Les Saintes
Les Saintes
(Los Santos, "The Saints"), he arrived at the island of Guadeloupe, which he named Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura, after the image of the Virgin Mary venerated at the Spanish monastery of Villuercas, in Guadalupe, Cáceres, Spain. He explored that island from 4 to 10 November. Michele da Cuneo, Columbus's childhood friend from Savona, sailed with Columbus during the second voyage and wrote: "In my opinion, since Genoa
Genoa
was Genoa, there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in the art of navigation as the said lord Admiral."[64] Columbus named the small island of "Saona ... to honor Michele da Cuneo, his friend from Savona."[65] The same childhood friend reported in a letter that Columbus had provided one of the captured indigenous women to him. He wrote, "While I was in the boat, I captured a very beautiful Carib woman, whom the said Lord Admiral
Admiral
gave to me. When I had taken her to my cabin she was naked—as was their custom. I was filled with a desire to take my pleasure with her and attempted to satisfy my desire. She was unwilling, and so treated me with her nails that I wished I had never begun. But—to cut a long story short—I then took a piece of rope and whipped her soundly, and she let forth such incredible screams that you would not have believed your ears. Eventually we came to such terms, I assure you, that you would have thought that she had been brought up in a school for whores."[66]

The Inspiration of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
by José María Obregón, 1856

Pedro de las Casas, father of the priest Bartolomé de las Casas, also accompanied Columbus on this voyage.[67] The exact course of Columbus's voyage through the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands, including:

Montserrat
Montserrat
(for Santa María de Montserrate, after the Blessed Virgin of the Monastery of Montserrat, which is located on the Mountain of Montserrat, in Catalonia, Spain), Antigua
Antigua
(after a church in Seville, Spain, called Santa María la Antigua, meaning "Old St. Mary's"), Redonda
Redonda
(Santa María la Redonda, Spanish for "St. Mary the Round", owing to the island's shape), Nevis
Nevis
(derived from the Spanish Nuestra Señora de las Nieves, "Our Lady of the Snows", because Columbus thought the clouds over Nevis Peak made the island resemble a snow-capped mountain), Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
(for St. Christopher, patron of sailors and travelers), Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
(for the early Roman martyr, St. Eustachius), Saba
Saba
(after the Biblical Queen of Sheba), Saint Martin
Saint Martin
(San Martín), and Saint Croix
Saint Croix
(from the Spanish Santa Cruz, meaning "Holy Cross").[citation needed]

Columbus also sighted the chain of the Virgin Islands, which he named Islas de Santa Úrsula y las Once Mil Vírgenes, "Islands of Saint Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins" (shortened, both on maps of the time and in common parlance, to Islas Vírgenes). He also named the islands of Virgin Gorda
Virgin Gorda
("Fat Virgin"), Tortola, and Peter Island
Peter Island
(San Pedro). He continued to the Greater Antilles, and landed in Puerto Rico, which he named San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist
Saint John the Baptist
(a name that was later retained only for the capital city of San Juan). One of the first skirmishes between Native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings[68] occurred when Columbus's men rescued two native boys who had just been castrated by their captors in another tribe. On 22 November, Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit the fort of La Navidad, built during his first voyage and located on the northern coast of Haiti. Columbus found the fort in ruins, destroyed by the native Taino people.[69] Among the ruins were the corpses of 11 of the 39 Spaniards who had stayed behind as the first colonists in the New World. Columbus then sailed more than 100 kilometres (62 miles) eastwards along the northern coast of Hispaniola, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela, in the present-day Dominican Republic.[70] However, La Isabela
La Isabela
proved to be poorly located and the settlement was short-lived. Third voyage

Third voyage

According to the abstract of Columbus's journal made by Bartolomé de Las Casas, the objective of the third voyage was to verify the existence of a continent that King John II of Portugal
Portugal
suggested was located to the southwest of the Cape Verde
Cape Verde
Islands. King John reportedly knew of the existence of such a mainland because "canoes had been found which set out from the coast of Guinea [West Africa] and sailed to the west with merchandise."[71][72] On 30 May 1498, Columbus left with six ships from Sanlúcar, Spain, for his third trip to the New World. Three of the ships headed directly for Hispaniola
Hispaniola
with much-needed supplies, while Columbus took the other three in an exploration of what might lie to the south of the Caribbean islands he had already visited, including a hoped-for passage to continental Asia.[73] Columbus led his fleet to the Portuguese island of Porto Santo, his wife's native land. He then sailed to Madeira
Madeira
and spent some time there with the Portuguese captain João Gonçalves da Camara, before sailing to the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
and Cape Verde. As he crossed the Atlantic, Columbus discovered that the angle between North as indicated by a magnetic compass and North as measured by the position of the pole star changed with his position (a phenomenon now known as "compass variation"). He would later use his previous measurements of the compass variation to adjust his reckoning.[7] After being becalmed for several days in the doldrums of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus's fleet regained its wind and, dangerously low on water, turned north in the direction of Dominica, which Columbus had visited in his previous voyage. The ships arrived at King John's hypothesized continent, which is South America, when they sighted the land of Trinidad
Trinidad
on 31 July approaching from the southeast.[74] The fleet sailed along the southern coast and entered Dragon's Mouth, anchoring near Soldado Rock
Soldado Rock
where they made contact with a group of native Amerindians in canoes.[75] Columbus then landed on Trinidad
Trinidad
at Icacos Point
Icacos Point
(which he named Punta de Arenal) on 2 August.[76] After resupplying with food and water, from 4 to 12 August Columbus explored the Gulf of Paria, which separates Trinidad
Trinidad
from what is now Venezuela, near the delta of the Orinoco River. He then touched the mainland of South America
South America
at the Paria Peninsula. Exploring the new continent, Columbus correctly interpreted the enormous quantity of fresh water that the Orinoco delivered into the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
as evidence that he had reached a large landmass rather than another island. As he sailed the Gulf of Paria, he observed the diurnal rotation of the pole star in the sky, which he erroneously interpreted as evidence that the Earth was not perfectly spherical, but rather bulged out like a pear around the new-found continent.[7] He also speculated that the new continent might be the location of the biblical Garden of Eden. He then sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita. He sighted Tobago
Tobago
(which he named "Bella Forma") and Grenada
Grenada
(which he named "Concepción"). In poor health, Columbus returned to Hispaniola
Hispaniola
on 19 August, only to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were in rebellion against his rule, claiming that Columbus had misled them about the supposedly bountiful riches of the New World. A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement. Columbus had some of his crew hanged for disobedience. He had an economic interest in the enslavement of the Hispaniola
Hispaniola
natives and for that reason was not eager to baptize them, which attracted criticism from some churchmen.[77] An entry in his journal from September 1498 reads: "From here one might send, in the name of the Holy Trinity, as many slaves as could be sold ..."[citation needed] Columbus was eventually forced to make peace with the rebellious colonists on humiliating terms.[78] In 1500, the Crown had him removed as governor, arrested, and transported in chains to Spain
Spain
(see "Accusations of tyranny during governorship" section below). He was eventually freed and allowed to return to the New World, but not as governor. Fourth voyage

Columbus's fourth voyage

Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms
granted to Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and the House of Colon by Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
motu proprio in 1502.

