Christine Lagarde
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Christine Madeleine Odette Lagarde (; née Lallouette, ; born 1 January 1956) is a French politician and lawyer who is the current
President of the European Central Bank The president of the European Central Bank is the head of the European Central Bank upright=1.2, Seat of the European Central Bank The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the Eurozone, a monetary union of 19 Member stat ...
, a position she has held since 1 November 2019. Prior to this appointment and between July 2011 and September 2019, she was the Managing Director of the
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monu ...

International Monetary Fund
(IMF). Lagarde previously held various senior
ministerial Minister may refer to: * Minister (Christianity), a Christian cleric * Minister (government), a member of government who heads a ministry (government department) ** Minister without portfolio, a member of government with the rank of a normal minist ...
posts in the
Government of France The Government of France (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primari ...
: she was Minister of Foreign Trade (2005–2007), Minister of Agriculture and Fishing (2007) and Minister of the Economy, Finance and Industry (2007–2011). Lagarde was the first woman to become finance minister of a
G8
G8
economy and is the first woman to head both the ECB and the IMF. A noted antitrust and labour lawyer, Lagarde was the first female Chair of major international law firm
Baker & McKenzie Baker McKenzie is a Multinational corporation, multinational law firm. Founded as Baker & McKenzie, in 1949, the firm is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, with 77 offices in 46 countries, and over 6,000 lawyers worldwide. Baker McKenzie is one ...

Baker & McKenzie
, between 1999 and 2004. On 16 November 2009, the ''
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'' ranked her the best finance minister in the
Eurozone The eurozone, officially called the euro area, is a monetary union of 19 Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union (EU) that have adopted the euro (Euro sign, €) as their primary currency and sole legal tender. Th ...

Eurozone
. On 5 July 2011, Lagarde replaced
Dominique Strauss-Kahn Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn (; born 25 April 1949) is a French economist, politician, former managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and a figure in the French Socialist Party (France), Socialist Party who attained n ...
as Managing Director of the IMF for a five-year term. Her appointment was the 11th consecutive appointment of a European to head the IMF. She was re-elected by consensus for a second five-year term, starting 5 July 2016, being the only candidate nominated for the post. In December 2016, a French court convicted her of negligence relating to her role in the
Bernard Tapie Bernard Tapie (; born 26 January 1943) is a French businessman, politician and occasional actor, singer, and TV host. He was Minister of City Affairs in the government of Pierre Bérégovoy. Life and career Tapie was born in Paris. He is a bus ...
arbitration, but did not impose a penalty. In 2019 and again in 2020, ''Forbes'' ranked her number two on its World's 100 Most Powerful Women list.


Early life and education

Lagarde was born in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, France, into a family of teachers. Her father, Robert Lallouette, was a professor of
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
; her mother, Nicole (Carré), was a
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and literature teacher. Lagarde and her three younger brothers spent their childhood in
Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...

Le Havre
. There she attended the Lycée François 1er (where her father taught) and Lycée Claude Monet. As a teenager, Lagarde was a member of the French national
synchronised swimming Synchronised swimming (in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Am ...
team. After her
baccalauréat The ''baccalauréat'' (; ), often known in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas Franc ...
in 1973, she went on an
American Field Service AFS Intercultural Programs (or AFS, originally the American Field Service) is an international youth exchange organization. It consists of over 50 independent, not-for-profit organizations, each with its own network of Volunteering, volunteers, ...
scholarship to the
Holton-Arms School Holton-Arms is an independent college-preparatory school for girls in grades 3–12, located in Bethesda, Maryland. As of the 2013–14 school year, there were 655 students and 94 faculty. Since 2007, Susanna Jones has been Head of School. The sch ...
in
Bethesda, Maryland Bethesda is an unincorporatedUnincorporated may refer to: * Unincorporated area, land not governed by a local municipality * Unincorporated entity, a type of organization * Unincorporated territories of the United States, territories under U.S. j ...
. During her year in the United States, Lagarde worked as an
intern An internship is a period of work experience offered by an organization for a limited period of time. Once confined to medical graduates, internship is used practice for a wide range of placements in businesses, non-profit organization A nonp ...

intern
at the as
Representative Representative may refer to: Politics *Representative democracy, type of democracy in which elected officials represent a group of people *House of Representatives, legislative body in various countries or sub-national entities *Legislator, someone ...
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's congressional assistant, helping him correspond with
French-speaking French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of t ...
constituents from his northern
Maine Maine () is a in the region of the , bordered by to the west; the to the southeast; and the of and to the northeast and northwest, respectively. Maine is the , the , the , and the most rural of the . It is also the among the , the nor ...

