CHRISTOPH MARTIN WIELAND (German: ; 5 September 1733 – 20 January
1813) was a German poet and writer. He is best-remembered for having
written the first
Bildungsroman (Geschichte des Agathon), as well as
Oberon , which formed the basis for
Carl Maria von Weber
* 1 Biography * 2 Editions * 3 Notes * 4 Further reading * 5 References * 6 External links
He was born in Oberholzheim (now part of
His father, who was pastor in Oberholzheim and subsequently in
Biberach, took great pains with his son's education. From the town
school of Biberach he passed on at the age of twelve to the Kloster
Berge gymnasium , near
During the summer of 1750, he fell in love with a cousin, Sophie
Gutermann , and this love affair inspired him to plan his first
ambitious work, Die Natur der Dinge (The Nature of Things, 1752), a
didactic poem in six books. In 1750 he went to the University of
Tübingen as a student of law , but his time was mainly taken up with
literary studies. The poems he wrote at the university — Hermann, an
epic (published by F. Muncker, 1886), Zwölf moralische Briefe in
Versen (Twelve Moral Letters in Verse, 1752), Anti-Ovid (1752) — are
pietistic in tone and dominated by the influence of Klopstock. They
attracted the attention of the Swiss literary reformer, J. J. Bodmer ,
who invited Wieland to visit him in
After a few months, he felt little sympathy with Wieland as, two
years earlier, he had felt himself with Klopstock, and the friends
parted; but Wieland remained in Switzerland until 1760, spending the
last year, at
Wieland's tastes had changed; the writings of his early Swiss years
— Der geprüfte Abraham (The Trial of Abraham's Faith, 1753),
Sympathien (1756), Empfindungen eines Christen (1757) — were still
in the manner of his earlier writings, but with the tragedies, Lady
Johanna Gray (1758), and Clementina von Porretta (1760) — the latter
Wieland's conversion was completed at Biberach, having returned in 1760 as director of the chancery. The monotony of his life here was relieved by the friendship of a Count Stadion , whose library in the castle of Warthausen, not far from Biberach, was well stocked with French and English literature. Wieland met again his early love Sophie Gutermann, who had become the wife of Hofrat La Roche, then manager of Count Stadion's estates.
In Don Sylvia von Rosalva (1764), a romance in imitation of Don
Quixote , he held up to ridicule his earlier faith and in the
Comische Erzählungen (1765) he gave his extravagant imagination only
too free a rein. Former Komödienhaus in der Schlachtmetzig in
Biberach an der Riss where in 1762,
The Tempest (
More important is the novel Geschichte des Agathon (1766–1767), in
which, under the guise of a Greek fiction, Wieland described his own
spiritual and intellectual growth. This work, which Lessing
recommended as "a novel of classic taste," marks an epoch in the
development of the modern psychological novel . Of equal importance
was Wieland's translation of twenty-two of
Wieland married Anna Dorothea von Hillenbrand (July 8, 1746 - November 9, 1801) on October 21, 1765. They had 14 children. Wieland's daughter Sophia Catharina Susanna Wieland (October 19, 1768 - September 1, 1837) married philosopher Karl Leonhard Reinhold (1757-1823) on May 18, 1785.
Between 1769 and 1772, Wieland was a professor of philosophy at the
University of Erfurt
In 1772 he published Der goldene Spiegel oder die Könige van
Scheschian, a pedagogic work in the form of oriental stories; this
attracted the attention of Anna Amalia, Duchess of
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach , and resulted in his appointment as tutor to her
two sons, the Duke Karl August and his brother Prince Constantin , at
In 1773, he founded
Der teutsche Merkur , which under his editorship
(1773–1789) became the most influential literary review in Germany.
His views, as exhibited therein, however, showed so much of the narrow
conventional spirit of French criticism, that he was attacked by
He was also a librettist for the
Seyler theatrical company
In Wieland's later novels, such as the Geheime Geschichte des
Philosophen Peregrinus Proteus (1791) and Aristipp und einige seiner
Zeitgenossen (1800–1802), a didactic and philosophic tendency
obscures the small literary interest they possess. He also translated
He died in Weimar.