Before leaving for his fourth voyage, Columbus wrote a letter to the Governors of the Bank of Saint George, Genoa, dated at Seville, 2 April 1502.[79] He wrote "Although my body is here my heart is always near you."[80] Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean. Accompanied by his brother Bartolomeo and his 13-year-old son Fernando, he left Cádiz
Cádiz
on 11 May 1502, with his flagship Santa María and the vessels Gallega, Vizcaína, and Santiago de Palos. He sailed to Arzila
Arzila
on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors. On 15 June, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique (Martinica). A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola. He arrived at Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
on 29 June, but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction. Instead, while Columbus's ships sheltered at the mouth of the Rio Jaina, the first Spanish treasure fleet
Spanish treasure fleet
sailed into the hurricane. Columbus's ships survived with only minor damage, while 29 of the 30 ships in the governor's fleet were lost to a storm on 1 July. In addition to the ships, 500 lives (including that of the governor, Francisco de Bobadilla) and an immense cargo of gold were surrendered to the sea. After a brief stop at Jamaica, Columbus sailed to Central America, arriving at Guanaja
Guanaja
(Isla de Pinos) in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras
Honduras
on 30 July. Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe, which was described as being "long as a galley" and filled with cargo. On 14 August, he landed on the continental mainland at Puerto Castilla, near Trujillo, Honduras. He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, before arriving in Almirante Bay in Panama
Panama
on 16 October. On 5 December 1502, Columbus and his crew found themselves in a storm unlike any they had ever experienced. In his journal Columbus writes,

For nine days I was as one lost, without hope of life. Eyes never beheld the sea so angry, so high, so covered with foam. The wind not only prevented our progress, but offered no opportunity to run behind any headland for shelter; hence we were forced to keep out in this bloody ocean, seething like a pot on a hot fire. Never did the sky look more terrible; for one whole day and night it blazed like a furnace, and the lightning broke with such violence that each time I wondered if it had carried off my spars and sails; the flashes came with such fury and frightfulness that we all thought that the ship would be blasted. All this time the water never ceased to fall from the sky; I do not say it rained, for it was like another deluge. The men were so worn out that they longed for death to end their dreadful suffering.[81]

Columbus awes the Jamaican natives by predicting the lunar eclipse of 1504.

In Panama, Columbus learned from the Ngobe
Ngobe
of gold and a strait to another ocean, but was told by local leader Quibían not to go past a certain point down the river. After much exploration, in January 1503, he established a garrison at the mouth of the Belén River. On 6 April, one of the ships became stranded in the river. At the same time, the garrison was attacked by Quibían and the other ships were damaged. Shipworms also damaged the ships in tropical waters.[82] Columbus left for Hispaniola
Hispaniola
on 16 April heading north. On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands, naming them "Las Tortugas" after the numerous sea turtles there. His ships next sustained more damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. Unable to travel farther, on 25 June 1503 they were beached in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica. For one year Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica. A Spaniard, Diego Méndez, and some natives paddled a canoe to get help from Hispaniola. The governor, Nicolás de Ovando
Nicolás de Ovando
y Cáceres, detested Columbus and obstructed all efforts to rescue him and his men. In the meantime Columbus, in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men, won their favor by predicting a lunar eclipse for 29 February 1504, using Abraham Zacuto's astronomical charts.[83][84][85] Help finally arrived, no thanks to the governor, on 29 June 1504, and Columbus and his men arrived in Sanlúcar, Spain, on 7 November. Accusations of tyranny Following his first voyage, Columbus was appointed Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor of the Indies
Governor of the Indies
under the terms of the Capitulations of Santa Fe. In practice, this primarily entailed the administration of the colonies in the island of Hispaniola, whose capital was established in Santo Domingo. By the end of his third voyage, Columbus was physically and mentally exhausted, his body wracked by arthritis and his eyes by ophthalmia. In October 1499, he sent two ships to Spain, asking the Court of Spain
Spain
to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern. By this time, accusations of tyranny and incompetence on the part of Columbus had also reached the Court. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand responded by removing Columbus from power and replacing him with Francisco de Bobadilla, a member of the Order of Calatrava. Bobadilla, who ruled as governor from 1500 until his death in a storm in 1502, had also been tasked by the Court with investigating the accusations of brutality made against Columbus. Arriving in Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
while Columbus was away in the explorations of his third voyage, Bobadilla was immediately met with complaints about all three Columbus brothers: Christopher, Bartolomeo, and Diego. Bobadilla reported to Spain
Spain
that Columbus regularly used torture and mutilation to govern Hispaniola. The 48-page report, found in 2006 in the national archive in the Spanish city of Simancas, contains testimonies from 23 people, including both enemies and supporters of Columbus, about the treatment of colonial subjects by Columbus and his brothers during his seven-year rule.[86] According to the report, Columbus once punished a man found guilty of stealing corn by having his ears and nose cut off and then selling him into slavery. Testimony recorded in the report stated that Columbus congratulated his brother Bartolomeo on "defending the family" when the latter ordered a woman paraded naked through the streets and then had her tongue cut out for suggesting that Columbus was of lowly birth.[86] The document also describes how Columbus put down native unrest and revolt; he first ordered a brutal crackdown in which many natives were killed and then paraded their dismembered bodies through the streets in an attempt to discourage further rebellion.[87] "Columbus's government was characterised by a form of tyranny," Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian who has seen the document, told journalists.[86] "Even those who loved him had to admit the atrocities that had taken place."[86] Because of their gross misgovernance, Columbus and his brothers were arrested and imprisoned upon their return to Spain
Spain
from the third voyage. They lingered in jail for six weeks before King Ferdinand ordered their release. Not long after, the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to the Alhambra
Alhambra
palace in Granada. There, the royal couple heard the brothers' pleas; restored their freedom and wealth; and, after much persuasion, agreed to fund Columbus's fourth voyage. But the door was firmly shut on Columbus's role as governor. Henceforth Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres
Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres
was to be the new governor of the West Indies. Later life