Maine
district during the
Watergate The Watergate scandal was a major involving the of U.S. President from 1972 to 1974 that led to Nixon's resignation. The scandal stemmed from the Nixon administration's continual attempts to cover up its involvement in the June 17, 1972 br ...
hearings.Shapira, Ian
"Christine Lagarde stirs wistful memories for friends in Holton Arms Class of ’74"
''The Washington Post'', 29 July 2011.
She graduated from
Paris West University Nanterre La Défense Paris Nanterre University (French: ''Université Paris Nanterre''), formerly called "Paris X Nanterre" and more recently "Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense", is a French university in the List of public universities in France by academy ...
, where she obtained
master's degrees A master's degree (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
in English, labour law, and social law. She also holds a master's degree from the Institut d'études politiques in
Aix-en-Provence Aix-en-Provence (, , ; oc, label= Provençal, Ais de Provença in classical norm, or in Mistralian normThe Mistralian norm is a linguistic norm for the Occitan language Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d' ...

Aix-en-Provence
. Since 2010, she has presided over the Aix school's board of directors.


Professional career

Lagarde joined
Baker & McKenzie Baker McKenzie is a Multinational corporation, multinational law firm. Founded as Baker & McKenzie, in 1949, the firm is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, with 77 offices in 46 countries, and over 6,000 lawyers worldwide. Baker McKenzie is one ...

Baker & McKenzie
, a large Chicago-based international law firm, in 1981. She handled major
antitrust Competition law is a law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is ...
and labour cases, was made partner after six years and was named head of the firm in Western Europe. She joined the executive committee in 1995 and was elected the company's first female chairman in October 1999. In 2004, Lagarde became president of the Global Strategic Committee.


Ministerial career

As France's Trade Minister between 2005 and May 2007, Lagarde prioritized opening new markets for the country's products, focusing on the technology sector. On 18 May 2007, she was moved to the Ministry of Agriculture as part of the government of
François Fillon François Charles Armand Fillon (; born 4 March 1954) is a retired French politician who served as Prime Minister of France A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting ...
. The following month she joined Fillon's cabinet in the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Finance and Employment. She was the only member of the French political class to condemn
Jean-Paul Guerlain Guerlain () is a French perfume, cosmetics and skincare house, which is among the oldest in the world. Many traditional Guerlain fragrances are characterized by a common olfactory accord known as the "Guerlinade" :fr:Guerlinade, (fr). The house was ...
's racist remarks of 2010.


International Monetary Fund


Appointment

On 25 May 2011, Lagarde announced her candidacy to be head of the IMF to succeed
Dominique Strauss-Kahn Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn (; born 25 April 1949) is a French economist, politician, former managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and a figure in the French Socialist Party (France), Socialist Party who attained n ...
, upon his resignation. Her candidacy received the support of the British, Indian, United States, Brazilian, Russian, Chinese and German governments. The governor of the
Bank of Mexico The Bank of Mexico ( es, Banco de México), abbreviated ''BdeM'' or ''Banxico,'' is Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern por ...
(and former Secretary of Finance)
Agustín Carstens Agustín Guillermo Carstens Carstens (born 9 June 1958 in Mexico City ) , blank1_name_sec1 = Human Development Index, HDI , blank1_info_sec1 = 0.897 Very High , blank_name_sec2 = GDP (Nominal) ...
was also nominated for the post. His candidacy was supported by many Latin American governments, as well as Spain, Canada and Australia. On 28 June 2011, the IMF board elected Lagarde as its next managing director and chairman for a five-year term, starting on 5 July 2011. The IMF's executive board praised both candidates as well-qualified, but decided on Lagarde by
consensus Consensus decision-making or consensus politics (often abbreviated to ''consensus'') is group decision-making processes in which participants develop and decide on proposals with the aim, or requirement, of acceptance by all. The focus on es ...

consensus
. Lagarde became the first woman to be elected as the head of the IMF. Carstens would have been the first non-European. Her appointment came amid the intensification of the
European sovereign debt crisis The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009. Several eurozone member states (Gr ...
especially in Greece, with fears looming of loan defaults. The United States in particular supported her speedy appointment in light of the fragility of Europe's economic situation. U.S. Treasury Secretary
Timothy Geithner Timothy Franz Geithner (; born August 18, 1961) is a former American central bank A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages the currency and monetary policy of a State (polity), state or formal moneta ...
said that Lagarde's "exceptional talent and broad experience will provide invaluable leadership for this indispensable institution at a critical time for the global economy."
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Nicolas Sarkozy Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa (; ; born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as the 23th President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la ...