* Wieland's Sämtliche Werke ("complete works") appeared in 1794-1802, 45 vols. Collections of Wieland's letters were edited by his son Ludwig (1815) and by H. Gessner (1815–1816); his Letters to Sophie Laroche by F. Horn (1820). * Later Editions of Wieland's Sämtliche Werke: 1818-1828, 53 vols.,1839-1840, 36 vols., and 1853–1858, 36 vols. Then 1879-1882 in 40 vols., edited by H. Düntzer . There are numerous editions of selected works, notably by Heinrich Pröhle in Kürschner's Deutsche Nationalliteratur (vols. 51-56, 1883–1887); by F. Muncker (6 vols., 1889); by W. Bolsche (4 vols., 1902). * Gesammelte Schriften, Abt. I: Werke. Abt. II: Übersetzungen, ed. by Deutsche Kommission der Königlich Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften , Berlin 1909–1975. Completed volumes with accompanying commentary: I/6, I/9, I/12-15, I/18, I/20-23, II/1-3; volumes without accompanying commentary: I/1, I/2, I/3, I/4, I/7, I/10, I/17, II/4, II/9-10; volumes missing: I/5, I/16, I/19, II/5-8. * Wielands Briefwechsel, 20 volumes, ed. by Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für deutsche Sprache und Literatur , Berlin, 1963–2007. * Wielands Werke. Historisch-kritische Ausgabe, edited by Klaus Manger and Jan Philipp Reemtsma. Berlin/New York 2008 f.
This article includes a list of references , but ITS SOURCES REMAIN UNCLEAR because it has INSUFFICIENT INLINE CITATIONS . Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
* ^ Swales, Martin. The German
Bildungsroman from Wieland to Hesse.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978. 38.
* ^ Martens, A. Untersuchungen über Wieland\'s Don Sylvio mit
Berücksichtigung der übrigen Dichtungen der Biberacher Zeit (1901)
* ^ Meisnest, F.W. Wieland\'s translation of
* J.G. Gruber , C.M. Wielands Leben (4 vols., 1827–1828); * Heinrich Doring , C.M. Wieland (1853); Christoph Martin Wieland, ein biographisches Denkmal (1840); * J. W. Loebell, C.M. Wieland (1858); * Heinrich Pröhle , Lessing, Wieland, Heinse (1877); * L. F. Ofterdinger, Wielands Leben und Wirken in Schwaben und in der Schweiz (1877); * R. Keil, Wieland und Reinhold (1885); * F. Thalmeyr, Über Wielands Klassizität, Sprache und SM (1894); * M. Doll, Wieland und die Antike (1896); * K. Buchner, Wieland und die Weidmannsche buchhandlung. Zur geschichte deutscher literatur und deutschen buchhandels (1871) * See also M. Koch's article in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie (1897); * C. A. Behmer, Sterne und Wieland (1899); * J.M.R. Lenz , Vertheidigung des Herrn Wieland gegen die Wolken (1902) * W. Lenz, Wielands Verhältnis zu Spenser, Pope und Swift (1903); * L. Hirzel, Wielands Beziehungen zu den deutschen Romantikern (1904); * E. Haman, Wielands Bildungsideal (1907); * C. Elson, Wieland and Shaftesbury (1913); * H. Behme, Heinrich von Kleist und C.M. Wieland (1914); * V. Michel, C.M. Wieland, la formation et l\'évolution de son esprit jusqu\'en 1772 (1938); * M.G. Bach Wieland\'s attitude toward woman and her cultural and social relations (1966); * Jan Philipp Reemtsma , Das Buch vom Ich: Christoph Martin Wielands »Aristipp und einige seiner Zeitgenossen « (1993); * Jan Philipp Reemtsma, Der Liebe Maskentanz: Aufsätze zum Werk Christoph Martin Wielands (1999).
* Elizabeth Barnes: “Loving with a Vengeance: Wieland, Familicide
and the Crisis of Masculinity in the Early Nation”. In: Milette
Shamir und Jennifer Travis: Boys don’t Cry?, Columbia University
Press: New York, 2002, S. 44-63.
* Robertson, John George (1911). "Wieland, Christoph Martin". In
Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge
* Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). "Wieland, Christoph Martin".
Collier\'s New Encyclopedia . New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company.
* Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Wieland, Christoph Martin".
* Quotations related to
Christoph Martin Wieland