Replica of the Santa María, Columbus's flagship during his first voyage, at his Valladolid
Valladolid
house[88]

Columbus had always claimed the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, but he grew increasingly religious in his later years. Probably with the assistance of his son Diego and his friend the Carthusian
Carthusian
monk Gaspar Gorricio, Columbus produced two books during his later years: a Book of Privileges (1502), detailing and documenting the rewards from the Spanish Crown to which he believed he and his heirs were entitled, and a Book of Prophecies (1505), in which he considered his achievements as an explorer but a fulfillment of Bible prophecy
Bible prophecy
in the context of Christian eschatology.[12][89] In his later years, Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10 percent of all profits made in the new lands, as stipulated in the Capitulations of Santa Fe. Because he had been relieved of his duties as governor, the crown did not feel bound by that contract and his demands were rejected. After his death, his heirs sued the Crown for a part of the profits from trade with America, as well as other rewards. This led to a protracted series of legal disputes known as the pleitos colombinos ("Columbian lawsuits"). Illness and death

The death of Columbus, lithograph by L. Prang & Co., 1893

During a violent storm on his first return voyage, Columbus, then 41, suffered an attack of what was believed at the time to be gout. In subsequent years, he was plagued with what was thought to be influenza and other fevers, bleeding from the eyes, and prolonged attacks of gout. The suspected attacks increased in duration and severity, sometimes leaving Columbus bedridden for months at a time, and culminated in his death 14 years later.

Tomb in Seville
Seville
Cathedral. The remains are borne by kings of Castile, Leon, Aragon
Aragon
and Navarre.[90]

Based on Columbus's lifestyle and the described symptoms, modern doctors suspect that he suffered from Reactive arthritis, rather than gout.[91][92] Reactive arthritis, previously known as Reiter's syndrome, is a joint inflammation caused by intestinal bacterial infections or after acquiring certain sexually transmitted diseases (primarily chlamydia or gonorrhea). "It seems likely that [Columbus] acquired reactive arthritis from food poisoning on one of his ocean voyages because of poor sanitation and improper food preparation," writes Dr. Frank C. Arnett, a rheumatologist and professor of internal medicine, pathology and laboratory medicine the University of Texas Medical School at Houston.[91] On 20 May 1506, aged probably 54, Columbus died in Valladolid, Spain. His remains were first interred at Valladolid, then at the monastery of La Cartuja
La Cartuja
in Seville
Seville
(southern Spain) by the will of his son Diego Colón, who had been governor of Hispaniola. In 1542, the remains were transferred to Colonial Santo Domingo, in the present-day Dominican Republic. In 1795, when France took over the entire island of Hispaniola, Columbus's remains were moved to Havana, Cuba. After Cuba became independent following the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
in 1898, the remains were moved back to Spain, to the Cathedral of Seville,[93] where they were placed on an elaborate catafalque.

Tomb in Columbus Lighthouse, Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
Este, Dominican Republic.

Silver Caravel. Ashes of Christopher Columbus[94]

However, a lead box bearing an inscription identifying "Don Christopher Columbus" and containing bone fragments and a bullet was discovered at Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
in 1877. To lay to rest claims that the wrong relics had been moved to Havana
Havana
and that Columbus's remains had been left buried in the cathedral at Santo Domingo, DNA
DNA
samples of the corpse resting in Seville
Seville
were taken in June 2003 (History Today August 2003) as well as other DNA
DNA
samples from the remains of his brother Diego and younger son Fernando Colón. Initial observations suggested that the bones did not appear to belong to somebody with the physique or age at death associated with Columbus.[95] DNA
DNA
extraction proved difficult; only short fragments of mitochondrial DNA
DNA
could be isolated. The mitochondrial DNA
DNA
fragments matched corresponding DNA from Columbus's brother, giving support that both individuals had shared the same mother.[96] Such evidence, together with anthropologic and historic analyses, led the researchers to conclude that the remains found in Seville
Seville
belonged to Christopher Columbus.[97] The authorities in Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
have never allowed the remains there to be exhumed, so it is unknown if any of those remains could be from Columbus's body as well.[96][97] The Dominican remains are located in "The Columbus Lighthouse" (Faro a Colón), in Santo Domingo. Commemoration The anniversary of Columbus's 1492 landing in the Americas
Americas
is usually observed on 12 October in Spain
Spain
and throughout the Americas, except Canada. In Spain
Spain
it is called the Fiesta Nacional de España y Día de la Hispanidad, while a number of countries in Latin
Latin
America celebrate it as Día de la Raza. In the United States it is called Columbus Day and is observed annually on the second Monday in October.

U.S. Columbian Issue
Columbian Issue
of 1893.

The World Columbian Exposition
World Columbian Exposition
in Chicago, 1893, commemorated the 400th anniversary of the landing of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in the Americas.[98] Over 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month duration. The United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
participated in the celebration issuing the first US commemorative postage stamps, a series of 16 postage issues called the Columbian Issue
Columbian Issue
depicting Columbus, Queen Isabella and others in the various stages of his several voyages. The issues range in value from the 1-cent to the 5-dollar denominations. Under Benjamin Harrison and his Postmaster General John Wanamaker
John Wanamaker
the Columbian commemorative stamps were made available and were first issued at the World Columbian Exposition
World Columbian Exposition
in Chicago, Illinois, in 1893. Wanamaker originally introduced the idea of issuing the nation's first commemorative stamp to Harrison, the Congress and the U.S. Post Office. To demonstrate his confidence in the new Columbian commemorative issues Wanamaker purchased $10,000 worth of stamps with his own money. The Columbian Exposition lasted several months, and over $40 million in commemorative postage stamps had been sold.[99] The 400th anniversary Columbian issues were very popular in the United States. A total of two billion stamps were issued for all the Columbian denominations, and 72 percent of these were the two-cent stamps, "Landing of Columbus", which paid the first-class rate for domestic mail at the time.[100] In 1992, a second Columbian issue was released that was identical to the first to commemorate the 500th anniversary, except for the date in the upper right hand corner of each stamp. These issues were made from the original dies of which the first engraved issues of 1893 were produced. The United States issued the series jointly for the first time with three other countries, Italy in lire, Portugal
Portugal
in escudos and Spain
Spain
in pesetas.[101] Legacy Further information: Columbian Exchange Discoverer