Nicolas Sarkozy
referred to Lagarde's appointment as "a victory for France."
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, a charity working in
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, called the appointment process "farcical" and argued that what it saw as a lack of transparency hurt the IMF's credibility. On 17 December 2015,
Michel Sapin Michel Sapin (; born 9 April 1952 is a French politician who served as Minister of Finance A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation. A fi ...

Michel Sapin
, French Finance Minister, said that Lagarde could stay on as head of the IMF, despite being charged with criminal negligence. Throughout her time at the IMF, she has repeatedly ruled herself out of the races to secure a top job in Europe, including the positions of
President of the European Commission The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the Executive (government), executive branch of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decision ...
or
President of the European Central Bank The president of the European Central Bank is the head of the European Central Bank upright=1.2, Seat of the European Central Bank The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the Eurozone, a monetary union of 19 Member stat ...
. On 2 July 2019, Lagarde was nominated to serve as the next president of the ECB, to succeed
Mario Draghi Mario Draghi (; born 3 September 1947) is an Italian economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from econ ...

Mario Draghi
. She subsequently submitted her resignation as managing director.


Viewpoints

In July 2010, Lagarde told the ''
PBS NewsHour ''PBS NewsHour'' is an American daily evening television news program and news News is information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both ...
'' that the IMF's lending program for distressed European countries was "a very massive plan, totally unexpected, totally counter-treaty, because it wasn't scheduled in the treaty that we should do a bailout program, as we did." She also said, "we had essentially a trillion dollars on the table to confront any market attack that would target any country, whether it's Greece, Spain, Portugal, or anybody within the eurozone." With respect to the
French economy The economy of France is Developed country, highly developed and free-Market economy, market-oriented. It is the world's List of countries by GDP (nominal), seventh-largest economy by 2020 nominal figures and the List of countries by GDP (PPP), ...
, she stated that besides short-term stimulus efforts: "we must, very decisively, cut our deficit and reduce our debt." In public remarks made right after her appointment, Lagarde stated that both the IMF and EU required Greek austerity measures as a prerequisite for further aid. She said, "If I have one message tonight about Greece, it is to call on the Greek political opposition to support the party that is currently in power in a spirit of national unity." She said of her predecessor that: "The IMF has taken up the challenges of the crisis thanks to the actions of Managing Director
Dominique Strauss-Kahn Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn (; born 25 April 1949) is a French economist, politician, former managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and a figure in the French Socialist Party (France), Socialist Party who attained n ...
and to his team as well." On 25 December 2011, Lagarde argued that the world economy was at risk and urged Europeans to unify in terms of the debt crisis facing the continent. In July 2012, as the Greek economy continued to decline, and the country's leaders asked for an easing of the terms of external assistance, Lagarde said she was "not in the negotiation or renegotiation mood at all." A year later, though, with her own organization conceding that its "rescue" package for Greece had fallen short of what was required, Lagarde—having previously said that Greece's debt burden was "sustainable"—decided that Greece would not recover unless its debt was written off in a meaningful way. According to
Yanis Varoufakis Ioannis "Yanis" Varoufakis ( el, Ιωάννης Γεωργίου "Γιάνης" Βαρουφάκης, Ioánnis Georgíou "Giánis" Varoufákis, ; born 24 March 1961) is a Greek-Australian economist and politician. A former academic, he has been ...

Yanis Varoufakis
, the combative former Finance Minister of Greece, Lagarde and others at the top of the IMF have been quite sympathetic behind closed doors, while stating that inside the Eurogroup there were "a few kind words and that was it". As the crisis peaked again in summer 2015, Lagarde's organization made headlines by calling for massive debt relief for Greece, a call she reiterated personally. In 2016, the IMF refused to participate with eurozone countries in further emergency financing for Greece, because concrete measures to relieve the country of its debt burden remained absent. Questioned about her economic philosophy, Lagarde has described herself as "with
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
—that is, liberal."