Columbus Lighthouse
Columbus Lighthouse
(Faro a Colón), Santo Domingo[102]

Though Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
came to be considered the "discoverer of America" in US and European popular culture, his true historical legacy is more nuanced. America was first discovered by its indigenous population, and Columbus was not even the first European to reach its shores, as he was preceded by the Vikings
Vikings
at L'Anse aux Meadows. But the lasting significance of Columbus's voyages outshone that of his Viking predecessors, because he managed to bring word of the continent back to Europe. By bringing the continent to the forefront of Western attention, Columbus initiated the enduring relationship between the Earth's two major landmasses and their inhabitants. "Columbus's claim to fame isn't that he got there first," explains historian Martin Dugard, "it's that he stayed."[103] Historians have traditionally argued that Columbus remained convinced to the very end that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia,[104] but writer Kirkpatrick Sale argues that a document in the Book of Privileges indicates Columbus knew he found a new continent.[105] Furthermore, his journals from the third voyage call the "land of Paria" a "hitherto unknown" continent.[106] On the other hand, his other writings continued to claim that he had reached Asia, such as a 1502 letter to Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
where he asserted that Cuba was the east coast of Asia.[107] He also rationalized that the new continent of South America
South America
was the "Earthly Paradise" that was located "at the end of the Orient".[106] Thus, it remains unclear what his true beliefs were. The term "pre-Columbian" is usually used to refer to the peoples and cultures of the Americas
Americas
before the arrival of Columbus and his European successors. Flat Earth
Flat Earth
mythology Columbus is often credited with refuting a prevalent belief in a flat Earth. However, this legacy is a popular misconception. To the contrary, the spherical shape of the Earth had been known to scholars since antiquity, and was common knowledge among sailors. Coincidentally, the oldest surviving globe of the Earth, the Erdapfel, was made in 1492 just before Columbus's return to Europe. As such it contains no sign of the Americas
Americas
and yet demonstrates the common belief in a spherical Earth.[108] America as a distinct land

Replicas of Niña, Pinta and Santa María sailed from Spain
Spain
to the Chicago Columbian Exposition

Columbus monument near the state capitol in Denver, Colorado[109]

The scholar Amerigo Vespucci, who sailed to America in the years following Columbus's first voyage, was the first to speculate that the land was not part of Asia
Asia
but in fact constituted some wholly new continent previously unknown to Eurasians. His travel journals, published 1502–04, convinced German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller to reach the same conclusion, and in 1507—a year after Columbus's death—Waldseemüller published a world map calling the new continent America from Vespucci's Latinized name "Americus". According to Paul Lunde, "The preoccupation of European courts with the rise of the Ottoman Turks in the East partly explains their relative lack of interest in Columbus's discoveries in the West."[110] Historically, the English had downplayed Columbus and emphasized the role of the Venetian John Cabot
John Cabot
as a pioneer explorer, but for the emerging United States, Cabot made for a poor national hero. Veneration of Columbus in America dates back to colonial times. The name Columbia for "America" first appeared in a 1738 weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament.[111] The use of Columbus as a founding figure of New World
New World
nations and the use of the word "Columbia", or simply the name "Columbus", spread rapidly after the American Revolution. Columbus's name was given to the federal capital of the United States (District of Columbia), the capital cities of two U.S. states ( Ohio
Ohio
and South Carolina), and the Columbia River. Outside the United States the name was used in 1819 for the Gran Colombia, a precursor of the modern Republic of Colombia. Numerous cities, towns, counties, streets, and plazas (called Plaza Colón or Plaza de Colón throughout Latin
Latin
America and Spain) have been named after him. A candidate for sainthood in the Catholic Church in 1866, celebration of Columbus's legacy perhaps reached a zenith in 1892 with the 400th anniversary of his first arrival in the Americas. Monuments to Columbus like the Columbian Exposition in Chicago and Columbus Circle
Columbus Circle
in New York City were erected throughout the United States and Latin
Latin
America extolling him. In 1909, descendants of Columbus undertook to dismantle the Columbus family chapel in Spain
Spain
and move it to Boalsburg
Boalsburg
near State College, Pennsylvania, where it may now be visited by the public.[112] At the museum associated with the chapel, there are a number of Columbus relics worthy of note, including the armchair that the " Admiral
Admiral
of the Ocean Sea" used at his chart table. Criticism in modern scholarship

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More recent views of Columbus have been critical of his colonization and treatment of natives.[113][114][115] Among reasons for this criticism is the treatment and disappearance of the native Taíno people of Hispaniola, where Columbus began a rudimentary tribute system of gold and cotton. The people disappeared rapidly after contact with the Spanish because of overwork and the first pandemic of European diseases, which struck Hispaniola
Hispaniola
after 1519.[116][117] Las Casas records that when he first came to Hispaniola
Hispaniola
in 1508, "there were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it...."[118] Modern estimates for the pre-Columbian population of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
are around 250,000–300,000. According to the historian Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes
Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes
by 1548, 56 years after Columbus landed, fewer than five hundred Taínos were left on the island.[119] The native Taíno people
Taíno people
of the island were systematically enslaved via the encomienda system implemented by Columbus,[120] which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe.[121] Disease played a significant role in the destruction of the natives. Indirect evidence suggests that some serious illness may have arrived with the 1500 colonists who accompanied Columbus's second expedition in 1493. By the end of 1494, disease and famine had claimed two-thirds of the Spanish settlers.[117][122] When the pandemic finally struck in 1519 it wiped out much of the remaining native population.[123][124] Columbus's soldiers killed and enslaved with impunity at every landing. When Columbus fell ill in 1495, "what little restraint he had maintained over his men disappeared as he went through a lengthy period of recuperation. The troops went wild, stealing, killing, raping, and torturing natives, trying to force them to divulge the whereabouts of the imagined treasure-houses of gold." According to Las Casas, 50,000 natives perished during this period. Upon his recovery, Columbus organized his troops' efforts, forming a squadron of several hundred heavily armed men and more than twenty attack dogs. The men tore across the land, killing thousands of sick and unarmed natives. Soldiers would use their captives for sword practice, attempting to decapitate them or cut them in half with a single blow.[125] The historian Howard Zinn
Howard Zinn
writes that Columbus spearheaded a massive slave trade; in 1495 his men captured in a single raid 1500 Arawak men, women, and children. When he shipped five hundred of the slaves to Spain, 40 percent died en route.[51] Historian James W. Loewen asserts that "Columbus not only sent the first slaves across the Atlantic, he probably sent more slaves – about five thousand – than any other individual... other nations rushed to emulate Columbus."[60] Las Casas writes that when slaves held in captivity began to die at high rates, Columbus switched to a different system of forced labor: he ordered all natives over the age of thirteen to collect a specified amount (one hawk's bell full) of gold powder every three months. Natives who brought the amount were given a copper token to hang around their necks, and those found without tokens had their hands amputated and were left to bleed to death.[51][126] The Arawaks attempted to fight back against Columbus's men but lacked their armor, guns, swords, and horses. When taken prisoner, they were hanged or burned to death. Desperation led to mass suicides and infanticide among the natives. In just two years under Columbus's governorship more than half of the 250,000 Arawaks in Haiti
Haiti
were dead.[51] The main cause for the depopulation was disease followed by other causes such as warfare and harsh enslavement.[127] [128] [129] Samuel Eliot Morison, a Harvard historian and author of a multivolume biography on Columbus writes, "The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and pursued by his successors resulted in complete genocide."[130] Loewen laments that while " Haiti
Haiti
under the Spanish is one of the primary instances of genocide in all human history", only one major history text he reviewed mentions Columbus's role in it.[131] However some of these accounts may be part of Black Legend.[132][133][134] Noble David Cook, writing about the Black Legend and the conquest of the Americas
Americas
wrote, "There were too few Spaniards to have killed the millions who were reported to have died in the first century after Old and New World
New World
contact". He instead estimates that the death toll was caused by diseases like smallpox,[135] which according to some estimates had an 80–90% fatality rate in Native American populations.[136] There is evidence that the men of the first voyage also brought syphilis from the New World
New World
to Europe.[137] Many of the crew members who served on this voyage later joined the army of King Charles VIII in his invasion of Italy in 1495. After the victory, Charles's largely mercenary army returned to their respective homes, thereby spreading "the Great Pox" across Europe and triggering the deaths of more than five million people.[138] Physical appearance

In The Virgin of the Navigators, 1531–36

Although an abundance of artwork involving Christopher Columbus exists, no authentic contemporary portrait has been found.[139] James W. Loewen, author of Lies My Teacher Told Me, believes the various posthumous portraits have no historical value.[140] Sometime between 1531 and 1536, Alejo Fernández
Alejo Fernández
painted an altarpiece, The Virgin of the Navigators, that includes a depiction of Columbus. The painting was commissioned for a chapel in Seville's Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) and remains there, as the earliest known painting about the discovery of the Americas.[141][142] At the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 71 alleged portraits of Columbus were displayed; most did not match contemporary descriptions.[143] These writings describe him as having reddish or blond hair, which turned to white early in his life, light colored eyes,[144] as well as being a lighter-skinned person with too much sun exposure turning his face red. Accounts consistently describe Columbus as a large and physically strong man of some six feet (1.83 metres) or more in height, easily taller than the average European of his day.[145] The most iconic image of Columbus is a portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo, which has been reproduced in many textbooks. It agrees with descriptions of Columbus in that it shows a large man with auburn hair, but the painting dates from 1519 and cannot, therefore, have been painted from life. Furthermore, the inscription identifying the subject as Columbus was probably added later, and the face shown differs from other images, including that of the "Virgin of the Navigators."[146]

See also

Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in fiction Egg of Columbus Indigenous Peoples' Day Monument and memorial controversies in the United States#Christopher Columbus

Notes

^ In other relevant languages:

Italian: Cristoforo Colombo [kriˈstɔːforo koˈlombo] Ligurian: Cristoffa Corombo Spanish: Cristóbal Colón Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo Catalan: Cristòfor (or Cristòfol) Colom Latin: Christophorus Columbus

^ "Even with less than a complete record, however, scholars can state with assurance that Columbus was born in the republic of Genoa
Genoa
in northern Italy, although perhaps not in the city itself, and that his family made a living in the wool business as weavers and merchants. ... The two main early biographies of Columbus have been taken as literal truth by hundreds of writers, in large part because they were written by individuals closely connected to Columbus or his writings. ... Both biographies have serious shortcomings as evidence." ^ About 10,600 nautical miles