"Payback" controversy

In an interview in May 2012, Lagarde was asked about the
Greek government-debt crisis Greece faced a sovereign debt crisis in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Widely known in the country as The Crisis (Greek language, Greek: Η Κρίση), it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity mea ...
. She mentioned Greek tax avoidance, and assented to the interviewer's suggestion that Greeks had "had a nice time" but now "it is payback time." Her comments provoked controversy, with future Greek Prime Minister
Alexis Tsipras Alexis Tsipras ( el, Αλέξης Τσίπρας, ; born 28 July 1974) is a Greek politician serving as Leader of the Opposition (Greece), Leader of the Official Opposition since 2019. The leader of left-wing party Syriza since 2009, he served as ...

Alexis Tsipras
stating, "We don't need her compassion," and then- Deputy Prime Minister Evangelos Venizelos saying she had "insulted the Greek people." In an effort to quell the negative response, the next day Lagarde made a post to her Facebook page saying: "As I have said many times before, I am very sympathetic to the Greek people and the challenges they are facing." Within 24 hours, over 10,000 comments had been left in response, many of them obscene. To her belief that not enough Greeks paid their taxes, Professor Emeritus John Weeks (economist), John Weeks of the University of London was quoted as saying "The moral weight of Christine Lagarde's matronising of the Greeks to pay their taxes is not strengthened by the fact that, as director of the IMF, she is in receipt of a tax-free annual salary of $468,000 (£298,000, plus perks)." Robert W. Wood, in a Forbes article, wrote that "No taxes is the norm for most United Nations employees covered by a convention on diplomatic relations signed by most nations."


Comment on King Abdullah

In January 2015, on the death of King of Saudi Arabia, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Lagarde said "he was a strong believer in pushing forward women's rights", prompting a number of observers to comment on the life of women generally in Saudi Arabia.


European Central Bank

On 2 July 2019, Lagarde was nominated by the European Council to succeed
Mario Draghi Mario Draghi (; born 3 September 1947) is an Italian economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from econ ...

Mario Draghi
as
President of the European Central Bank The president of the European Central Bank is the head of the European Central Bank upright=1.2, Seat of the European Central Bank The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the Eurozone, a monetary union of 19 Member stat ...
(ECB) on 1 November 2019. On 17 September 2019, the European Parliament voted via secret ballot to recommend her to the position, with 394 in favor, 206 opposed, and 49 abstentions. As president, Lagarde is expected to maintain the accommodative monetary policy of her predecessor, Mario Draghi. When addressing the European Parliament's European Parliament Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs, ECON Committee ahead of her appointment, Lagarde also expressed her willingness to make the ECB play a role in fighting climate change and to carry out a review of the ECB's monetary policy framework.


Other activities


European Union institutions

* European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB), ex officio chair of the General Board (since 2019) * European Investment Bank (EIB), ex officio member of the board of governors (2007–2011)


International organizations

* Bank for International Settlements (BIS), ex officio member of the board of directors (since 2019) * Asian Development Bank (ADB), ex officio member of the board of governors (2007–2011) * European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), ex officio member of the board of governors (2007–2011) *
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monu ...

International Monetary Fund
(IMF), ex officio member of the board of governors (2007–2011) * World Bank, ex officio member of the board of governors (2007–2011)


Non-profit organizations

* World Economic Forum (WEF), member of the board of trustees (since 2011)


Academic institutions

* Honorary fellow of Robinson College, Cambridge


Controversy


The ''Lagarde list''

In 2010 Lagarde, then finance minister of France, sent a list of 1,991 names of Greek customers who were potential tax avoiders with bank accounts at HSBC's Geneva branch to the Greek government. On 28 October 2012, Greek reporter and editor Kostas Vaxevanis claimed to be in possession of the list and published a document with more than 2,000 names in his magazine ''Hot Doc''. He was immediately arrested on charges of breaching privacy laws with a possible sentence of up to two years in prison. After a public outcry, Vaxevanis was found not guilty three days later. Vaxevanis then faced a retrial (the Greek authorities were yet to charge anyone on the list), but was acquitted again. A few days before the Greek general elections of January 2015, when it was clear that left-wing Syriza would come to power, the financial crimes police of the conservative government of Antonis Samaras shredded reams of documents pertaining to corruption cases.