References

^ Lester, Paul Martin. "Looks Are Deceiving: the Portraits of Christopher Columbus." Visual Anthropology, Vol. 5, 1993, Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH. pp. 211-227. Portraits may be seen here: Portraits of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
– Columbus Monuments Pages. Vanderkrogt. ^  Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Columbus, Diego. The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.  – The names Giacomo and Diego are cognates, along with James, all sharing a common origin. See Behind the Name, Mike Campbell, pages Giacomo, Diego, and James. All retrieved 2017-02-03. ^ "Columbus". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ a b c d e Beazley 1911, p. 741. ^ "History – Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
(11th century)". BBC. Retrieved 12 October 2015.  ^ "Why Do We Celebrate Columbus Day
Columbus Day
and Not Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day?". National Geographic. 11 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.  ^ a b c d " Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
(Italian explorer)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. ^ Hoxie, Frederick (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-395-66921-1.  ^ Herbst, Philip (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ Wilton, David (2 December 2004). Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends. Oxford University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0-19-517284-3.  ^ Phillips, Jr 1992, p. 9. ^ a b c d e Encyclopædia Britannica, 1993 ed., Vol. 16, pp. 605ff / Morison, Christopher Columbus, 1955 ed., pp. 14ff ^ Bergreen, Lawrence (2012). Columbus The Four Voyages, 1493–1504. Penguin Group US. ISBN 978-0-14-312210-4.  ^ Rime diverse, Pavia, 1595, p. 117 ^ Tasso, Torquato (1755). Ra Gerusalemme deliverâ. Genoa: Ra Stamparia de Tarigo. p. –32. Retrieved 2 February 2012.  ^ Çittara zeneize – Regole d'Ortografia, Genoa, 1745 ^ Consulta ligure, Vocabolario delle parlate liguri, SAGEP, 1982, ISBN 88-7058-044-X ^ The Daily Telegraph, 14 October 2009, Georgetown University team led by Professor Estelle Irizarry claims that Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
was Catalan ^ da Silva, Manuel Luciano and Silvia Jorge da Silva, 2008. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
was Portuguese. Express Printers, Fall River. ISBN 978-1-60702-824-6. ^ Davidson 1997, p. 3. ^ Phillips, Jr 1992, p. 85. ^ "Christopher Columbus". Archived from the original on 23 March 2002. . Thomas C. Tirado, PhD Professor History. Millersville University. ^ "It is most probable that Columbus visited Bristol, where he was introduced to English commerce with Iceland." Bedini, Silvio A. and David Buisseret (1992). The Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
encyclopedia, Volume 1, University of Michigan Press, republished by Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-13-142670-2, p. 175 ^ Freitas, Antonio Maria de (1893). The Wife of Columbus: With Genealogical Tree of the Perestrello and Moniz Families. New York: Stettinger, Lambert & Co.  ^ Paolo Emilio Taviani, "Beatriz Arana" in The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia, vol. 1, p. 24. New York: Simon and Schuster 1992. ^ " Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Biography". Columbus-day.123holiday.net. p. 2. Retrieved 29 July 2009.  ^ Taviani, "Beatriz Arana" in The Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Encyclopedia, vol. 1, pp. 24–25. ^ Morgan, Edmund S. (2009). "Columbus' Confusion About the New World". Smithsonian Magazine.  ^ " Marco Polo
Marco Polo
et le Livre des Merveilles", p. 37. ISBN 978-2-35404-007-9 ^ Charles R. Boxer (1951). The Christian Century in Japan: 1549–1650. University of California Press. p. 2. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Murphy, Patrick J.; Coye, Ray W. (2013). Mutiny and Its Bounty: Leadership Lessons from the Age of Discovery. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17028-3. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Boller, Paul F (1995). Not So!: Popular Myths about America from Columbus to Clinton. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509186-1.  ^ Russell, Jeffrey Burton 1991. Inventing the Flat Earth. Columbus and modern historians, Praeger, New York, Westport, London 1991; Zinn, Howard 1980. A People's History of the United States, HarperCollins 2001. p. 2 ^ See, e.g. "Mariner's Astrolabe", Navigation Museum, Institute of Navigation ^ Sagan, Carl. Cosmos; the mean circumference of the Earth is 40,041.47 km (24,881 mi). ^ Morison (1942, pp. 65, 93). ^ Journal article:- Christopher Columbus. An address delivered before the American Catholic Historical Society [1] ^ a b c d Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral
Admiral
of the Ocean Sea: The Life of Christopher Columbus, (Boston: Atlantic-Little, Brown, 1942). Reissued by the Morison Press, 2007. ISBN 1-4067-5027-1 ^ Phillips, Jr 1992, p. 110. ^ "The First Voyage Log". Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2008.  ^ "Trade Winds and the Hadley Cell". Retrieved 18 April 2008.  ^ The Brooklyn Museum catalogue notes that the most likely source for Leutze's trio of Columbus paintings is Washington Irving's best-selling Life and Voyages of Columbus (1828). ^ Durant, Will The Story of Civilization vol. vi, "The Reformation". Chapter XIII, p. 260. ^ Phillips, Jr 1992, p. 132. ^ Mark McDonald, "Ferdinand Columbus, Renaissance Collector (1488–1539)", 2005, British Museum Press, ISBN 978-0-7141-2644-9 ^ "The Naming of America". Umc.sunysb.edu. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2011.  ^ "THE ORIGINAL NIÑA". The Niña
Niña
& Pinta. British Virgin Islands: The Columbus Foundation. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  ^ Morison (1942, p. 226); Lopez, (1990, p. 14); Columbus & Toscanelli (2010, p. 35) ^ Lopez, (1990, p. 15) ^ William D. Phillips Jr., 'Columbus, Christopher', in David Buisseret (ed.), The Oxford Companion to World Exploration, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, online edition 2012). ^ a b c d e Zinn, Howard (2003). A People's History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 1–22. ISBN 0-06-052837-0.  ^ Robert H. Fuson, ed., The Log of Christopher Columbus, Tab Books, 1992, International Marine Publishing, ISBN 0-87742-316-4. ^ Columbus (1991, p. 87). Or "… these people are very simple as regards the use of arms … for with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them." (Columbus & Toscanelli, 2010, p. 41) ^ Keith A. Pickering. "The First Voyage of Columbus". Archived from the original on 7 March 2012.  ^ Maclean, Frances (January 2008). "The Lost Fort of Columbus". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 24 January 2008.  ^ Fuson, Robert. The Log of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
(Camden, International Marine, 1987) 173. ^ Yewell, John; Chris Dodge (1992). Confronting Columbus: An Anthology. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 33. ISBN 0-89950-696-8. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ Markham, Clements R. (1893). The Journal of Christopher Columbus. London: Hakluyt Society. pp. 159–160. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ Oliver Dunn and James Kelly. The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America (London: University of Oklahoma Press), 333–343. ^ a b Loewen 1995. ^ Catz, Rebecca (1 January 1990). "Columbus in the Azores". Portuguese Studies. 6: 17–23. JSTOR 41104900.  ^ Baccus, M. Kazim Utilization, Misuse, and Development of Human Resources in the Early West Indian Colonies, Wilfrid Laurier University Press (2 January 2000) ISBN 978-0-88920-982-4 pp. 6–7 ^ "Who Went With Columbus? Dental Studies Give Clues.". The Washington Post. 18 May 2009. ^ Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Columbus, Oxford Univ. Press, (1991) pp. 103–104 ^ Paolo Emilio Taviani, Columbus the Great Adventure, Orion Books, New York (1991) p. 185 ^ Cohen, J.M. (1969). The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus. NY: Penguin. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-14-044217-5.  ^ Traboulay, David M. (1994). Columbus and Las Casas. University Press of America. p. 48. ISBN 0-8191-9642-8. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ Phillips, Jr 1992. ^ Antonio de la Cova. "The Spanish Conquest of the Tainos". Latin American Studies. Dr. Antonio Rafael de la Cova. Retrieved 10 July 2011.  ^ "Teeth Of Columbus's Crew Flesh Out Tale Of New World
New World
Discovery". ScienceDaily. 20 March 2009. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1963). Journals & Other Documents on the Life & Voyages of Christopher Columbus. New York: The Heritage Press. pp. 262–263.  ^ Thacher, John Boyd (1903). Christopher Columbus: his life, his work, his remains, as revealed by original printed and manuscript records, together with an essay on Peter Martyr of Anghera and Bartolomé De Las Casas, the first Historians of America. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. pp. 379–380.  ^ Christopher Minster, "The Third Voyage of Christopher Columbus" ^ Joseph 1838, p. 124 ^ Joseph 1838, p. 125 ^ Joseph 1838, p. 126 ^ Varela (2006, p. 111) ^ Keith A. Pickering. "The Third Voyage of Columbus, 1498–1500". Archived from the original on 26 September 2011.  ^ 'Letter from Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
to the Governors of the Bank of St. George, Genoa. Dated at Seville, April 2nd, 1502'. Google Books. 1894. Retrieved 10 April 2011.  ^ The authentic letters of Columbus. Google Books. 1894. Retrieved 29 July 2010.  ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral
Admiral
of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Boston, 1942, p. 617. ^ The History Channel. Columbus: The Lost Voyage. ^ Joy Jakim, The First Americans: Prehistory – 1600 A History of US Oxford University Press 2005 ^ Clayton J., Drees, The Late Medieval Age of Crisis and Renewal: 1300–1500 a Biographical Dictionary, 2001, pp. 511 ^ Djelal, Kadir, Columbus and the Ends of the Earth: Europe's Prophetic Rhetoric As Conquering Ideology, University of California Press, 1992, pp. 67–68 ^ a b c d Giles Tremlett
Giles Tremlett
(7 August 2006). "Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 16 May 2013.  ^ "Columbus Controversy". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 12 August 2013.  ^ "Columbus Monuments Pages: Valladolid". Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ Froom 1950, p. 2. ^ "Columbus Monuments Pages: Sevilla". Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ a b " Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Suffered From a Fatal Form of Arthritis". University of Maryland School of Medicine. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  ^ Hoenig, LJ (February 1992). "The arthritis of Christopher Columbus". Archives of Internal Medicine. 152 (2): 274–277. doi:10.1001/archinte.1992.00400140028008. PMID 1472175.  ^ "Cristóbal Colón: traslación de sus restos mortales a la ciudad de Sevilla at Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes". Cervantesvirtual.com. Retrieved 29 July 2009.  ^ John Boyd Thacher (1904). Christopher Columbus: his life, his works, his remains: as revealed by original printed and manuscript records, together with an essay on Peter Martyr of Anghera and Bartolomé de las Casas, the first historians of America. G. P. Putnam & Sons. Retrieved 27 December 2011.  ^ Tremlett, Giles. "Young bones lay Columbus myth to rest". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ a b " DNA
DNA
verifies Columbus' remains in Spain". Associated Press. 19 May 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ a b Álvarez-Cubero, MJ; Martínez-González, LJ; Saiz, M; Álvarez, JC; Lorente, JA (8 March 2010). "New applications in genetic identification". Cuadernos de Medicina Forense. 16 (1–2): 5–18. doi:10.4321/S1135-76062010000100002. ISSN 1135-7606. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Bird's-Eye View of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893". World Digital Library. 1893. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ "John Wanamaker, Postmaster General". United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2011.  ^ Haimann, Alexander T., "2-cent Landing of Columbus", Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum online, viewed 18 April 2014. ^ "Columbian Exposition Souvenir Sheets", Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum online, viewed 18 April 2014. ^ "Columbus Monuments Pages: Santo Domingo". Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ Dugard, Martin. The Last Voyage of Columbus. Little, Brown and Company: New York, 2005. ^ Thomas F. McIlwraith; Edward K. Muller (2001). North America: the historical geography of a changing continent. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7425-0019-8. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ Sale, Kirkpatrick (1991). The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy, pp. 204–209 ^ a b Eviatar Zerubavel (2003). Terra cognita: the mental discovery of America. Transaction Publishers. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-7658-0987-2. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ Phillips, Jr 1992, p. 227. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell (1991). Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and modern historians. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-95904-X.  ^ "Columbus Monuments Pages: Denver". Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ "Piri Reis and the Columbus Map". Paul Lunde. Saudi Aramco World. May/June 1992. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 8, June 1738, p. 285. ^ "Columbus Monuments Pages: Boalsburg". Retrieved 3 January 2010.  ^ Howard Zinn. " Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and the Indians". Newhumanist.com. Archived from the original on 29 July 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2008.  ^ "Jack Weatherford, Examining the reputation of Christopher Columbus". Hartford-hwp.com. 20 April 2001. Retrieved 29 July 2009.  ^ " Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
Hispaniola
Hispaniola
– Arawak/Taino Indians". Hartford-hwp.com. 15 September 2001. Retrieved 29 July 2009.  ^ Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange, Westport, 1972, pp. 39, 47. ^ a b Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8263-2871-7. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  ^ Las Casas, Bartolome de (1971). History of the Indies. New York: Harper & Row.  ^ Alfred Crosby, The Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
(Westport, 1972) p. 45. ^ " Encomienda
Encomienda
or Slavery? The Spanish Crown's Choice of Labor Organization in Sixteenth-Century Spanish America." (PDF). Latin American Studies. ^ Lyle N. McAlister (1984). " Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
in the New World, 1492–1700". University of Minnesota Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-8166-1218-8. ^ Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange, Westport, 1972, pp. 39, 45, 47. ^ Oliver, José R. (2009). Caciques and Cemí idols : the web spun by Taíno rulers between Hispaniola
Hispaniola
and Puerto Rico ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. 192. ISBN 0817355154. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ "Deadly Diseases: Epidemics throughout history". CNN. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ Stannard, David E. (18 November 1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 0-19-508557-4. Retrieved 1 May 2015.  ^ Koning, Hans (1976). Columbus. Monthly Review Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-85345-600-3. Retrieved 1 May 2015.  ^ Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
Westport, 1972, p. 47. ^ Abbot 2010. ^ Chrisp 2006, p. 34. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (June 1955). Christopher Columbus, Mariner. Little Brown & Co (T); First edition (June 1955). ISBN 0-316-58356-1.  ^ Loewen 1995, pp. 63–64. ^ Hanke, Lewis, "A Modest Proposal for a Moratorium on Grand Generalizations: Some Thoughts on the Black Legend", The Hispanic American Historical Review 51, No. 1 (Feb. 1971), pp. 112–127 ^ Keen, Benjamin, "The Black Legend
Black Legend
Revisited: Assumptions and Realities", Hispanic American Historical Review 49, no. 4 (November 1969): 703–719. ^ Keen, Benjamin, "The White Legend Revisited: A Reply to Professor Hanke's 'Modest Proposal,'" Hispanic American Historical Review 51, no. 2 (May 1971): 336–355. ^ Noble David Cook (13 February 1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge University Press. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6.  ^ Arthur C. Aufderheide, Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-521-55203-6 ^ Harper, Kristin; et al. (January 2008). "On the Origin of the Treponematoses: A Phylogenetic Approach". Retrieved 21 January 2008.  ^ CBC News Staff (January 2008). "Study traces origins of syphilis in Europe to New World". Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2008.  ^ Alden, Henry Mills. Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Volume 84, Issues 499–504. Published by Harper & Brothers, 1892. Originally from Harvard University. Digitized on 16 December 2008. 732. Retrieved on 8 September 2009. 'Major, Int. Letters of Columbus, ixxxviii., says "Not one of the so-called portraits of Columbus is unquestionably authentic." They differ from each other, and cannot represent the same person.' ^ Loewen 1995, p. 55. ^ John Noble, Susan Forsyth, Vesna Maric, Paula Hardy. Andalucía. Lonely Planet, 2007, p. 100 ^ Linda Biesele Hall, Teresa Eckmann. Mary, mother and warrior, University of Texas Press, 2004, p. 46 ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot Admiral
Admiral
of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, pp. 47–48, Boston 1942. ^ Bartolomé de Las Casas, Historia de las Indias, ed. Agustín Millares Carlo, 3 vols. (Mexico City, 1951), book 1, chapter 2, 1:29. The Spanish word garzos is now usually translated as "light blue," but it seems to have connoted light grey-green or hazel eyes to Columbus's contemporaries. The word rubio can mean "blonde," "fair," or "ruddy." The Worlds of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
by William D. and Carla Rahn Phillips, p. 282. ^ " DNA
DNA
Tests on Christopher Columbus' bones, on his relatives and on Genoese and Catalan claimants". Retrieved 9 February 2009.  ^ [2], Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bibliography