Criminal Conviction of negligence in allowing the misuse of public funds

On 3 August 2011, a French court ordered an investigation into Lagarde's role in a €403 million arbitration deal in favour of businessman
Bernard Tapie Bernard Tapie (; born 26 January 1943) is a French businessman, politician and occasional actor, singer, and TV host. He was Minister of City Affairs in the government of Pierre Bérégovoy. Life and career Tapie was born in Paris. He is a bus ...
. On 20 March 2013, Lagarde's apartment in Paris was raided by French police as part of the investigation. On 24 May 2013, after two days of questioning at the Cour de Justice de la République, Court of Justice of the Republic (CJR), Lagarde was assigned the status of "assisted witness", meaning that she herself was not under investigation in the affair. According to a press report from June 2013, Lagarde was described by Stéphane Richard, the CEO of France Telecom (a former aide to Lagarde when she was finance minister), who was himself put under formal investigation in the case, as having been fully briefed before approving the arbitration process which benefitted Bernard Tapie. Subsequently, in August 2014 the CJR announced that it had formally approved a negligence investigation into Lagarde's role in the arbitration of the Tapie case. On 17 December 2015, the CJR ordered Lagarde to stand trial before it for alleged negligence in handling the Tapie arbitration approval. In December 2016, the court found Lagarde guilty of negligence, but declined to impose a penalty.


Media

Lagarde was interviewed in the documentary film ''Inside Job (2010 film), Inside Job'' (2010), which later won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. The American fashion magazine ''Vogue (magazine), Vogue'' profiled Lagarde in September 2011. Lagarde was portrayed by Laila Robins in the HBO television film ''Too Big to Fail (film), Too Big to Fail'' (2011), which was based on the Too Big to Fail (book), popular non-fiction book of the same name by ''The New York Times'' journalist Andrew Ross Sorkin. Meryl Streep based parts of Miranda Priestly's appearance in the feature film ''The Devil Wears Prada (film), The Devil Wears Prada'' (2006) on Lagarde, citing her "unassailable elegance and authority". Lagarde presented the 2014 Richard Dimbleby Lecture, titled "''A New Multilateralism for the 21st Century''".


Recognition


Awards

* 2011 – 9th Forbes list of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women, Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine * 2012 – 8th Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine * 2013 – 7th Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine * 2014 – 5th Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine * 2015 – 6th Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine * 2016 – 6th Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine * 2017 – 8th Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine * 2017 – #1 in the List of 100 Most Influential People in Multinational Organisations, awarded by UK-based company Richtopia * 2018 – 3rd Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine * 2019 – CARE Humanitarian Award, awarded by CARE (relief agency), CARE * 2019 – Distinguished International Leadership Award, awarded by the Atlantic Council * 2019 – 2nd Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine *2020 – 2nd Most Powerful Woman in the World, named by ''Forbes'' magazine


National honours

* – Chevalier (13 July 2000), promoted Officer, Chivalric order, Order of Legion of Honour, Légion d'honneur (6 April 2012) * – Commander, Chivalric order, Order of Mérite agricole * Honorary doctorate from KU Leuven (Belgium) – awarded at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Campus Kortrijk, KU Leuven Kulak * Honorary doctorate from Université de Montréal.


Personal life

Lagarde is divorced and has two sons, Pierre-Henri Lagarde (born 1986) and Thomas Lagarde (born 1988). Since 2006, her partner has been the entrepreneur Xavier Giocanti from Marseille. She is a health-conscious vegetarian, and her hobbies include regular trips to the gym, cycling, and swimming.


References


External links


Official


Biography
at the European Central Bank
Biography
at the
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monu ...

International Monetary Fund


Other


Column archive
at Project Syndicate * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Lagarde, Christine 1956 births 20th-century French businesspeople 20th-century French lawyers 20th-century French women lawyers 21st-century French businesspeople 21st-century French diplomats 21st-century French lawyers 21st-century French women lawyers 21st-century French women politicians Antitrust lawyers Businesspeople from Paris Commanders of the Order of Agricultural Merit Female finance ministers French chairpersons of corporations French chief executives French Ministers of Agriculture French Ministers of Commerce and Industry French Ministers of Finance French officials of the European Union French officials of the United Nations French politicians convicted of crimes French synchronized swimmers French women chief executives French women diplomats French women lawyers Labour lawyers Living people Managing directors of the International Monetary Fund People associated with Baker McKenzie Politicians from Paris Politicians of the French Fifth Republic Presidents of the European Central Bank The Republicans (France) politicians Sciences Po Aix alumni Union for a Popular Movement politicians University of Paris alumni Women government ministers of France