Cohen, J.M. (1969) The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Being His Own Log-Book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting Narrative Drawn from the Life of the Admiral
Admiral
by His Son Hernando Colon and Others. London UK: Penguin Classics. Columbus, Christopher (1847). Major, Richard Henry, ed. Select Letters of Christopher Columbus: With Other Original Documents, Relating to His Four Voyages to the New World. London: The Hakluyt Society. Retrieved 2016-02-28.   Beazley, Charles Raymond (1911). "Columbus, Christopher". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 741–746.  Columbus, Christopher; Toscanelli, Paolo (2010) [1893]. Markham, Clements R., ed. The Journal of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
(During His First Voyage). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-01284-3. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Columbus, Christopher (1991) [1938]. First Voyage to America: From the log of the "Santa Maria". Dover. ISBN 0-486-26844-6. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Columbus, Ferdinand (1571). A History of the Life and Actions of Adm. Christopher Columbus.  in Churchill, Awnsham (1732). A Collection of voyages and travels. 2. pp. 501–624.  Crosby, A. W. (1987) The Columbian Voyages: the Columbian Exchange, and their Historians. Washington, DC: American Historical Association. Davidson, Miles H. (1997). Columbus then and now: a life reexamined. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2934-4. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Froom, LeRoy (1950). The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers ( DjVu and PDF). 1.  Fuson, Robert H. (1992) The Log of Christopher Columbus. International Marine Publishing Wey, Gómez Nicolás (2008). The tropics of empire: Why Columbus sailed south to the Indies. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262232647 Joseph, Edward Lanzar (1838). History of Trinidad. A.K. Newman & Co. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Irving, Washington (1828). A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. John Murray (UK), G. & C. Carvill (US).  Links to scans on the Internet Archive: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, Volume 4. Loewen, James W. (1995). Lies My Teacher Told Me. The New Press.  Lopez, Barry (1990). The Rediscovery of North America. Lexicon, KY: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-1742-9. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Morison, Samuel Eliot (1942). Admiral
Admiral
of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-1-4067-5027-0. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Morison, Samuel Eliot, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1955 Phillips, Jr, William D.; Phillips, Carla Rahn (1992). The worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35097-2. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Sale, Kirkpatrick The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and the Columbian Legacy, Plume, 1991 Varela, Consuelo (2006). La Caída de Cristóbal Colón. Madrid: Marcial Pons. ISBN 9788496467286. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Wilford, John Noble (1991), The Mysterious History of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Further reading

The Life of the Admiral
Admiral
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
by His Son Ferdinand. Translated by Keen, Benjamin. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 1978 [1959]. ISBN 978-0-313-20175-2.  Winsor, Justin (1891). Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and How He Received and Iimparted the Spirit of Discovery. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 2016-02-28. 

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Christopher Columbus

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christopher Columbus.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Christopher Columbus

Works by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Christopher Columbus
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at Internet Archive Works by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Excerpts from the log of Christopher Columbus's first voyage The Letter of Columbus to Luis de Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery Columbus Monuments Pages (overview of monuments for Columbus all over the world) "But for Columbus There Would Be No America", Tiziano Thomas Dossena, Bridgepugliausa.it, 2012 Journal article:- Christopher Columbus. An address delivered before the American Catholic Historical Society

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America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 17231583 LCCN: n78085478 ISNI: 0000 0001 2122 2444 GND: 118564994 SELIBR: 182090 SUDOC: 027213595 BNF: cb119304566 (data) ULAN: 500237956 NLA: 35784235 NDL: 00520808 NKC: jn20000700939 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV07642 BNE: XX827

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